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BODKis juA a Hcaise of Thcoight; 
.Where inaayThings and Pecple live 
hcyond its doOTs Great Things are taughtr, 

And all its Dwdlers give and ^ve. 
So walkiight through the open dcor 

Withhindly Heart and brain awahe, 
YouW find in there a'Wbnder Store 
Of GciDd Things, all for you to take. 

The D\55dlers in. j(:^r BcDkHoiise know 

AH sorts of tales to teU to you. 
And each mil try his beit to show 

The way those tales of'Wbnder grew: 
For this our Book House Friends exped: 

Atrifltn^ payment, iaretuni; 
JuA thouj^n^ l^ndness and ResJ^ect,— 

ThaCs all they ask. for aU we kam. 



BGDKLTREE is a Knowledge Tree, 
'^ aliriD^t anyone can see. 
Long, long ago its seed was so^OTl; 
Yatyeirs and yc2xs the Tree ]ias grown. 
Ten thousand thousand Hearts 6^ Heads 
Have cared for it,so now it s$)reads 
Its RcDts and Branches far and wide. 
And ca^ its shade crc\. every side. 

This Tree bears Fruit of diffeent kinds 
For many Hearts and many Minds. 
So all you Children have to do 
Is ju^to take whats he^ jbr you. 
But no one ever soils or breaks 
The Golden Fruit he v£cds and takes, 
And no one ever bends or tears 
Ihe Bc£)ks thisTree ^Knovdedge bears. 


C(yByriQr.i jfio b? Morgan Sruvard 


liy pcnui^iioa ul C. W. laulkiicr ^ Co., Lid., Luiiduii, EiigUiid, owners of the copyright. 











Hamilton Wright Mabie 
Rev. George E. Reed 
Charles Welsh 
Andrew Lang 
Howard Pyle 
Carolyn Wells 
Tudor Jenks 
John Burroughs 
George S. Bryan 
Daniel E. Wheeler 

Rev. John Talbot Smith 
Joseph H. Adams 
Ralph Henry Barbour 
Ernest Thompson Seton 
L, Frank Baum 
Bertha Johnston 
Jack London 
John H. Clifford 
Morgan Shepard 
(John Martin) 



(Part III) 



V ''( 


Copyright, 1912, by 





Autlior of "The Right Reading for 
[Children," "Stories Children Love." 


Director of the Catholic Summer School 
of America and Author of "The Prairie 

[Boy," etc. 

Writer of illustrated letters to children. 


Ex-President of Dickinson College. 


Editor of "Harper's Practical Books 

[for Boys." 


Author of "The Crimson Sweater" and 
[other books for boys. 


Author of "The Wizard of Oz," "Queen 
[Zixie of Ix" and other children's books. 


Formerly Associate-Editor of "The 
[Children's Magazine." 


Painter of Child-Life. 


Author of "Mother Song and Child 

[Song," etc. 

Illustrator, and Author of "Little Miss 

[Fales," etc 


Author of "The Call of the Wild," "The 
[Seawolf" and other stories. 


Illustrator, Decorator, and Author of 
"A Book of Joys," "The Goose Girl," 



Illustrator, and Author of "Otto of the 

Silver Hand," "Robin Hood" and other 

[young folks' books. 


Associate-Editor of "The Outlook" and 
Author of "My Study Fire," "Works 
and Days" and other volumes of 



Author of "Wild Animal Play for 
[Children," "Two Little Savages," etc. 


Author of "Hester Stanley's Friends," 



Naturalist and Author. 


Author of "The Incubator Baby," "A 
[Thin Santa Claus," etc. 


Author of "How to Find Happyland," 



Author of "Folly in Fairyland," the 
"Patty" books, the "Marjorie" books, 



Author of "When I Was Your Age," 

["Five-Minute Stories," etc. TUDOR JENKS, 

Author of "Boys* Book of Explora 


Author of "A Junior Congregation" and 
["Little Talks to Little People." 


Author of "Santa Claus on a Lark," 
["Social Salvation," etc. 


Illustrator, and Author of "A Bunch of 

[Keys," etc 

tions," "Electricity for Young People," 



Associate-Editor of "The Young Folks' 
[Treasury," "The Mother's Book," etc. 


U. S. Naval Officer, Explorer and Au- 
thor of "Northward Over the Great 

£Ice," etc 


Writer and Translator. 


Author of "Curious Facts," etc. 


Author of "Lyrics and Sonnets," "The 
[Children of Christmas," etc. 


Associate-Editor of "The Young Folks' 

[Treasury," etc. 


Author of "In God's Garden," etc. 


Author of "Bible Stories," etc. 

Poet and Critic. 


Author of "Nursery Finger-Plays," 
["Child Stories and Rhymes," etc. 

Author of "Poems," 


Author, Editor and Lecturer. 


Author of "When You Were a Boy," etc. 


Author of "Dame Dimple's Thanksgiv- 



Author of "Lays of a Lazy Dog." 




Author of "The Young Privateersman." 


Author of "Stories of Animal Life," 
["The Boy Anglers," etc. 


Illustrator ; Author of "Kemble's Sketch 

[Book," etc. 

Author of "Old-Fashioned Fairy Books," 

f"Folk and Fairy Tales," etc. 


Journalist and Magazine Writer. 


Author of "Cradle and Nursery," "What 

[to Eat," etc. 


Professor of Experimental Physics in 
Johns Hopkins University; Author of 
"How to Tell the Birds from the Flow- 

[ers," etc. 


Naturalist; Editor of "The Guide to 

Nature" and Author of "The Spirit 

[of Nature-Study," etc. 


Natural History Writer. 


Curator of Ornithology, American Mu- 
[seum, and Editor of "Bird-Lore." 


Illustrator, and Author of "Little 
Workers," "Curious Homes and Their 

[Tenants," etc. 


Of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. 
[Department of Agriculture. 


Author of "Wild Life of Orchard and 

Field," "The Life of Mammals" and 

[other works on natural history. 


Author of "The Book of Frolics for All 



Author of "The Mysterious Beacon 

[Light," etc. 


Editor of "The Kindergarten Maga- 
zine" and Author of "Home Occupa- 
[tions for Boys and Girls." 


Author of "Carpentry and Woodwork," 



Natural History Writer. 


Author of "Animal Snapshots and How 



Author of "American Birds Studied 
[and Photographed from Lif«„" 



Racks of Mankind 


The Caucasian Peoples— The Great Powers — The Mongohan Peoples — The Ethiopian 

Stories from American History 14-27 

How a Woman Saved an Army H. A. Ogden 

A \'isit to Plymouth Rock . Cornelia Hickman 

Thanksgiving in 1810 Clifford Hoivard 

How We Bought Louisiana Helen Lockzvood Coffin 

The Chinese Empire 


Children and Home Life in Many Lands, Part H 39-65 

A Swiss Peasant Home— Youthful Danes at Work and Play— Young Norwegians- 
People, Young and Old, in Holland — Homo Life in Italy 
The Boyhood of Alichael Angelo .... 
Children and Courtesy Four Hundred Years Ago 

The Boy and the Bishop 

When Cromwell Was a Boy 

A Young Breadwinner 

Alexander Black 
Elizabeth R. Pennell 
Harry Fenn 
Ernest C. Peixotto 
Frances IV. Marshall 

Curious Stories from History 

How Time Is Made 

Firecrackers .... 

Uncle Sam's Toys 

When the Camera Was Univuown 

Geographical Bottles 

How Pepper Helped to Discover America 



Clifford Hoivard 
Erick Pomcroy 
IVill H. Chandlee 
. Morris Wade 
Walter J. Kenyan 
lyda Richardson Stccgc 

Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies 

Mexico and Central America 

The West Indies 


Glimpses of Asiatic Countries 103- 119 

The People of India — Some Historic Cities of India — Hindu Life and Work — Hill- 
tribes of the Himalayas — The Story of India — Burma, the Land of the Elephant — The 
"Pearl of the Eastern Seas" — The French in Asia— The Dutch in Asia — A Land of 
Hidden Wealth — From Petrograd to I"eknig by Train — Steppes and Oases— The 
Land of the Shah— Lands of Songs and Story 

How Our Country is Governed 





Glimpses OF European Countries 126-152 

A Trip to the "Land of the Midnight Sun"— Life Among the Norsemen — A Cruise 
Round Spain — A Rich, Sunny, Dreamy Land — Spain and Its Story— A Trip Along 
the Sunny Shores of the Mediterranean — The Islands of the Mediterranean— Switzer- 
land, "the Playground of Europe" — Among the Alpine Mountains— Among the Swiss 
and Italian Lakes— The Swift-flowing Rhine — The Land of Dikes and Canals— A Sail 
Down the Danube— An Empire Carved out of Central Europe— Austria the Empire of 
Races— The Land of the Great White Czar — The Mighty Volga and the Great Cities 
of Russia— Russia and Its Story— The Land of Story, Song, and Merry Laughter- 
Italy and Its Story— The Ancient Home of Art and Learning — Plucky Little Rumania 
— Serbia, First in the War for Freedom — Belgium, Land of Many Sorrows 

Talks about Continents, Oceans, and Islands I53~i63 

Europe— Asia — Africa— America— Australasia— New Zealand— Fiji and the Islands of 
the Pacific 

Ihe Great War: the Struggle to Make the World Safe for Democracy 


Stories from English History for Little Folk 182-208 

A New World— Perkin Warbeck— Thomas Wolsey— A Queen for Ten Days — The 
Princess Elizabeth— Mary Queen of Scots— The Spanish Armada— Sir Walter Raleigh 
— Sir Philip Sidney— In the Days of Good Queen Bess— The "Gunpowder Plot"— Days 
of Trouble— The Royal Oak— The Great Plague— The Great Fire of London—The 
Brave People of Londonderry— "Bonnie Prince Charlie" — General Wolfe— Robert 
Clive— Captain Cook— The Story of Nelson — The Story of Wellington — George Ste- 
phenson— The Princess Victoria — Freeing the Slaves— Some New Things— A Great 
War— David Livingstone— King Edward the Seventh— The Great Durbar— A Sail 
Round the Emerald Isle— "Beauty Wanders Everywhere"— Ireland and Her People as 
they Are To-Day 

'^^ C?3 





We can often tell by the appearance of a person 
to what nation he belongs. Thus we can say of a 
person that he appears to be an American, an 
Englishman, a Frenchman, a German, etc., as the 
case may be. But though there are differences 
between the types of these and other nations, we 
often find an individual American who resembles, 
say, an individual German, or a Frenchman who 
resembles an Italian. 

But if we compare any of these with a China- 
man, we never find such a resemblance ; there are 
always many differences easy to see. Still less 
are we likely to be in any doubt in distinguishing 
between an American or a Chinaman and a negro. 

Taking into account the resemblances and dif- 
ferences between peoples of different nations, we 
are able to collect all the races of the earth into 
a number of groups. The members of each group 
have numerous resemblances to other members 
of the same group, while having strong unlike- 
nesses to the members of other groups. 

These great groups are at most five in number, 
and three of them are, at any rate, far more im- 
portant than the other two. These three most 
important groups are : ( i ) the Caucasian group, 
or white race; (2) the Mongolian group, or yel- 
low race, of which the Chinaman may be taken 
as the example; and (3) the Ethiopian group, or 
black race, of which the negro is the type. 

The other groups that are sometimes added are 
(4) the copper-colored North and South Ameri- 
can Indians, or red race, and (5) the Malays and 
Polynesians, or brown race. It is now, however, 
generally held that the American Indians are a 
branch, in distant times, from the Mongolian 
group, as they have many points in common with 
them. We can trace the mountain ridge of Asia, 
by way of the Aleutian Islands, to North Ameri- 
ca. If in times gone by the land was higher than 
at present, the ridge, the summits of which now 
form the Aleutian Islands, was dry land, along 
which the peoples could pass from one continent 
to the other. 

H.T.&G.D. II. 1. 

The Malays and Polynesians are believed to be 
a mixed race, mainly Mongolian, of compara- 
tively recent origin. We may therefore regard 
the two smaller groups as members of the Mon- 
golian group, and include all the peoples of the 
earth under the three great groups— Caucasian, 
Mongolian, and Ethiopian. 

The most striking feature of the members of 
the Caucasian group is the general whiteness of 
the skin. There are, however, two different types 
of this group: first, the fair-skinned type, often 
florid or ruddy, with fair or brown hair and blue 
or brown eyes ; secondly, the swarthy-skinned, 
sometimes brown, type, with dark hair and eyes. 
Other features of the Caucasian group are the 
generally regular features and oval faces, and a 
stature above the average. 

The distinguishing features of the Mongolian 
race are the dull yellowish skin, sometimes pass- 
ing into brown in color, black, coarse straight 
hair, almond-shaped slanting eyes, high cheek- 
bones, and flat features. 

The Ethiopian races are marked by blackish or 
jet-black skins, by short, woolly, jet-black hair, 
prominent eyes, high cheek-bones, broad flat 
noses, and thick lips. 

These three great divisions are also widely 
different in mental characteristics. The Caucasian 
group is by far the most highly developed men- 
tally, and possesses the most active and enter- 
prising temperament. The Mongolian group is 
characterized by a sluggish and silent tempera- 
ment. Hence the members of this group tend to 
settle down without wish for further progress. 
Hence, too, they generally show a great power 
of endurance. The Ethiopian group is very much 
the lowest in point of development. Among its 
members are to be included most of the really 
savage races. They are self-indulgent and averse 
to mental exertion, fitful in character, and they 
readily pass from mirth to cruelty. 

The Caucasian group had for its original home 
the districts round the Mediterranean in Western 


Asia, Europe, and Northern Africa. The three 
great divisions are the Aryans, including the Hin- 
dus, Persians, and most of the peoples of modern 
Europe ; the Semites, of Mesopotamia, Syria, 
Arabia, and Northern Africa; and the Hamites, 
of North and East Africa. 

The Mongolian group falls into three chief 
divisions. The first of these is formed by the 
Mongols of Asia, together with some representa- 
tives in Eastern Europe. These Mongols espe- 
cially inhabit the table-lands of Central and East- 
ern Asia, and the lands flanking them eastward 
and southeastward. They include the peoples of 
Turkestan, Tibet, China, Indo-China, and Japan. 
The second great Mongolian division includes 
the peoples of the Malay Peninsula and the west- 
ern part of the East Indies, of the Philippines, 
and of the islands of Eastern Polynesia. The 
third division comprises the Indians of North and 
South America. 

The Ethiopian group is divided into two great 
divisions. The first of these is the African divi- 
sion, including the true negroes of the Soudan, 
and the Bantus— Zulus, Kaffirs, etc. — of Central 
and Southern Africa. The second, or eastern 
division, includes the Papuans of New Guinea, 
the peoples of the Pacific islands known as Mel- 
anesia, and the aborigines of Australia. 


The special features of the Aryan branch of the 
Caucasian group as compared with the others 
are: (l) its' higher stage of civilization; (2) the 
progressive nature of that civilization; (3) the 
greater power of expansion. 

The geographical distribution of the Aryan 
races over India, Persia, and Europe gives to 
them an area very favorable in its geographical 
conditions to their development In the tem- 
perate part of the Aryan district grew up the 
early civilizations of Europe, from which the 
present civilization may be traced. 

The first of these civilizations was the Greek, 
which grew up in the islands of the Archipelago 
and on the shores of the .^gean Sea. The Greek 
civilization was greatest in art. In sculpture, in 
architecture, and in poetry the Greeks have never 
been excelled, even if, indeed, they have been 
equaled. The Greeks, too, laid down the prin- 
ciples of great systems of philosophy, and made 
some of the first great discoveries in mathe- 
matics. Hence their civilization, though the glory 
of ancient Greece be past, still exercises a great 
influence upon the world. 

Next arose the civilization of Rome, a civiliza- 
tion less distinguished in its sense of beauty than 

that of Greece, but full of practical power and 
strength. For the chief glories of Rome we look 
not so much to her poets and sculptors— though 
she had both— as to her generals and statesmen, 
her governors and engineers. Over all the coun- 
tries around the Mediterranean Sea Rome estab- 
lished her control. 

It was at one time generally held that the 
original ancestors of the Aryan races came from 
the table-lands of Central Asia, and that the 
Greeks and Romans represented some of the 
earlier immigrants. The Celts also, of Gaul and 
Britain, were, it was believed, comparatively early 
immigrants. It was also held that later the Aryan 
peoples known as Teutonic and Slavonic spread 
westward in successive waves. Though a great 
deal of doubt has of late been thrown upon this 
view of the origin of the Aryans, it is at any rate 
certain that after the Roman Empire had passed 
its highest point of power, great movements of 
the peoples known as Teutonic or Germanic took 
place. These movements were connected with 
incursions of the Slavonic peoples upon the Teu- 
tons, which tended to drive the latter westward. 

We know that the Anglo-Saxons, who were 
tribes of the Teutonic peoples, crossed the North 
Sea, conquered Britain, and founded the king- 
dom of England. But this was only one move- 
ment in many which finally shattered the Roman 

Then succeeded the long period known as the 
Middle Ages, during which the nations of West- 
ern Europe gradually became consolidated within 
themselves. During this time, however, civiliza- 
tion progressed very slowly. Then came the 
great period of the Renaissance, or revival of 
learning, when a new and vigorous civilization, 
largely founded upon the learning of Greece and 
Rome, sprang up. From this time we may date 
the rapid rise of the civilization of Western Eu- 
rope. The progressive character of this civiliza- 
tion is its chief feature. This progress has been 
chiefly marked in the direction of the discovery 
of the laws of nature, and in making use of those 
laws in the service of man. How rapid that 
progress has been we shall at once see, if we re- 
flect how recent has been the introduction of the 
steam-engine, the telegraph, the telephone, and 
numberless other inventions. It is this progres- 
sive civilization that has given the leadership of 
the world to the white peoples, and has rendered 
them far more important than either of the other 

We must not, however, imagine that we have 
outdistanced the ancient civilizations in all re- 
spects. For example, we have never equaled the 
old Greeks in the art of sculpture. 







Of the various states into which Europe came 
to be divided after the break-up of the Roman 
Empire, some have especially retained the marks 
of the Roman or Latin influence. Thus France, 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal speak tongues derived 
from the Roman language, Latin. Hence we 
sometimes call them the Latin nations, though we 
must be careful to remember that they are by no 
means entirely Latin in blood. The French peo- 
ple, for example, are largely Celtic in descent, 
with a considerable admixture of Teutonic blood, 
especially among the French of the north. The 
modern Greeks are in the main descendants from 
the ancient Greeks, from whose language the 
modern Greek tongue is derived. The Celtic peo- 
ples form what has sometimes been called the 
"Celtic fringe" on the extreme west of Europe. 
In no case do they at present form an inde- 
pendent state. Their chief modern representa- 
tives are found in Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, the 
Highlands of Scotland, and Ireland. 

The peoples who are mainly Teutonic in blood 
inhabit the northwestern countries of Europe. 
They include the English and the Lowland Scots, 
the Germans, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, and 
Dutch. The next great division of the Aryan 
peoples, the Slavonic, inhabits the eastern portion 
of Europe, Russia and Poland, Rumania, Bul- 
garia, and Servia. 

Several countries have so far been omitted. 
Of these, Belgium has a mixed population, some- 
what like that of northeastern France ; Switzer- 
land is partly French, partly German, and partly 
Italian in race and in speech ; while the empire 
of Austria-Hungary is of very mixed composi- 
tion. Austria itself is German or Teutonic ; Bo- 
hemia, Slavonic; while the Magyars, most nu- 
merous of the peoples of Hungary, are not Aryan 
at all, but belong to the Mongolian race. To the 
same race also belong the Turks, the Finns, the 
Lapps, and the Tartars of Russia. 

The chief representatives of the Aryan race in 
Asia, other than European immigrants, are the 
Persians and the Hindus. In both, however, 
there have been considerable admixtures with 
other races. The Persians and the Hindus long 
ago evolved civilizations of their own, and at- 
tained considerable skill in some arts and in liter- 
ature. These civilizations, however, long ago be- 
came stationary. 

The other main branches of the Caucasian race, 
the Semites and the Hamites, have not equaled 
the Aryan peoples in their capacity for civiliza- 
tion. It is, however, noticeable that several of 
the Semitic peoples have in the past shown great 
capacity for progress. Thus the Assyrians and 
the Phoenicians were leaders in the dawn of civil- 

ization, the Arabs were one of the most civilized 
peoples of the Middle Ages, and the scattered 
Jews are fully abreast of the civilizations of the 
lands where they have found homes. 

We have said that one especial point about the 
white races was their power of expansion. By 
that we mean that more than any other race they 
have spread far beyond their original homes and 
settled in distant lands. This expansion of the 
white race beyond its original boundaries did not 
begin until comparatively late. In the Middle 
Ages there were indeed wars of conquest con- 
tinually going on, but these were wars the object 
of which was the gain of territory by one white 
people at the expense of another. But after the 
revival of learning, which, as we have seen, 
marks the beginning of the progress of the mod- 
ern civilizations, men's interests turned to the 
unknown quarters of the earth. In their curiosity 
to find out what lay beyond the trackless seas 
they were aided by improvements in navigation 
which were introduced about this time. 

The two great pioneers of this expansion were 
Columbus, who, in the service of Spain, brought 
America to the knowledge of Europeans by his 
voyage in 1492, and Vasco da Gama, a Portu- 
guese, who in 1497 discovered the sea-route to 
India. Thus the sea-routes both to west and east 
were opened up. The route to the east, though 
vastly important to trade, did not lead to the 
establishment of colonies in the true sense, for 
in the tropical regions Europeans cannot per- 
manently settle down with their families. 

The westward ocean-route, however, led to the 
great expansion of the white races, by which the 
whole of the great continent of America passed 
from the hands of the red men into their pos- 
session. The leaders in the movement were the 
Spaniards, who, by virtue of the discovery of 
Columbus, claimed the whole continent. The 
Portuguese also made extensive settlements. A 
decision of the Pope gave Brazil to the Portu- 
guese and the rest of South America to the Span- 
iards. Hence it comes that all the states of 
America from Mexico southward are Spanish in 
origin, except Brazil, which was originally Portu- 
guese, and the Guianas, which were originally 
Dutch. All these colonies of Spain and Portugal 
have now, however, left the parent countries and 
become independent republics. 

The great struggle for the possession of North 
America took place between England and France. 
These countries, early in the seventeenth century, 
and at about the same time, founded their first 
colonies in America — the English in Virginia, the 
French in Canada. The struggle was decided in 
favor of England by the Seven Years' War, 



3. A NURSE. 



1756-63, and thus the whole of the North Ameri- 
can continent north of the Mexican boundary 
passed under the control of English-speaking 
peoples; the old English colonies along the At- 
lantic coasts expanding into our great republic, 
the United States of America, while the old 
French colonies along the St. Lawrence, with 
later English settlements, formed the vast Do- 
minion of Canada. The extreme northwest of 
North America, Alaska, was purchased by the 
United States from Russia in 1867. 

The next great field for expansion was Aus- 
tralia. Here the British had an unrestricted field, 
and the colonies which now form the Common- 
wealth of Australia were founded. New Zealand 
was also settled by people of the English race. 

The progress of African exploration during 
the nineteenth century made it evident that there 
were large areas of valuable land in that con- 
tinent. Thus in the latter part of that century 
arose what has been called the "scramble for 
Africa" on the part of the great European 
powers. As a result, nearly the whole of Africa 
has been divided up among Great Britain, France, 
and Germany. Portugal retains considerable 
areas, the remains of her old colonies upon the 
eastern and western coasts, and Italy has com- 
paratively unimportant possessions on the east 
coast. Few of these possessions, however, can 
yet be looked upon as expansions of the white 
races, and many wise men think that the greater 
part of Africa can never be suited for European 

From this point of view, the most important at 
present are the British colonies of the south, 
where are enormous areas suitable for white peo- 
ple in Cape Colony, Natal, the Qrange River 
Colony, the Transvaal, and Rhodesia. As these 
colonies originated from the old Dutch colony at 
the Cape of Good Hope, many of the inhabitants, 
particularly in Cape Colony, the Orange River 
Colony, and the Transvaal, are of Dutch descent. 
The French possessions in Northern Africa, Al- 
giers and Tunis, are also capable of settlement 
by Europeans. 

In Asia the chief colonizing expansion has 
been that of Russia, which has spread gradually 
eastward to the Pacific, and in the south into 
Turkestan and to the borders of India. 


A CERTAIN small number of nations, being vastly 
stronger and richer than the others, largely con- 
trol the affairs of the rest of the world. These 
nations we call the Great Powers or the World 
Powers. Until lately we should certainly have 

said that all the Great Powers belonged to the 
white race, but during recent years we have seen 
the Japanese, a yellow race, rising to the posi- 
tion of a Great Power and taking a place of 
equality beside the Western nations. 

Apart from this exception, the Great Powers 
are all white races. The Teutonic branch of the 
Aryan race claims three of these— the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The 
Latin races are represented by France and Italy, 
the Slavonic by Russia, while the remaining 
Great Power is the mixed kingdom of Austria- 

Of these World Powers, the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland has been foremost 
as a great colonizing and naval power. This 
country led the way in the great industrial de- 
velopment of the nineteenth century. Hence she 
became the foremost manufacturing and com- 
mercial country of the world ; and though other 
countries, notably the United States and Ger- 
many, have made great strides in late years, the 
United Kingdom is still the greatest commercial 
country in the world. An important part of her 
commerce consists in the carrying trade. Not 
only are great numbers of her ships employed in 
carrying on her own trade, but she also finds the 
vessels in which a great part of the trade of 
other countries is carried on. London, the capital 
of the United Kingdom, has long been the center 
of the world in money matters and in many de- 
partments of commerce. 

The British Empire is, iii a special sense, a 
world-empire, since it consists of very numerous 
detached portions scattered over the face of the 
earth. The possessions of Great Britain, like her 
commerce, are found in every sea. 

Our own country, the United States of Ameri- 
ca, is in its origin, its speech, its literature, its 
religion, a daughter state of Great Britain, 
though far exceeding the mother country in area 
and in population. 

As "every school-boy knows," when the Ameri- 
can colonies of England broke their connection 
with the old country in 1776, they formed the 
United States of America. At that time they oc- 
cupied merely the strip of land between the Al- 
leghanies and the Atlantic coast. Now the States 
stretch clear across the continent and include an 
area of a little more than three million square 
miles, forming a country only exceeded in size 
by the British, Russian, and Chinese empires. 
Besides the States of the Union, the republic 
possesses not only Alaska, but also Hawaii, Porto 
Rico, and the Philippine Islands. 

The great size and the almost boundless re- 
sources of the United States, coupled with the 









industry and energy of their inhabitants, present 
vast room for still further development. For 
many years the people were content to devote 
themselves to the affairs of their own country 
without taking much share in the affairs of the 
world, at any rate outside America. But of late 
years, especially since the war with Spain, the 
United States has taken its place as a Great 
Power, with the full acknowledgment of the 
other World Powers. 

The United States is a federation of States 
managing their own internal affairs, but united 
for common purposes under a central republican 
government. Germany is a federation of monar- 
chical states united under a central government 
whose head is the German Emperor. The Em- 
peror is also the King of the most important 
member of the federation, Prussia. The German 
Empire as it exists to-day is of quite recent 
growth. For a very long period Germany was 
weakened by the fact that it was made up of a 
great number of independent states which were 
often unfriendly or even hostile to one another. 
These states were welded together in the war 
with France, and in 1871 the King of Prussia be- 
came German Emperor. To this first Emperor, 
William, and to two other men, Bismarck the 
statesman and Moltke the soldier, the foundation 
of the German Empire is due. 

The war with France established the position 
of Germany as the first military power in Europe. 
In the years following she developed her manu- 
factures and trade, and greatly increased her 
navy. She also made great efforts, temporarily 
successful, to found a colonial empire ; but in the 
Great War she lost one by one all her colonies. 

France, for a long period the most important 
country in Europe, the first in war and the first 
in the arts, passed through a century of troublous 
times from the outbreak of the great Revolution 
at the end of the eighteenth century. Her ancient 
monarchy was thrown down, and a republic insti- 
tuted, only to give way to the empire of Napoleon 
I. So the changes v"cnt on, until the third em- 
pire under Napoleon III. fell in the disastrous 
war with Germany. From that time France has 
been a republic. The war left France apparently 
crushed. But few things are more remarkable 
in the history of nations than the rapidity with 
which France repairs her disasters. The industry 
and thrift which are strongly marked among 
large sections of the French people have much 
to do with this. With remarkable rapidity France 
repaid the heavy war-charges laid upon her, re- 
organized her army and navy, and once more 
took her place among the leading nations of the 

The empire of Austria-Hungary is important 
from its size and its natural resources, but it is 
weakened by the fact that it is not one nation, 
but a collection of nations, which happen to have 
the same sovereign. There is little fellowship 
between the different peoples of the empire, and 
between some of them there is often bitter hos- 
tility. Within the bounds of the empire there are 
over fifty separate states, and something like 
twenty different languages are spoken. About 
half the population is Slavonic, and about one 
quarter Teutonic, while the Magyars of Hungary 
are, as we have already told you, a branch of the 
Mongolian group of races. The Emperor of 
Austria is also King of Hungary. 

The kingdom of Italy, like the present German 
Empire, is of modern origin. After the downfall 
of the Roman Empire, Italy split up into a great 
number of states. A considerable part, the Papal 
States, was under the rule of the Pope ; there 
were the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, the 
grand duchies of Savoy and of Milan, and small 
republics like those of Venice and Genoa. 

The part played by Italy in the Middle Ages 
in the progress of civilization will never be for- 
gotten. There the revival of learning first made 
itself felt, and Italy became, in an especial de- 
gree, the land of art. In poetry, in painting, in 
architecture, and in music, she has produced some 
of the greatest men in the world's history. But 
while she was as a house divided against itself, 
Italy, great as she was in art, could not take a 
place among the Great Powers. Flowever, in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, a great move- 
ment, aided by the patriot Garibaldi and others, 
began for the purpose of establishing a United 
Italy. The King of Sardinia became King of 
Italy in 1861 ; and in 1870, the Papal States hav- 
ing been taken from the Pope, the Kingdom of 
Italy included the whole of the peninsula. 


The Mongolian group of peoples gets its name 
from the Mongols, a race first spoken of in 
Chinese records as dwelling in the district still 
called Mongolia, and now forming part of the 
Chinese Empire. Long ago, however, in the 
twelfth and succeeding centuries, these Mongols 
founded, and for a time maintained, a great em- 
pire of their own. Their greatest leader was 
Genghis Khan, one of the most remarkable con- 
querors the world has produced. His troops, all 
horsemen, swept in destroying hordes across the 
whole of Central Asia to the Crimea, and 
founded an empire that stretched from the Pa- 
cific to the Black Sea. 







Another Mongolian race, the Turks, were 
pressed westward by the Mongol conquests, and 
gradually established their rule over Asia Minor. 
Thence they crossed the Bosporus into Europe, 
captured Constantinople in the fifteenth century, 
founded the state of Turkey in Europe, and for 
a time threatened to overrun Eastern and Cen- 
tral Europe. 

In point of size and population, by far the 
greatest country peopled by the Mongolian race 
is the great empire of China, consisting of China 
proper and Manchuria, with dependencies of 
Mongolia and Tibet. This vast country has an 
area of nearly four and a half million square 
miles and a population of some 400,000,000 peo- 
ple. It is the most populous empire in the world. 
As is to be expected, this population is much 
denser in the rich and fertile valleys of the great 
rivers of China proper than in the comparatively 
poorly watered and sterile upland plains of the 
interior table-lands. In these rich river-valleys 
a civilization grew up long ages ago. For many 
centuries, during which our ancestors were bar- 
barians, the Chinese were a civilized people. In- 
deed, the Chinese themselves claim to carry back 
their history to a period nearly three thousand 
years before the birth of Christ. It has certainly 
been an empire for more than two thousand 

How is it. then, that China has been out- 
stripped in civilization by the comparatively new 
peoples of Western Europe? The answer is 
probably to be found partly in the geographical 
features of their country, and partly in the char- 
acter of the Mongolian race. Their rich plains 
and hill-slopes, cultivated with patient care and 
industry, were capable of supplying all their 
needs. Thus there was little inducement to in- 
tercourse with other lands. Moreover, inter- 
course was made difficult, even if it were de- 
sired, by the high mountain chains and the bar- 
ren table-lands and deserts which bound the 
country in so many directions. The passive 
character of the people and their exaggerated 
ancestor-worship, which made it almost impious 
in their view to wish to advance beyond the 
point which their forefathers had reached, must 
also be taken into account. Moreover, their sys- 
tem of education, based upon the ancient writ- 
ings, was not likely to make for progress. 

It has been claimed that many great inven- 
tions of modern Europe and America were dis- 
covered in China long ago. It is at any rate 
certain that paper was made in that country in 
our first century, and printing by means of 
wooden blocks established not very long after- 

XVTT— ' 

For a very long period after China was first 
visited by Europeans, the Chinese looked upon 
them with disfavor, and their government did 
all that it could to discourage trade with the 
Western nations. Indeed, the right to trade in 
certain ports was only obtained from China by 
war. There are, however, many signs that the 
influence of Western civilization is beginning to 
be felt. This movement may not unlikely be 
aided by the marvelous success with which the 
Japanese have adopted some of the methods of 
Western Europe. In a very few years these 
wonderful people have developed their manu- 
factures, trained and armed an army and navy, 
and have shown themselves capable of success- 
fully combating one of the Great Powers of 
Europe — the gigantic country of Russia. This 
is the more extraordinary because Japan had for 
a very long time its ancient stationary civiliza- 
tion like the Chinese, and until after the middle 
of the nineteenth century the Japanese did all 
they could to keep foreigners out of their coun- 

In 1868 a civil war in Japan established the 
Mikado or Emperor in his power, and a change 
unexampled in history began. Railways were 
constructed, their engineers trained by Euro- 
peans, and cotton factories built. French, and 
later German, officers organized an army, and 
British sailors instructed Japanese seamen and 
formed a navy after the British model. Thus 
European civilization was grafted upon the an- 
cient Japanese culture, and for the first time a 
yellow race took its place among the Great Pow- 
ers of the world. 

The peninsula of Korea, the subject of strife 
between China and Japan, and later between 
Japan and Russia, is inhabited by Mongolian peo- 
ple having a civilization resembling the Chinese. 
In 1910 Korea was made a part of the Japanese 

In the main, the peoples of Indo-China, the 
Burmese and Siamese, are Mongolic. In the ex- 
treme south of the Malay Peninsula, and in some 
of the islands of the East Indies, the people, 
though mainly Mongolic, appear to have a con- 
siderable admixture of Aryan blood. They vary 
much in the stage of civilization they have 
reached, some being peaceful tillers of the soil, 
while others are but little, if at all, removed from 
cannibalism. The people of Madagascar are, at 
any rate largely, of Malay blood. 

The brown Polynesians of the Pacific islands 
are frequently of considerable physical beauty, 
and generally of peaceful and gay dispositions, 
though by no means lacking in courage. Un- 
fortunately they are one of the races that de- 

From stereograph, copyright by Underwood & Underwood, 


x^^I— 2 





crease in numbers as they come into contact with 

The American Indians appear to be another of 
these dying races. Originally spread in many 
tribes over the entire length and breadth of 
North and South America, their number is now 
very much reduced. Many tribes have been al- 
most swept away by diseases such as measles and 
smallpox introduced among them. Still worse 
probably have been the ravages wrought by 
strong drink, or "fire-water" as the Indians 
themselves call it, and, at times, by the treachery 
and greed of the whites who, in deceitful bar- 
gaining, and in cruel warfare, almost matching 
their own, have robbed the red men of their 
lands and slaughtered them without mercy. 

As a race the American Indians have never 
reached any considerable level of civilization, 
nor do the majority even now take kindly to that 
of the whites. In two districts, however, Peru 
and Mexico, they had developed a fair level of 
civilization before the European colonization of 
America. In both these places, however, the In- 
dian civilization and government were destroyed 
with horrible cruelty by the Spanish conquerors. 


The home of the typical Ethiopian peoples, the 
negroes, is the continent of Africa south of the 
Sahara. From the great number of black peo- 
ples varying largely from one another who dwell 
in those parts of Africa, it is usual to take cer- 
tain of the tribes inhabiting the western and cen- 
tral Soudan as representing the truest type of 
the negro. Among these may be mentioned the 
Ashantis and the Kru of Upper Guinea, and the 
Hausas of the central Soudan. 

Other black races of Africa, approaching more 
or less closely to the typical negro, are sometimes 

called the negroid peoples. Of these the most 
important is the great Bantu family spread over 
the larger part of the central and southern table- 
land. The Bantus, as a rule, are tall and well 
built, strong, and capable of much endurance. 
Among them are included the warlike races of 
South Africa : the Zulus, the Basutos, the 
Bechuanas, and the Matabele. 

The Hottentots of the southwest of Africa are 
also considered to be a negroid people, though 
differing very widely from the ordinary negro 

Scattered about among the stronger peoples, 
and generally dwelling in the least accessible and 
least desirable parts of the continent, are a num- 
ber of tribes of pygmy people sometimes classed 
together as Negritos. They are some of the low- 
est and most animal-like members of the human 
family. Among them are the Bushmen of the 
Kalahari desert and the race of hairy dwarfs, not 
much above four feet in height, who, with their 
poisoned arrows, caused Stanley much trouble in 
his march through the Aruwimi forest. 

Very low, too, in the scale of civilization are 
the negroid peoples of the Oceanic or eastern 
division of the Ethiopic group. Such are the 
cannibalistic tribes of New Guinea, the islanders 
of Melanesia, and the aborigines of Australia. 
These Australian natives furnish another ex- 
ample of a dying race. The Tasmanians are al- 
ready extinct. 

Very large numbers of negroes live, as you 
know, on the continent and islands of America, 
especially in the Southern United States, in the 
West Indies, and in the tropical parts of South 
America. These are, of course, the descendants 
of negroes imported from Africa as slaves. 

The Ethiopic race differs from both the Cau- 
casic and the Mongolic in the fact that it has 
never evolved a civilization of its own. 

Copyright by Umterwootl \" l^nderwood, N. V. 








It was in the winter of 1777-78, during the 
occupation of Philadelphia by the British 
troops, that a patriot woman inside of the 
enemy's lines performed an act of great service 
to her country. Not far away, at Whitemarsh, 
General Washington's army was encamped. 
It had recently suffered defeat in the battles 
of Brandywine and Germantown, and the out- 
look was most discouraging. In Philadelphia 
the British soldiers, commanded by General 
Howe, were quartered in comfortable bar- 
racks, while their officers had selected the most 

commodious and elegant houses in which to 
enjoy the winter. In one of these houses lived 
a Quaker gentleman named Darrah, his wife 
Lydia, and their younger children; their oldest 
son was an officer in the patriot army. With 
them General Howe's adjutant-general took up 
his quarters, and secured a back room in which 
private councils could be held. 

Just before one of these councils, in the 
early part of December, Lydia Darrah was told 
to retire early with her family, as the British 
officers would require the room at seven o'clock, 






and would remain late. The adjutant-general 
added that the officers would send for her to let 
them out and to extinguish the fire and candles. 

'"we marched back like a parcel ok fools!' 


Now, as the officer was so particular, Lydia 
suspected that some expedition against the 
patriot army was to be arranged. 

She sent all the family to bed, and, taking 
of¥ her shoes, crept softly back and listened at 
the door. By this piece of eavesdropping, 
which the zealous woman no doubt felt was 
entirely justified as a war expedient, she 
learned it was decided to issue an order that 
all the British troops should march out, late 
on the fourth of December, to surprise General 
Washington and his army. 

Having learned this important decision, Mrs. 
Darrah retired to her room, and, lying down. 

feigned to be asleep. When one of the officers 
knocked at the door, she did not reply until 
the summons had been several times re- 

After the departure 
of the officers she 
hardly knew what to 
do, in order to get 
word of the intended 
surprise to Washington. 
She knew it lay in her 
power to save the lives 
of thousands of her 
countrymen. She dared 
not consult even her 
husband. She decided 
to go herself and con- 
vey the information. 
The Darrahs' stock of 
flour being almost out, 
and it being customary 
in those days for peo- 
ple to send or go to the 
mills themselves, Lydia 
told her husband that 
she would go for 
more. He wanted his 
wife to send their 
servant, or to take a 
companion, but Lydia 
insisted on going alone. 
As the mill was some 
distance from the city, 
a pass through the 
British lines must be 
obtained ; and Lydia's 
first step was to pro- 
cure the document from General Howe. Hav- 
ing secured the pass, she made her way over the 
snowy roads, and reached the mill. Leaving 
her flour-bag to be filled, she hurried on in the 
direction of the American camp, and before 
long met a party of patriot cavalrymen com- 
manded by an officer whom she knew. He 
inquired where she was going. Mrs. Darrah 
said she was going to see her son, one of his 
comrades ; at the same time she begged him 
to dismount and walk with her. Ordering his 
troops to remain within sight, he did so. She 
then told her important secret, after his prom- 
ise not to betray his source of information, lest 




her life might be forfeited thereby. Conduct- 
ing her to a house near at hand, and seeing 
that she had some refreshment, the American 
officer galloped off to headquarters, where 
General Washington was at once informed of 
the intended attack. The necessary prepa- 
rations were of course 
made for receiving 
and repelling the 
enemy's "surprise." 

Returning home 
with her flour, Lydia 
sat up alone, to 
watch the intended 
movement of the 
British. The regular 
tramp of feet passed 
the door, then all was 
silence ; nor was her 
anxiety to know the 
result at an end until 
the officers' return, a 
day or two later. 
Although she did not 
dare to ask a ques- 
tion, imagine her 
alarm, when the adju- 
tant-general told her 
that he wished to 
ask her some ques- 
tions ; she felt sure 
that she either had 
been betrayed or 
was suspected. He 
inquired very par- 
ticularly whether her 
husband or any of 
the children were up 
on the night they 
had held their last 
consultation. Lydia 
replied : "The family 
all retired at seven 
o'clock, as you re- 
quested." He then 
remarked : "I know 
you were asleep; for 

I knocked on your door at least three times 
before you answered me. We are entirely at a 

loss to understand who could have given Wash- 
ington information of our proposed attack, un- 
less these walls could speak. When we arrived 
near their encampment we found all their can- 
non in position, and their troops ready for 
us; and not being prepared for a regular 


battle with the Americans, we marched back- 
like a parcel of fools !" 





Plymouth has 
been called the 
cradle of New 
England. It is on 
the coast, thirty- 
eight miles south 
of Boston, and 
is a thriving and 
prosperous New 
England town, 
with good schools 
and churches, and 
town hall, and 
shops of all kinds, 
and comfortable 

On the flat strip 
of land that runs 
for miles up and 
down the shore of 
the bay, the dimin- 
utive white houses 
of the fishermen 
are crowded close 
together. In the 
center of the same 
flat land- strip, 
flanked on both 
sides by the fishermen's homes, is a large, open 
square forty yards from the water-front. Here 
stands Plymouth Rock, the first sight of which 
gives one a mental shock, for, no doubt, fancy 
has pictured an immense boulder rising grandly 
out of the sea ; but, instead, the visitor sees 
only an oblong, irregularly shaped gray sand- 
stone rock twelve feet in length and five feet 
in width at the widest point and two at the 
narrowest. Across one part runs a large crack 
which has been filled with cement, and which 
gives to Plymouth Rock a highly artificial ap- 
pearance. The origin of this crack is a bit of 
unique history, and bears evidence to the early 
differences that at times divided the inhab- 
itants into two factions. 

For a long time there waged spirited and 

H.T.&G.D. 11. 2. 


bitter wrangling between the opposing par- 
ties, and it even settled down upon the 
much-cherished Plymouth Rock, which one 
party declared ought to be removed to a 
more worthy position in the town square, 
and the other wranglers protested it should 
not be moved an inch from its position, even 
though they had to guard it with their pikes 
and guns. 

Finally, the stronger faction drew up their 
forces around Plymouth Rock, and in attempting 
to remove it up the hill it split asunder, which 
seemed a bad omen for those who had attempted 
such a thing, until an ardent Whig leader flour- 
ished his sword, and by an eloquent appeal 
to the other zealous Whigs convinced them 
that they should not swerve from their plan 
of carrying the rock to a place in the town 

"The portion that first fell to the ground 
belongs to us," he cried ; "and that we will 
transport with all care and diligence to its 
proper home." 

Twenty yoke of oxen drew the Whig section 
of Plymouth Rock up the hill, amid the shouts 
of the throng that pushed forward around the 
liberty-pole which was to mark the new site. 
The ceremony of dedicating the rock in its 
new position was very impressive, and the peo- 
ple stood with bared heads, and in reverent 
tones chanted their high-pitched psalms in token 
of thanksgiving. 

In the town square this part of Plymouth Rock 
remained for more than half a century, when a 
committee of the council resolved to move it 
back to its original position, and join it, as best 
they could, to the other half. Accordingly, in 
1834, on the morning of the Fourth of July, 
the Plymouth Rock had been reunited in all 
seriousness to its long-estranged portion, and 
the union made complete by a mixture of 
cement and mortar. 

To-day four granite columns support a can- 
opy of granite that offers Plymouth Rock an 
indifferent protection against the rain and the 



sun, and serves to keep back, in some measure, 
the thousands of sight-seers that come to Ply- 
mouth with only one object in view, namely, to 
press up around the iron bars, and to gaze 

"Why, of course it is Plymouth Rock ! What 
else could it be?" answers the man to whom 
the question is addressed; but, nevertheless, 
looking a trifle skeptical himself as he regards 

it. "It's not much 
to look at; but it's 
Plymouth Rock, 
just the same," he 
says in decisive 

From the wharf, 
with its fishing- 
boats and sail- 
boats ranged 
around its sides, 
one gets but an 
imperfect view of 
Plymouth Harbor 
and the sea be- 
yond. Just climb 
the hill back of the 
fishermen's cot- 


■"— A*4. 


through them at the 
revered rock, on 
which they see the 
single inscription, cut 
in the middle of its 
face in long, plain 
figures: "1620." 

The rock is sur- 
rounded by a high 
iron railing com- 
posed of alternate 
boat-hooks and har- 
poons, and inscribed 
with the illustrious 
names of the forty 
men who drew up 
the Pilgrims' com- 
pact on board the 
"Mayflower" that 
November day, as 

they sighted the coast that henceforth was to 
be their home. 

"And so this is Plymouth Rock?" some one 
asks doubtfully. "Are you sure?" 

nfrimtrmhm\\tY '^''~^''^ ':''ki^^ 


tages, on which the main portion of the town 
is built, and pass on to the summit of "Bury- 
ing Hill," and from this high point the eye 
can take in the long, narrow beach ; the bald 




rrowii of "("aptain's Hill" on the left; the the "Mayflower" who had perished from cold 
"Gurnet" lights upon their rocky promontory and hunger. It was there on Captain's Hill 
that runs out into the sea where the steamers that Miles Standish built him a substantial log- 
house, in the vain 
hope that the Puri- 
tan Priscilla would 
one day become its 

Far away to the 
north, beyond those 
distant hills yellow 
with fields of stub- 
ble, is Marshfield 
and the grave of 
Daniel ^^'cbster. 

Viewed from the 
summit of Burying 
Hill, the scene is 
beautiful and rest- 
ful, and one never 
to be forgotten. 

Burying Hill 
might claim your 
attention for a 
week, with its an- 



come and go ; and the placid blue waters of the 
ba}'. On the outer edge of the bay lies an 
island with an oval outline that slopes gradu- 
ally down to the water in green curves, its 
round surface dotted here arid there with 
clumps of cedars and stunted pines. 

Duxbury Beach, scarcely twenty rods in 
width, stretches from the mainland for miles to 
the southward, interposing its narrow barrier 
of drifting sand between the stormy Atlantic 
and the quiet Plymouth Harbor lit up by the 
October sun. 

"Saquish Head" guards the inlet, that grows 
wider and wider, and the lonely, wind-swept 
cliff is the homestead of a score of hardy fish- 
ermen whose cabins look as if they were about 
ready to topple into the sea. 

On one high point rises the statue of John 
Alden; and, at the foot of Captain's Hill, 

and their ingenu- 
ous inscriptions, that are so quaintly and, often- 
times, humorously worded that they provoke 
a smile in spite of yourself. It is the old Ply- 
mouth burying-ground, and occupies one of 
the highest cliffs that overlook the bay. 

A road leads down from Burying Hill 
through the old part of the town, along the 
narrow and crooked streets, with their square- 
roofed houses and queer-looking stores and 
warehouses, and rope-walks that run into by- 
ways, up and down hill, and finally emerge 
upon the ruinous old wharf with its rotting 
piles projecting far out into the harbor. 

Along Court street one goes, gazing at the 
houses on each side of the way, with scanty lit- 
tle- front door-yards full of old-fashioned 
flower-beds ; at the square turrets of the more 
pretentious dwellings; at the steeples and cu- 
polas of the churches on the different hills; at 

you see the smoothed-over sward where were the shops, big and small, with green blinds and 

buried John Carver and his gentle wife, who dingy white fronts, until he comes to the town 

could not survive her husband's loss, and the hall, on the right-hand side of the street. The 

bones of fifty of the unfortunate passengers of hall is of rough granite, with a wooden veranda 



whose colonnades are Doric painted in imita- esting books and manuscripts that were prized 

tion of granite. This building is "Pilgrims' by the governors of Plymouth, for books were 

Hall," and is seventy feet long and forty feet rare in those days. In the basement one sees 

wide. The corner-stone was laid on the first some very thick boards, that might have formed 

of September, 1824, and the hall is divided into a part of the hull of a small vessel, raised upon 

several rooms that are filled with interesting a platform. This is said to be a fragment of 

memorials and relics of the Pilgrims, and the 
"Mayflower," and the early colonial days. 

The principal apartment contains a large 
painting of the "Landing of the Pilgrims," by 
Henry Sargent. In the recesses of the windows 
are two old walnut chairs that came over in the 
"Mayflower"; the larger one belonged to Gov- 

the "Mayflower." 

In this big underground room the Pilgrim 
Society of Plymouth has given many a dinner 
in commemoration of "Forefathers' Day," as 
December the twenty-second is styled. 

Passing on from Pilgrims' Hall down the 
main street, one sees that the houses are gener- 

ernor Carver, and the smaller one to William ally built close upon the sidewalk, and that the 
Brewster. lower stories are used as shops and stores. 

In a large glass case in this room there are Leyden street is the oldest street in Ply- 
many interesting 
relics, among which 
are the sword of 
Miles Standish; the 
clumsy-looking gun 
whose bullet killed 
the brave King 
Philip ; a small iron 
pot and a dish that 
were brought over 
in the "Mayflower"; 
John Alden's Bible; 
some wearing ap- 
parel that was the 
property of Alice 
Bradford ; watches, 
swords, seal-rings, 
flint-locks, stocks, 
and gauntlets that 
once belonged to 
prominent citizens 
of the colony. 

In a frame on the 


wall in one room is a faded sampler worked by 
the dainty fingers of Lorea Standish. There 
is a deed signed by Miles Standish, and an- 
other bearing the signature of John Alden. 

Here is a bond of Peregrine White, the first 
native Yankee, as he was the first child born 
in New England. 

In an adjoining room is a portion of the 
library belonging to the Pilgrim Society. Here 
are the Indian Bible translated by John Eliot, 
"the Apostle to the Indians," and some inter- 

mouth. Lots were laid out upon it within a 
week after the landing, and wooden gates were 
built at the ends of the street, and a stockade 
raised against a sudden attack from the Indians. 
On Plymouth Hill stands the imposing statue 
to the Pilgrims. Its base is granite and supports 
a seated figure at each of the four corners, with 
eyes searching the surrounding country, while 
a woman's figure crowns the top. On the pedes- 
tal is inscribed the name of every man, woman, 
and child that came over in the "Mayflower." 


The world has changed more in the last 100 years than in any WOO years that have gone before." 

^t?^nksg[ivlngr in 1810 

A HUNDRED years back may seem a long while 
ago, but when you remember that there are men 
Hving to-day whose fathers saw General Wash- 
ington, a century does not seem so long a time 
after all. And up to the time of Washington a 
hundred years did not mean very much to the 
human race. The world, moved very slowly. 
When Washington died, in 1799, people were 
using the same sort of appliances and doing the 
same things in the same way that they did in 
1699 and even in 1599. In former times, if a man 
could have returned to earth at the end of a 
hundred years, he would not have been very much 
surprised at any of the changes that had taken 
place during his absence. But if Washington or 
Franklin, or even Thomas Jefferson, who died 
less than a century ago, were to come back to 
earth now, he would not know where he was. 
The zvorld has changed more in the last one 
hundred years than in any thousand years that 
have gone before. 

To get some idea of the wonderful changes 
that have taken place, let tis go back to Thanks- 
giving Day in 1810 and note how many, many 
things our great-grandparents did not have which 
we have to-day. It will not only astonish us, 
but it will also make us realize how much we 
have to be thankful for. 

In the first place, there was no Thanksgiving 
Day in 1810, except in New England. It was only 
a little over forty years ago that the people all 
over the United States began to celebrate the 
day. Before that, if one did not live in Boston 
or very close to it he probably would never have 
eaten a Thanksgiving dinner. But even those 
who were fortunate enough to live in New Eng- 
land did not have anything like the variety of 
good things for dinner that we have to-day. Of 

course they had turkey and pumpkin-pie and 
onions and cranberry sauce and potatoes ; but 
they did not have tomatoes or corn or peas or 
string-beans or beets or asparagus or any of the 
other canned vegetables that we are accustomed 
to eating during the winter months. There were 
no canned goods of any kind. There were no 
tin cans. Neither were there any cars to bring 
fresh fruits and vegetables— like strawberries and 
tomatoes and lettuce— from the South and from 
California. In fact, there were then no such 
places in the United States as Florida and Texas 
and California. They were all of them waste 
places or foreign lands. They belonged to Eng- 
land and Spain and France and Mexico. 

Oranges, bananas, pineapples, grape-fruit, 
olives, Malaga grapes, and other tropical fruits 
which are so familiar to all of us, were never 
seen in the markets in 1810. Boys and girls of 
that day only heard about them from travelers or 
read of them in books. 

Dinners were cooked in fireplaces. There were 
no ranges. There were no gas-stoves ; no oil- 
stoves; no coal-stoves; no cook-stoves of any 
kind. Housewives had no baking-powder, no 
yeast cakes, no self-rising flour, no granulated 
sugar, no flavoring extracts, no ground spices, no 
cocoa, no potted meats, no catsup, no prepared 
breakfast foods, no soda-crackers, no macaroni. 
All the coffee had to be roasted and ground at 
home. Housekeepers then had very few of the 
conveniences that they have to-day. They had 
no running water in the houses, or stationary 
wash-tubs or clothes-wringers or washing-ma- 
chines or wire clothes-lines. Neither had they 
refrigerators or ice-cream freezers or egg-beaters 
or waffle-irons or apple-parers or lemon-squeezers 
or flat-irons or meat-grinders or carpet-sweepers 




or ammonia or borax or gasolene or moth-balls 
or fly-paper or fly-screens. And they had no 
matches, and they had no electric lights or gas- 
light, and no kerosene. 

There were no sewing-machines in 1810. All 
clothes were made by hand. There were no 
ready-made things of any kind ; not even shoes or 
hats. Nearly every family spun its own wool 
and flax and made its own thread and yarn and 
cloth. The clothes for the boys and girls and the 
men and women were made at home. So, also, 
were the carpets, the candles, the soap, the mat- 
tresses, and the chairs and tables. There were 
no furniture-factories; no ready-made desks or 
bookcases or bedsteads or anything else. Such 
things as were not made at home were made to 
order by the shoemaker or the hatter or the tailor 
or the cabinet-maker. Clothing-stores, shoe-stores, 
hat-stores, furniture-stores, were unheard of. 

In 1810 nobody wore rubbers. That was be- 
cause there were no rubbers. There were no rubber 
goods of any kind— overshoes, waterproofs, rain- 
coats, rubber balls, pencil erasers, hot-water bags, 
or anything of that sort. There was no garden- 
hose ; no fire-hose. There were no water-mains: 
there were no fire-engines. When a house caught 

fire, men put it out, if they could, by throwing 
buckets of water on the flames. 

Fireplaces were the only means of keeping a 
house warm. There were no furnaces ; no coal- 
stoves. Here and there a wealthy family owned 
a wood-burning stove, but that was a rare luxury. 
Steam heating and hot-water heating were un- 
dreamed of. So, also, were kitchen ranges and 
hot-water boilers. There were no bath-rooms; 
there was no plumbing, and the towns had no 
sewers. And not only had they no sewers, but 
they also had no street-cars. Even horse-cars 
were unknown. All city travel was done on foot 
or by means of horses and carriages. And if 
any one ventured out at night he carried his own 
light with him— a lantern with a candle in it ; for 
there were no street-lamps. Electricity and gas 
and coal-oil had not yet come into use. The 
moon was the best light a town could have at 

Of course there were no airships or automo- 
biles or motor-cycles in 1810. Neither were there 
any bicycles, nor any trolley-cars, and there 
were n't even any railroads. The locomotive had 
not yet been invented, and the steamboat was 
being tried for the first time as -an experiment. 





All travel was done on horseback or by stage- 
coach, and those who crossed the ocean did it as 
Columbus did— in a sailing-vessel. It was a three 
days' journey from Philadelphia to Washington. 
Now you can make the trip in three hours. It 
took nearly a week for a letter to go from New 
York to Boston — as long a time as it now re- 
quires to send a letter to San Francisco or to 
London, and the cost was six times as great. 
There were no postage-stamps. The person who 
received a letter paid for it in cash according to 
the distance it had come. And there were no en- 
velops and no letter-boxes. Letters were simply 
folded and the corners held together with sealing- 
wax, and the address was written on the outside 
of the letter. 

As there were no railroads, news traveled only 
as fast as a horse could run or a ship could sail. 
There were no wires to carry messages, for there 
was no telegraph and there was no telephone. 
Consequently there were not many newspapers, 
and such as there were did not have much news 
to print. Most of them were issued only once a 
week, and such news of the world as they con- 
tained was from several days to six months old. 
All printing was done by hand on wooden presses. 

The paper was "made from rags. All the writing 
was done with quill pens — the bony end of a 
feather plucked ffom a goose. There were no 
steel pens, no gold pens, no fountain pens, no 
manufactured lead-pencils, no blotters, no type- 
writers. Pictures, in books, of persons or places 
were all made from sketches drawn by hand and 
engraved on wood. There were no photographs ; 
no cameras • no kodaks. There was no such word 
as photograph. Those who wanted portraits of 
themselves were obliged to hire an artist to paint 
their pictures. 

In 1810 there were scarcely any amusements 
and recreations such as we enjoy to-day. There 
were very few theaters, and these were to be 
found only in the larger cities. There were no 
circuses, no vaudeville, no matinees, no moving 
pictures, no skating-rinks, no phonographs, no 
summer and winter resorts, no excursions, no 
merry-go-rounds, no roller coasters, no Luna 
Parks, no Chautauquas, no pleasure trips to Cali- 
fornia or to Europe during vacation, no soda- 
water, no ice-cream, no chewing-gum, no crack- 
ers, and no department stores. And there was no 
base-ball, for the game had not yet been invented ; 
and there was no foot-ball, and there was no cro- 







quet, and there was no golf, and there was no 
lawn-tennis. There were no public libraries. 
Books were few and expensive. The Waverley 
Novels had not yet been written ; neither had the 
Leatherstocking Tales. There was no unabridged 
American dictionary. There were no novels by 
Thackeray or Dickens or Bulwer or Wilkie Col- 
lins or George Eliot or Charles Reade. Haw- 
thorne, Emerson, Whittier, Longfellow, Holmes, 
Poe, Hood, Tennyson, Darwin, Spencer— not one 
of these great men had yet written a single line; 
some of them were not yet born. 

Our fathers of 1810 did not know there was a 
planet Neptune. They did not know there was 
such a metal as aluminium. They did not know 
there was gold in California. They did not know 
that the country west of the Mississippi was fit 
for anybody to live in ; they thought it would 
remain always a great desert and wilderness, 
such as it was in their day. They had never 
heard of quinine or morphine or vaseline or car- 
bolic acid or sugar-coated pills, and they knew 
nothing of ether or chloroform or cocaine or any 
of the other medicines that are used to-day to 
deaden pain. There were no such words as mi- 
crobes or bacteria or appendicitis. 

A century ago there were still many powerful 
tribes of Indians in the western parts of the 
country, and all of the more remote towns and 
settlements were in danger of attack from these 
savages. The farmers and settlers of those days 
had no breech-loading guns, no repeating rifles, 
and no revolvers with which to defend them- 
selves—only muzzle-loading muskets and pistols, 
for which they themselves had to make all the 
bullets. In fact, they had scarcely anything that 
the modern farmer considers necessary. There 
was not in those days any kind of farming ma- 
chinery—no reapers and binders and harvesters 
and threshers, or anything of that sort. All work 
was done by hand and with the simple tools and 
implements that had been in use for centuries. 

If the farmer of 1810 got a newspaper at all, 
it was a week or a month or perhaps three 
months old before it reached him. The news of 
the battle of New Orleans did not get to the 
farmer of Vermont or of Ohio until it had been 
six weeks a thing of the past. To have told a 
man in those days that the time would come when 
all the people of the United States, in every town 
and village, could read in a newspaper at supper- 
time of an earthquake that had occurred in China 





that same morning, would have been to ask him 
to beHeve a fairy tale. 

In fact, not only the humble farmer of that 
day, but the scientist and philosopher as well, 
would have found it impossible to believe all the 
wonderful things that were to take place within 
the century. If you could have lived then and 
looked ahead a hundred years and told your 
friends and neighbors that men would travel by 
steam and electricity, that they would fly in the 
air from London to INIanchester, or from New 
York to Philadelphia, that they would talk to one 
another from Boston to Chicago, that they would 
flash news across the ocean in the twinkling of 
an eye, that the great wilderness beyond the Mis- 
sissippi would be populated with millions of peo- 
ple and contain some of the big cities of the 
world, that men and women would go across the 
Atlantic and across the vast continent of Amer- 
ica in perfect ease and comfort and in less time 
than it then took to journey from New York to 
Washington — if in 1810 you had foretold these 
marvelous things, your friends and neighbors 
would have shaken their heads and whispered 
sadly to one another that you were crazy. If the 
wonders you related to them were to come to pass 
during the next thousand years, they would per- 
haps have admitted that there might be truth in 


some of your stories ; but to say that they would 
all come true inside of a hundred years and that 
some of the very people to whom you were talking 
would live to see many of these magical inven- 
tions, would have been really too much for any 
sane person to believe. 

And yet here they all are, and we are living in 
the midst of them as quietly and unconcernedly 
as though they were the most commonplace things 
in the world. In fact, if we were now suddenly 
obliged to do without all the wonderful things that 
have come into existence since 1810, we would 
think the world was very empty and uncomforta- 
ble, and that we might as well be living on a 
desert island. 

But we must remember that in 1810 our great- 
grandparents were perfectly satisfied and con- 
tented without any of these things. They thought 
themselves very well off with what they had, and 
those who observed Thanksgiving Day made it a 
special point to offer earnest thanks to Provi- 
dence for their many blessings. 

Surely, therefore, if they could find cause for 
thanksgiving, how much more thankful ought we 
to be in the midst of all the blessings of the age 
in which we live. 

And what will it be in 2010? Who can tell? 

Clifford Howard. 






It is a hard matter to tell just how much power 
a little thing has, because little things have the 
habit of growing. That was the trouble that 
France and England and Spain and all the other 
big nations had with America at first. The thir- 
teen colonies occupied so small and unimportant 
a strip of land that few people thought they 
would ever amount to much. How could such 
insignificance ever bother old England, for in- 
stance, big and powerful as she was ? To Eng- 
land's great loss she soon learned her error in 
underestimating the importance or strength of 
her colonies. 

France watched the giant and the pygmy fight- 
ing together, and learned several lessons while 
she was watching. For one thing, she found out 
that the little American colonies were going to 
grow, and so she said to herself: "I will be a 
sort of back-stop to them. These Americans are 
going to be foolish over this bit of success, and 
think that just because they have won the Revo- 
lution they can do anything they wish to do. 
They '11 think they can spread out all over this 
country and grow to be as big as England her- 
self; and of course anybody can see that that is 
impossible. I '11 just put up a net along the Mis- 
sissippi River, and prevent them crossing over it. 
That will be the only way to keep them within 

And so France held the Mississippi, and from 
there back to the Rocky Mountains, and when- 
ever the United States citizen desired to go west 
of the Mississippi, France said: "'No, dear child. 
Stay within your own yard and play, like a good 
little boy," or something to that effect. 

Now the United States citizen did n't like this 
at all ; he had pushed his way with much trouble 
and expense and hard work through bands of In- 
dians and through forests and over rivers and 
mountains, into Wisconsin and Illinois, and he 
wished to go farther. And, besides, he wanted to 
have the right to sail up and down the Missis- 
sippi, and so save himself the trouble of walking 
over the land and cutting out his own roads as he 
went. So when France said, "No, dear," and 
told him to "be a good little boy and not tease," 
the United States citizen very naturally rebelled. 

Thomas Jefferson was President of the United 
States at that time, and he was a man who hated 
war of any description. He certainly did not 
wish to fight with his own countrymen, and he 
as certainly did not wish to fight with any other 

nation, so he searched around for some sort of a 
compromise. He thought that if America could 
own even one port on this useful river and had 
the right of Mississippi navigation, the matter 
would be settled with satisfaction to all parties. 
So he sent James Monroe over to Paris to join our 
minister, Robert R. Livingston, and see if the 
two of them together could not persuade France 
to sell them the island of New Orleans, on which 
was the city of the same name. 

Now Napoleon was the ruler of France, and 
he was dreaming dreams and seeing visions in 
which France was the most important power in 
America, because she owned this wonderful Mis- 
sissippi River and all this "Louisiana" which 
stretched back from the river to the Rockies. He 
already held forts along the river, and he was 
planning to strengthen these and build some new 
ones. But you know what happens to the plans 
of mice and men sometimes. Napoleon was de- 
pending upon his army to help him out on these 
plans, but his armies in Santo Domingo were 
swept away by war and sickness, so that on the 
day he had set for them to move up into Louisi- 
ana not a man was able to go. At the same time 
Napoleon had on hand another scheme against 
England, which was even more important than 
his plans for America, and which demanded men 
and money. Besides this, he was shrewd enough 
to know that he could not hold this far-away 
territory for any long time against England, 
which had so many more ships than France. He 
suddenly changed his mind about his American 
possessions, and nearly sent Monroe and Living- 
ston into a state of collapse by offering to sell 
them not only New Orleans but also the whole 
province of Louisiana. 

There was no time to write to President Jeffer- 
son and ask his advice, and this was before the 
days of the cable; so Monroe and Livingston 
took the matter into their own hands, and signed 
the contract which transferred the Louisiana ter- 
ritory to the United States for $15,000,000. 

Jefferson and IMonroe and Livingston builded 
better than they knew ; and to-day that old 
Louisiana territory is, in natural resources, the 
wealthiest part of the whole country. With- 
out that territory in our possession we should 
have none of the following great States : Arkan- 
sas, Colorado, the Dakotas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisi- 
ana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, 
Oklahoma, and Wyoming. 




XVII— 3 

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The empire of China covers about one-fourth of 
Asia, from the Pamirs to the Pacific, and from 
Siberia to India. The mysterious and wonderful 
mother country, China proper, hes between its 
great provinces of Manchuria, Mongolia, and 
Turkestan, and the vast Pacific Ocean. In size 
the whole of China is somewhat more than one- 
fourth larger than the United States, not includ- 
ing Alaska or our island possessions. The face 
of China proper is crossed by the outlying east- 
ward ranges of mountains running from the 
great central heights, and by the immense rivers 
fed by the snows of Tibet, and joined by a net- 
work of streams on their long journey to the 

It is estimated that about 400,000,000 people 
live in China, in its great cities and fertile plains, 
and on the banks of its waterways. 

Among the treasures of some homes in our 
own country are to be found curiosities brought 
by sailor friends and relations from this wonder- 
land of the Far East ; such as delicate embroid- 
eries in shining silks of gorgeous colors, dainty 
carvings in ivory, and exquisite little bits of fine 
porcelain or china. And as we have looked close- 
ly at the regular stitches in the beautiful fabric, 
we have seen that there is no untidy "wrong 
side" in Chinese work. We have wondered at 
the seemingly impossible puzzle of the ivory balls 
carved one inside the other, or at the unusual 
patterns on the thin little cups, and we have tried 
to picture to ourselves the far country whence 
the treasures came, and the patient and clever 
workers who made them. Perhaps all that we 
have succeeded in calling before our minds is the 
strange hair-dressing of Chinese men, and the 
tiny feet of Chinese women, upon a misty back- 
ground of an unknown land of flowers, with 
gracefully curved buildings and willow-pattern 
plate landscapes. 

If you have ever studied the map of China, you 
may have been discouraged by the great number 
of difficult names upon it ; and queer ones indeed 

they seem to us, in a language so different from 
our own. So perhaps it will help us in our quest 
of a closer view of China and its people to learn 
a few words of Chinese first, and then, at any 
rate, we shall understand what some of the names 
mean, which will give us a much better chance of 
remembering them, difficult as they are. 

In this veritable Land of Mighty Streams, ho, 
kiang, and kong all mean river; chan, or shan, 
and ling stand for the mountains between which 
the rivers run, or through which, in some parts, 
they force a way between mighty gorges ; pe, 
nan, tong, or tung, and si indicate the points of 
the compass, north, south, east, and west ; hoang, 
or hwang, is yellow, the imperial color of China; 
pei, is white ; fu, or foo, and king, mean town or 
court; hai, the sea; chian, heaven; ^nd so on. 

Knowing a few words like these, we can easily 
find the mountains of the east, north, and south : 
Shan-tung, and the Pe-ling and Nan-ling ranges. 
The two last shut in the basin of China's greatest 
and most important river, the Yang-tse-kiang. 
Over 3000 miles lie between its sources in the 
heights of Tibet and its mouth in the Pacific 
Ocean. It makes a magnificent waterway into 
the heart of the country, wide and deep enough 
for steamers to ply for a thousand miles through 
the rich plains of Central China, which the river 
itself has done much to form, by bringing down 
fertile mud, as the Nile does along its banks in 


In its upper courses, separated from the lower 
by grand gorges which remind us of the Iron 
Gate on the Danube, it passes through a rich dis- 
trict af red earth, very thickly peopled. There 
are lakes in the basin of the Yang-tse-kiang 
which act as reservoirs in the time of heavy 
rains, so that its floods are not so disastrous as 
those on the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River, which 
drains through Northern China. "China's Sor- 
row" is one of the names of this river, so dread- 
ful are the floods when it bursts its banks and 




submerges the surrounding country and towns. 
It is not navigable for long distances, like the 
Yang-tse-kiang, but on its banks, and in caves in 
its cliffs, live many of China's millions. 

Water is not the only gift the inland provinces 
send to the mother country ; another is sand — 
yellow sand — that has been constantly blown by 
the strong winds from Mongolia over parts of 
Northern China for centuries, till valleys have 
been filled up by deep beds of it, and the low hills 
covered with it. So here we have a yellow land 
with a yellow river, cutting its way through the 
soft soil, making deep cliffs on each side, and 
carrying its thick, yellow, sandy waters onward, 
until they pour by ever-changing mouths into a 
yellow sea. One of the titles of the great Em- 
peror of China is "Lord of the Yellow Land." 


The yellow basin of Northern China is even 
more fertile than the red basin of Central China, 
several valuable crops being raised in a year on 
the loess soil, as it is called. 

The Si-kiang. or West River, drains Southern 
China, rising in the eastern spurs of the Tibetan 
heights, and making its way through tropical 
forests, past mountains with treasures of every 
sort of mineral, and fields with crops that re- 
quire a hot and moist climate. It is from South- 
ern China principally that so many Chinese emi- 
grate to find work in different parts of the coast 
of the wide Pacific. 

We have often imagined the hum that rises 
from busy districts and towns in other countries, 
but from China — from that vast hive of human 
industry between the solemn, silent, central 
mountains and the deep, wide sea — it seems as if 
there must be one continuous and mighty buzz 
from the whole country, so close are the great 
cities, so many are the millions of people living 
and working on the fertile plains. 

And this buzz of multitudes is no new thing, as 
it is in our own country, where great industrial 
centers are not a century old; neither is it caused, 
as it is with us, by the whir and thump of ma- 
chinery and the noise of the iron horse on his 
journeys to every corner of the land. Railways 
and machinery are, comparatively speaking, only 
just starting in China, the oldest living empire in 
the world. 


For thousands of years her people have been 
steadily working, growing in numbers and chang- 

ing rulers, suffering the horrors of war and en- 
joying the blessings of peace, but alv\'ays busy in 
the same old ways, making the same things, cul- 
tivating the ground on the same methods for cen- 
turies, learning the same lessons in the same lan- 
guage, and competing in the same examinations 
to fill the same government posts. 

It is difficult for us who are all for progress 
and new ideas, and dislike standing still, to un- 
derstand this steady keeping to old ways. Two 
thousand years ago our ancestors were still in 
the wilds of Germany or other European coun- 
tries — very rough persons, who would find us, 
their descendants, much changed in language, 
manners, and dress from themselves. 

Now, the written history of China goes back 
for 4000 years. When Europe was just begin- 
ning to make for civilized ways and thoughts, the 
Chinese nation was very old. But she lost the 
advantage of her start by standing still, going to 
sleep, and keeping herself to herself for centuries 
while the young Western nations were forging 
ahead, developing governments and education 
and inventions. 


There are many reasons that account for the 
long sleep. We will only speak of two that will 
help us to understand the history of this country, 
so unlike our own. One is that the Chinese have 
always greatly revered their parents and an- 
cestors, going so far as to make it a first duty 
to carry on the work of life in exactly the same 
way that their forefathers had handed down. 

Another reason is that, with few exceptions, 
the Chinese have stayed at home within the limits 
of their own country. Then, as they also seldom 
encouraged foreigners to visit them — indeed, 
they rigidly kept them out, as a rule — no new 
ideas of progress and reform, no new knowledge 
of outside discoveries and inventions, could pene- 
trate the wall of reserve that shut in their hea- 
venly, or celestial, kingdom, so superior, as 
they believed, to the rest of the earth. And, as 
time went on, they hated anything new or for- 
eign more and more. But that is changing now. 

Some say that ages ago the ancestors of the 
Chinese came from the Tarim basin and settled 
on the yellow loess-beds, where it was so easy to 
grow food. 

Anyway, here they lived, advancing in civiliza- 
tion for long, long years, before they spread 
across the forest-covered mountain ranges which 
separate the basin of the Yellow River from that 
of the Yang-tse-kiang. Here, too, the tribes 



flourished and grew, and in time united under 
one ruler ; the government became more settled, 
and all sorts of arts developed, such as the cul- 
ture of silkworms and the weaving of silk. This 
has ever been one of China's greatest and most 
profitable industries. 


About twenty-six centuries ago a great teacher 
and leader arose, named Confucius, who, during 
his wandering and hard life, tried to find out how 
best a man could do his duty to his neighbor, and 
how best he could learn to govern himself. His 
teachings have been law to countless millions of 
his fellow-countrymen, his temples are found all 
over China, and his books have been the founda- 
tion of all learning through the centuries — for 
Confucius collected and set in order the history 
of the empire, and inspired a great many books 
in which his teaching is set forth. 

A few hundred years after his death, a prince 
of China reigned who ordered a great burning 
of the books of Confucius, and cruelly treated 
those who tried to keep them. One punishment 
was to send them to labor on a great wall that 
he was building, right across the north of China, 
to keep out the Mongolian horsemen, who were 
forever descending on his country. Thirty feet 
high, fifteen feet wide at the top, faced with 
granite, with many towers of defence, this won- 
derful wall runs over hill and valley, across sand 
and river, up the face of the rocks, for 1500 
miles along the north border-line of China. This 
wall still divides China from Mongolia ; but it 
did not keep the Mongols out, any more than the 
Roman wall across Britain kept out the Picts and 


A LATE explorer in Central Asia, Mark A. Stein, 
made discoveries of importance and interest in 
connection with this great wall. 

For miles and miles, as far as the eye can see 
in the basin of the Tarim River, stretches sand 
— nothing but dry, parched sand, that has fought 
and conquered mankind, overwhelming towns 
and villages, and sweeping away a flourishing 
civilization. Of life there is practically no trace. 
Men have fled before those advancing grains of 
sand, that they were powerless to check ; ani- 
mals have died. Only one or two plants are 
able to exist in those desolate wastes. It is a 
land of sand — and silence. 

In these awful wastes, beneath the numerous 
sand-dunes, Dr. Stein made some interesting dis- 
coveries. He found that the Great Wall of 
China, which hitherto was thought to end at the 
foot of the Nan-shan Mountains, does not end 
there at all. Far away to the west in the Tungh- 
wan Desert he found the remains of a great wall, 
with watch-towers at intervals of two or three 
miles, that practically joins the wall at the foot 
of the Nan-shan Mountains. 

This, he believes, is the true Great Wall of 
China, and the wall which we have always 
looked upon as the great wall is, apparently, 
much more modern. 

There, from those silent and deserted houses 
and watch-towers, Dr. Stein has excavated that 
terrible sand, little by little, and his labor has 
been well repaid. Wooden slabs, with carefully 
wrought symbols and clay seals, private letters, 
official documents, frail materials of cotton and 
silk, and ancient paper, have all been recovered 
from the sand under which they have lain for 
many centuries, and these documents, when 
translated, may give us a history of the long- 
vanished race which once occupied the land that 
is now a great sandy waste, where life is insup- 

We can imagine with what fears these ancient 
people saw the sand creeping nearer and nearer ; 
how they battled with it valiantly, and tried to 
keep it from their homes; and how, at length, the 
sand slowly crept up to the houses and cottages, 
and into the rooms, driving the inhabitants forth, 
and gradually covering the entire place in a 
thick layer. But although the sand has de- 
stroyed, it has also preserved, and the relics 
which have been found will throw much light 
upon those ancient and deeply interesting times. 
More than a hundred years before the birth of 
Christ regular trade was opened up with Central 
Asia, by China, and caravans began to wind 
along the routes from one oasis to another across 
the deserts, through the passes of Mongolia and 
Turkestan, to Tibet, carrying goods for trade by 
the infinite labor of men and dumb animals. 


Later, the empire suffered from many disturb- 
ances and divisions, and the struggles among 
several small rulers to be first and foremost. It 
was during these centuries, about the times when 
the Angles and Saxons were seeking their new 
homes across the North Sea, that the Buddhist 
religion took hold in China, though it had been 
introduced from India some centuries before. 
Temples wf rC W^^ ^'' '^^^r t^'^ country, to house 



the thousands of images that were brought by 
the priests and monks. 

The three centuries after this are considered 
by the Chinese as one of the most glorious 
periods in their long history. Books and authors, 
schools and colleges, examinations and degrees, 
occupied a great place in public life. About the 
time when King Alfred was setting scholars la- 
boriously to work with their pens and paint- 
brushes to copy manuscripts, Chinese records 
mention the printing of books by wooden blocks. 
About this time, too, an immense encyclopedia 
was written. The fame of this learning and of 
the gorgeous palaces and riches of China was 
spread to Europe, chiei^y by Arab traders, and 
ever since the romance and mystery of China has 
attracted the imagination and longing of the 


But it was not till the thirteenth century that 
the famous Marco Polo opened the door for Eu- 
rope to get a passing view of the wonders of the 
dim and mysterious land of the Far East. 

Early in that century the Mongols had grad- 
ually been getting more and more power on the 
borders of Central Asia and in the north of 
China. When the great leader Genghis Khan, 
the "Greatest of the Great," flashed over West- 
ern Asia and ruled over an empire stretching 
from the China Sea to Russia, some of the bar- 
riers that had hitherto prevented entry into 
China were swept away. The huge empire was 
divided at his death among his sons, and a good 
deal of intercourse followed between China and 
Persia, Tibet and Mongolia. 

It was the grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai 
Khan, who welcomed Marco Polo so kindly to 
China, and sent him on so many missions to the 
wild provinces on the borders of Tibet and other 
distant parts of the empire. Deeply interesting 
is the account of Kublai's reign by Marco Polo, 
as well as the writings of other travelers who 
seized the opportunity of exploring the heights 
of the Pamirs and the Tarim basin; and some 
even crossed the Ilwang-ho into China itself. 

Kublai added Southern China to his dominions, 
and made his new capital at Peking, the Court of 
the North. This great soldier proved equally 
great as a ruler, for he encouraged education and 
helped China in many ways. 

His grandson, Timur, or Tamerlane, was the 
last of these great Mongol rulers. He gave an 
order that Confucius should be held in great re- 
spect. After his death, rebellions and murders 

of emperors, great misgovernment, and other 
troubles brought the rule of the Mongols to an 
end. In the fifteenth century the Chinese drove 
them across the Great Wall to the Altai Moun- 
tains, and Mongolia became a province of the 
empire under the Chinese Ming family, or dy- 
nasty, of emperors, which lasted nearly three 
hundred years. There were troubles at home 
and abroad during this time, difficulties with the 
Mongols and the Japanese, and, most important 
of all, the door which hid the Celestials from the 
Western "barbarians" began to open just a little. 
The Portuguese and Spaniards appeared in 
China in the sixteenth century, and a Chinese 
fleet sailed as far as the Red Sea. 


Very beautiful porcelain was made during the 
Ming dynasty, and another large encyclopedia 
was brought out, which occupied many editors 
and assistants for several years. It is said that 
this is the largest encyclopedia in the world. It 
runs to many thousands of volumes, and a copy 
of the first edition is now to be seen in the British 
Museum in the table cases in the King's Library, 
The Portuguese traders made but little impres- 
sion on China, but the Jesuit missionaries man- 
aged to make their way inland in China to preach 
the Christian religion. 

There are many splendid remains of the great 
Ming dynasty in China, especially near Peking. 
Among them is a long avenue of large stone 
animals in various postures, leading to the won- 
derful tombs of the emperors. There are also 
many magnificent memorial archways. 

As the Ming dynasty was nearing its end, the 
Manchus, who were descendants of old Mongo- 
lian enemies of China, settled in Manchuria, 
about the river Amur, and made increasingly suc- 
cessful attacks on the empire till, in 1616, the 
Manchu line of rulers found themselves firmly 
seated on the throne, beyond the wall that was 
built centuries before to keep out invaders. 
China was ruled by emperors of the Manchu 
dynasty till 1912, when it became a republic. 


During the past century the Western Powers 
have been anxious to gain footholds in this rich 
and ancient empire. The chief objects for which 
these footholds were desired were to force the 
Christian religion and Western ideas upon a 
country which detested them, and to open up 

H.T.&G.D. n. 3. 




trade with people who had so much to sell, and 
whose great numbers mean great buying power. 

Little by little China has been forced to give 
way, and she has had to admit, one by one, her 
assailants into some part of her dominions. 
Portuguese, Dutch, Germans, Russians, and 
British for years carried on the struggle, and 
after wars and sieges and stormings, and endless 
discussion of a more peaceful nature, the various 
foreign nations at last have gained the right of 
entry into the land so long closed to them. 

It was in 1842 that, by the Treaty of Nanking, 
certain ports were opened to foreign trading 
ships, and, as time went on, more and more con- 
cessions had to be given to the foreigners; con- 
cessions and money were often exacted as a 
punishment for killing missionaries or other rep- 
resentatives and burning their property. Shortly 
after the settlement of Nanking, a terrible re- 
bellion devastated a large part of China for fif- 
teen years. In 1864 the British were able to 
help the government to restore order. In the 
center of Trafalgar Square, London, stands a 
statue of that fine soldier and man of action 
General Gordon, often spoken of as "Chinese" 
Gordon, from the part he took in putting down 
this Taiping rebellion, as it was called. 

His campaign in the delta of the Yang-tse- 
kiang, among the streams and canals and lakes, 
all broad and navigable channels, was most care- 
fully planned, and was full of exciting events. 
In one action an armed steamer, with a crew of 
forty men, got the better of a force of many 
thousand rebels. He drilled the Chinese forces, 
urged on men less brave and energetic than him- 
self, and showed the Chinese not only how to 
make war, but how to end it. 

These first years of China's awakening after 
the long, numbing sleep of centuries have in- 
deed been full of trouble and pain. There have 
been almost incessant wars with the neighbors 
who could no longer be kept out, with Russia, 
France, Germany, Japan, and during these wars 
China has learned by sad experience that her old 
ways of warfare, though picturesque in their 
setting, and almost sacred from long custom, 
were useless against those of her opponents. 
Now Chinese troops are drilled by Western 


Naturally there has been much feeling against 
all the new ideas in this most conservative coun- 
try in the world ; the first railways were torn up 
as soon as laid; telegraphs were bitterly opposed, 

and Christian missionaries always carried their 
lives in their hands. So greatly have they been 
hated, in spite of the ability and devotion they 
have shown, especially in organizing relief in 
times of dreadful famine and plague, that in 
1900 a great rising — called the Boxer rising — 
took place, against the missionaries at first, but 
eventually all the hated foreigners were at- 
tacked. For two terrible months the European 
residents in China were in great danger. Many 
were killed, and others suffered all the terrors of 
a siege. They were shut up in Peking, with a 
howling mob eager for their lives outside, till 
relief came, and the Boxers were driven away. 
The allied forces made their way to Peking, and 
the Emperor and his aunt fled far westward for 
safety, till peace was settled and justice done. 

The efforts of Christian missionaries in China 
have been sadly hampered by the actions of 
traders of their own faith, by their want of prin- 
ciple, and by the bad example that many of them 
have set. Great wrong has been done in the past 
by Englishmen in furnishing, for the sake of 
money, arms and help to the rebels who were 
devastating China when Gordon came to the res- 
cue, and by their insisting on sending into China 
the poisonous drug opium, against the wishes of 
the rulers; this also for the sake of gain. 

The smoking of opium has quite as bad an 
effect on people as taking too much strong drink 
— it destroys them body and mind, and it has 
been a terrible curse to China. Strong efforts 
are now being made to persuade people to give 
up the habit that is so easy to form, and so very 
difficult to break. 


Foreigners have now gained more than a mere 
foothold on the shores of China. It is compara- 
tively easy for them to pass from end to end of 
the beautiful and wonderful kingdom. Many 
travelers have already done so, and they have 
shown us. by words and photographs, the marvels 
of this long-shut-up land. Let us, too, pass in. 

We will start at the "Court of the North." 
Peking contains at least a million inhabitants, 
and is near the Pei-ho, at the mouth of which is 
its port, Tientsin. Peking is really made up of 
two cities — the outside Chinese city, where busi- 
ness is done, and the inside, or Manchu-Tartar 
town, where the foreign embassies are. 

The Emperor holds his great court in an en- 
closure full of splendid buildings in the center of 
the Tartar city. To this famous Forbidden City 
very few foreigners ever gain admission. 

Grand indeed are the pageants to be seen when 



ihe Emperor visits the Temple of Heaven to 
pray for a good harvest, leaving upon the mind 
a dazzhng blur of golden yellow — the imperial 
color of the Lord of the Yellow Land — of bril- 
liant touches of blue, green, and crimson, as the 
trains of high officials in gorgeous array pass on 
in the procession. Long are the ceremonies, 
bowings, and prostrations, endless the prayers 
and readings from silken scrolls, as the incense 
floats toward heaven from bronze censers. 

In China men seem to go on being examined 
all their lives, chiefly in order to obtain appoint- 
ments. There are examination centers all over 
the country, but it is to Peking that thousands 
come every year to try to get into the highest 
college of all. 

In Peking are the imperial factories where the 
beautiful silks and china are made for the Em- 
peror to give as presents, and many splendid 
buildings, temples, tombs, palaces, and fairy-like 
gardens, stand out in striking contrast with the 
dirt and poverty everywhere to be seen. The 
dust — yellow dust — is dreadful in Peking, and 
penetrates into palace and hovel alike. 

Railways are now being rapidly developed in 
many directions, especially in the rich delta plain 
of China, connecting the chief ports, and run- 
ning far inland. Steamers ply on the network 
of rivers and canals, besides the old-fashioned 
boats with square sails, called junks, so familiar 
in Chinese pictures. Where the shifting bed of 
the Hwang-ho has to be crossed, the bridges are 
some of the longest in the world. 

Shanghai is at the mouth of the Yang-tse- 
kiang, and is one of the chief trade centers in 
the country. Here we find rows of European 
houses and shops, with their names hanging 
downward, instead of across a signboard ; and 
the public gardens are full of most glorious 
flowers. Crowds of people, European and Chi- 
nese, rich and poor, throng the streets, and fac- 
tories with smoky chimneys remind us of the new 
ways that have begun to replace the old. 

Nanking — the Court of the South — is also a 
very important place on the Yang-tse-kiang, and 
higher up still is Hankau, a great place for the 
tea trade. The porters waiting about for work 
on the tea steamers make us think of our long- 
shoremen at home. 

From Hankau it is still some distance to the 
wonderful Yang-tse gorges, a thousand miles up 
the river from Shanghai. The high precipices, 
and towers of rocks and pinnacles, all of most 
fantastic or massive shapes, are relieved by the 
lovely trees and shrubs, and a profusion of 
flowers all growing wild, such as larkspur, jas- 
mine, white lilies, sunflowers, and many others 

that we grow in gardens and hothouses. It is 
exciting work punting the boats on the rapids, 
and, before long, communication between the two 
ends of this difficult part of the river will be im- 
proved. The rich province of Szechuen — larger 
than France — is watered by the upper Yang-tse- 
kiang, and is full of mountain and water beauty, 
as well as great, rich crops of all kinds. 

There are many wonderful Buddhist temples 
and monasteries all over the country, often on 
mountains that are most difficult to climb. Pil- 
grims visit the shrines of saints, as in Tibet and 
India; and prayer-wheels, and ringing of bells, 
and grand ceremonials, with reverence of the 
lamas, show how wide-spread is the ancient re- 

Hong Kong (Fragrant Streams) is a small 
island at the mouth of the Si-kiang, or West 
River, and it belongs to the British. It is now a 
most important place, both as a trading center 
and as an army and navy station, though it was 
formerly a bare rock. Victoria, its capital, has a 
splendid harbor, and on its long quays, and in 
and out of its hive-like warehouses, thousands of 
Chinese work, dealing with the immense stacks 
of goods — silk and tea, cotton and woolen goods, 
coal, and many kinds of food — which all pass 
through this great port overlooked by hills. 

Canton — the City of Perfection — is also on the 
West River, and for long it was the only port 
open to Europeans. Many Chinese live in boats 
on the river at Canton, and on other waterways. 


The very poor have a hard time in China, and 
among them baby girls are seldom welcomed, 
though every Chinaman is thankful and glad to 
have sons to carry on the customs connected with 
the worship of ancestors that alone can help 
them, as they believe, to happiness in a future 
life. It is one of the sights of China to see a 
family party setting off to the cemeteries on their 
great festival days, to honor, with gifts and 
feasting and enjoyment, the relatives who have 
become "guests on high." 

Formerly, little girls had a sad time of it, 
though now matters are slowly improving for 
them. The custom has long been that the little 
Chinese bride, married when very young to a 
husband she had perhaps never seen, should go 
to live in her mother-in-law's house, and become 
a mere drudge. And this was not the worst of it. 

Centuries ago, before people wore stockings, 
linen bandages were wound round the legs and 
feet When the fashion arose of admiring small 



feet in China, the bandages were drawn tighter. 
At last the toes were crushed out of shape right 
under the foot, which was pressed into a tiny 
shoe much too small for the foot of a healthy 
baby of a year old. 

We are filled with horror when we think of 
what the sad-eyed little Chinese girls go through 
to obtain little feet. Formerly, no Chinese girl 
could expect to be married unless she had small 
feet, and so, century after century, the cruel 
practice was carried on. 


Happily, the custom is now dying out. Now 
there are anti-binding leagues, and many Chi- 
nese have insisted on their daughters' feet being 
left free to develop with the rest of their bodies. 

It is not so with that other striking feature of 
China, however, the pigtail. Originally, the pig- 
tail was a badge of conquest by the Mongols, 
who insisted on Chinamen wearing their hair 
closely shaved in front, with a long plait behind, 
so that they could be distinguished at a glance. 
But the Chinese have long looked upon it as a 
mark of honorable distinction, and grieve bitterly 
when anything happens to deprive them of what 
has been a lifelong growth and care. 

To the wonders of China there is no end. 
The nation is awakening, and who can say what 
may be the future of a country with such a great 
seaboard on the important Pacific, and with 
enormous coal and iron beds scattered in its 
various provinces, and millions upon millions of 
thrifty workers? 


Before the time of Abraham there was in the 
lands in the center of China a great flood, which 
catised much loss and distress. The Emperor 
called to his ministers. 

"Grandees," he said, "we suffer much: the 
waters cover the hills on every side, they over- 
top the mountains, and seem to be rising even 
to the skies. Find us a man to remedy this evil." 

So they sought and found a man, who labored 
for years, but could not rid the land of the flood. 
The Emperor then had him executed that he 
might learn to be more skilful ! The son of this 
unfortunate engineer, not fearing the fate of his 
father, then worked his best, deepening the chan- 
nels of the rivers, making canals and dikes, and 
after long toil succeeded in draining the land. 
The people sing about him : 

" Yes, all about the Southern Hill 

Great Yu pursued his wondrous toil. 
He drained the plain, the marsh he dried ; 
Our lord in fields laid out the soil." 

Yu was rewarded by being made successor to 
the throne. He still worked for the good of the 
people, and, in order that even the poorest might 
have justice, he hung a bell at his gate which 
any one might ring. They say that, even if he 
was in his bath when the bell rang, he would 
rush out without stopping to put on his robes, 
or if at dinner, without waiting to finish his rice. 

An ingenious subject of his made wine or 
spirits, and presented some to Yu, which he 
drank with great enjoyment; but he would not 

use it much, because he said kings would lose 
their thrones through being too fond of it. So, 
we see, there was a temperance lecturer as soon 
as there was a distillery. 

It was from the princes of the province of Chin 
that we get the name China. One of these was 
a great warrior, and conquered the kings of 
the provinces round about, and styled himself 
Emperor Shi. He divided his realm and set 
governors over each district, traveling round 
himself to see that no injustice was done. It 
was he who built the Great Wall, but it was 
also he who burned the books of Confucius, and 
persecuted the scholars who studied them, and 
for this the Chinese hate and despise him. 

The Chinese call themselves "Sons of Han," 
which is the name of the next dynasty, and the 
first Emperor who was a brave soldier was also 
a wise ruler. The story is told that, when he 
was firmly established on the throne, one of his 
ministers suggested that he should open schools 
and encourage learning. 

"Learning!" exclaimed the Emperor; "I have 
none of it myself, nor do I feel the need of it. 
I conquered the empire on horseback." "But can 
you govern the empire on horseback? That is 
the question," replied the minister. The Em- 
peror listened to this wise advice and ordered 
that learning should be again instituted. But the 
books had been burned and the scholars killed. 



A great search was made, and though thou- 
sands of books had been destroyed and about 
five hundred scholars killed, still there were some 
bamboo tablets found on which there were writ- 
ings engraved with a stylet or written in varnish. 
Pupils of the old scholars were discovered who 
could repeat long chapters, and these were writ- 
ten down. There was brought to court one old 
man of ninety. When the scholars were being 
hunted to death, he had put out his eyes and 
pretended to be an idiot, and so his life had 
been spared. He could remember whole books, 
and as he repeated page after page they wrote 
down the words till most of the writings of the 
ancients had been recovered. 

So devoted to learning did the monarchs of 
the Han dynasty become, that they sent to the 
West to seek for more. The deputation brought 
back the religion of Buddhism from India. 

The next great dynasty was the Tang, and the 
Chinese are so proud of it that they call them- 
selves often "Men of Tang." At this time the 
empire reached nearly to the Caspian Sea. 
Rulers in India and Persia sent ambassadors to 
the throne, and the Emperor Theodosius sent 
presents of rubies and emeralds. About this time 
Christianity was preached in China by the Nes- 
torians. The Emperor gave it his approval, and 
it spread in the country. For five hundred years 
there were Christians to be found, but gradually 
they left the purity of their early faith and be- 
came like the heathen round them. There is a 
stone in Shensi which tells of how the faith 
was introduced, and this is all that is left of 
that early effort. Quite lately this stone has 
been moved by the officials to stand beside some 
other famous tablets. It took sixty or seventy 
men to carry it. 

The learning which had revived under the 
Hans was encouraged by the Tangs, and ex- 
aminations were introduced. In China compara- 
tively few students study long enough to enter 
for an examination, and even to have attempted 
the first examination is a claim to honor. Only 
three in a hundred who enter pass, and of these 
only a few go on to study for the next degree, 
and in this only one in a hundred can succeed. 
Most students are satisfied with this, but a few 
work on, and of these 3 per cent, get the high 
title "Fit for Office." 

In the examination a subject is given and the 
student has to write an essay, of which each 
letter must be beautifully formed, and each sen- 
tence like blank verse, and no page may have a 
single blot or alteration. From the days of the 
early Tangs till now, for generation after gen- 

eration, for more than 1000 years, such exami- 
nations have been held. 

A Chinese Emperor who became fairly well 
known to Europe was Kublai Khan, a Mongol. 
He came with his armies from beyond the Great 
Wall, and was the first foreign ruler of China. 
Although he was a descendant of the rude Tar- 
tars, to keep out whom the wall v/as built, he 
adopted the civilization of the Chinese and en- 
couraged their learned men. He made the Grand 
Canal and showed himself to be a very able 
ruler. It was in his time that the Italian trav- 
eler, Marco Polo, arrived at the capital, where 
he enjoyed such favor. 

It was during the reign of the Mings that 
Europeans first came in numbers to China. They 
were not well received, but one Italian priest, 
Father Ricci, found a way in through his knowl- 
edge of Euclid. Others followed, and taught 
astronomy and other things, and, under the 
favor of the Emperor, the Christian religion 
once more began to spread. 

The Mings were famous for the books that 
were written during their reigns. There were 
300,000 books in the royal library, and it oc- 
curred to the Emperor that he would like a sort 
of encyclopedia made of them. So nearly 3000 
men were set to work, and a book was produced 
of 22,?,yy volumes, and an index was made to it 
of sixty-six more volumes. Later another book 
of 200 volumes was prepared, and one about 
the geography of China in 500 volumes. We 
think thirty or forty volumes make a very large 
work, but in China it would just be a "pocket 
edition !" 

One of the emperors who was a great warrior 
and .a splendid ruler was also a poet, and found 
time to write more than 30,000 verses. He died 
about the time of the French Revolution. 

The tombs of the Mings are very fine, and 
there is a long avenue leading up to them, 
with stone images, at each side, of priests, 
elephants, tigers, camels, etc., all more than life- 


There once lived a great Chinaman of whom 
every one has heard. We mean Confucius, who 
lived five hundred years before Christ. Confu- 
cius was a soldier's son. His father was a brave 
officer, but he died when Confucius was only 
three. His mother encouraged the boy to study, 
and as he was very industrious he got on well. 
Much of his time was spent in reading the 



ancient books. In later years he was asked: 
"How are you able to do so many things?" He 
answered: "I was born poor and had to learn." 
Instead of playing he liked to practise the an- 
cient ceremonies of which he read. 

He married at nineteen, and his mother died 
when he was twenty-three. He was then a 
teacher, and had some government employment ; 
but as the ancient custom was to mourn for 
three years, he retired at once into private life, 
and spent these three years in study. The mo'-e 
he studied, the more he found to admire in the 
writings of the ancients, and he determined to 
try to influence his countrymen to live in obe- 
dience to their teachings. He gathered many 
followers and spent much time teaching them. 
He laid great stress on rules of correct be- 
havior for all occasions, for he believed that 
if the outward manners were correct a man 
would keep right in all his conduct. 

When he was fifty years old, Confucius was 
made governor of a city, which he ruled so 
splendidly that he was promoted to be Super- 
intendent of Works and Minister of Crime for 
a whole state or dukedom. Again he showed 
his genius, and we read that '"dishonesty and 
dissoluteness were ashamed and hid their heads. 
Loyalty and good faith became the characteris- 
tics of the people." Other states heard of the 
prosperity of the dukedom under his rule, and 
strangers came to see and admire. Unfortu- 
nately, the duke tired of the sage and his high 
ideas, and Confucius left the court, grieved and 
disappointed. He wandered for years from 
province to province, surprised that none of 
the dukes cared to govern by his rules, although 
the good effects of such government had been 
proved. Often he and his followers were ill- 
treated and sometimes in great want, but Con- 
fucius was always patient and cheerful, and 
would play on his lute and sing to them. 

In his old age he settled down again, and 
spent his time editing the ancient writings of 
which he was so fond. A story, which every 
Chinese schoolboy knows, is told by Dr. Wells 
Williams, of how Confucius met a priggish little 
boy called Toh. The sage was out driving when 
he came across a number of children playing 
by the roadside. Toh was with them, and Con- 
fucius asked him : "Why is it that you alone do 
not play?" The boy answered that play was 
of no use, and he might get his clothes torn, 
and they would be a trouble to mend ; besides, 
to play would be a great deal of trouble for no 

reward. When he had spoken in this way, he 
began making a city out of bits of tile. 

Confucius then asked him why he did not 
move out of the way of the carriage. Toh only 
said: "From ancient times till now it has always 
been considered proper for a carriage to turn 
out of the way of a city, not for a city to turn 
out for a carriage." Instead of boxing his ears, 
the sage got out of his carriage in order to 
have a talk with such a wonderful boy, and 
asked him to go for a ramble with him. Toh 
replied : "A stern father is at home, whom I am 
bound to serve; an affectionate mother is there, 
whom it is my duty to cherish ; a worthy elder 
brother is at home, whom it is proper for me 
to obey, with a tender younger brother, whom 
I must teach ; and an intelligent teacher is there, 
from whom I am required to learn. How have 
I leisure to go a-rambling with you?" 

Confucius then invited Toh to come into his 
carriage and have a game of chess ; but he only 
got another snub, for Toh proceeded to show 
that any game was a waste of time, and if it 
were indulged in would lead to the ruin of the 
country. Confucius asked this young marvel 
many riddles. He answered them all most skil- 
fully, and then put posers to Confucius. He 
asked how many stars there were in the sky, 
and Confucius told him to keep to things on the 
earth. Toh then asked how many houses there 
were on the earth. Poor Confucius said : "Come 
now, speak about something that is before our 
eyes ; why must you converse about heaven and 
earth ?" The impudent youngster then said : 
"Well, speak about what's before our eyes: how 
many hairs are there in your eyebrows?" 

We are told that Confucius smiled, but did not 
answer, and, turning to his disciples, said: "This 
boy is to be feared." We think you will agree 
that the sage was right, for the child seems to 
have been "a little terror." 

Confucius was over seventy when he died, and 
his grave is under a great mound of earth. Every 
year a few more shovels of earth are thrown on 
the heap, so that it is now like a small hill. 

He turned the thoughts of the men of his 
time back to the simplicity and purity of the 
ancient writings, and taught that to study books, 
to be true and diligent, and to behave politely 
were the best things in life. His teaching has 
had a tremendous influence in China for all these 
2400 years. As long as there is a Chinaman in 
the world the name of Confucius will be 






As a rule, the Swiss peasant has a comfortable 
home. Here and there, it is true, may be found 
people living in houses which are little better 
than rude wooden huts, but for the most part 
the Swiss people build themselves good, strong, 
handsome dwellings. 

A Swiss chalet is both broad and long. This 
makes it very firm, and enables it to defy the 
most furious storm which can sweep down from 
the mountain heights. The first thing the 
builder does is to raise a strong wall to a height 
of about six or eight feet. Upon the foundation 
the upper part of the house is built, and this is 
of wood. The broad roof is of gentle slope, 
and is formed of sheets of pine-wood. Upon 
these pine-shingles heavy stones are sometimes 
laid, in order that the roof may not be torn away 
by the fierce gales of winter. Around the 
wooden part of the house a gallery runs, and 
this is sheltered by the broad eaves, which 
spring out well beyond the walls. When such a 
house is finished it has a very quaint and pleas- 
ing look, and it is as comfortable inside as it is 
charming without. 

There are no living-rooms in the stone base- 
ment. This part of the house is given up in 
front to roomy cellars, where the produce of the 
fields and vineyards and orchards is stored ; at 
the back to stables, cow-houses, and threshing- 
floor. The living-rooms are above, and open on 
the gallery which runs round the house. There 
is a large room, where the family meet for their 
meals, and where they sit in the evening ; and 
there is a smaller room — a kind of parlor — 
where the best furniture is kept, a room only 
used on grand occasions. Then, they have the 
best bedroom, and one or two smaller rooms, 
where the children sleep. 

The furniture of these houses is strong and 
simple — large heavy tables and benches and 
dressers, made by the local carpenter, or very 
often by the owner himself, of dark walnut- 

wood. On the dresser in the living-room stand 
painted plates, the favorite ornament of a Swiss 
kitchen, and a great earthenware stove, often 
covered with green tiles, stands in a corner of 
the large apartment. 

In these homes there is, as a rule, very little 
money, but a great plenty of those things neces- 
sary to human comfort. Money is very useful 
where everything has to be bought, but what has 
a fairly prosperous Swiss peasant to buy? Noth- 
ing save things like coffee, sugar, salt, and 
spices — things he cannot produce for himself. 

In a corner of the largest bedroom stands a 
loom, at which the mother and daughters weave 
the fleeces of their sheep into strong homespun 
cloth and thick warm flannel. Thus the family 
are clothed. In the garden, where glorious white 
lilies blossom in June, they grow vegetables. 
The vineyard gives them wine ; the orchards 
give them fruit; the fields around their home 
give them corn ; and the crops are stored in the 
ample cellars below the living-rooms. They store 
apples and pears for the winter by cutting them 
into quarters and drying them carefully. 

Their mode of living, too, is very simple. 
Meat is not often eaten ; in many families it 
never appears on the table except on Sundays 
at the midday meal. Very rarely, then, is it 
fresh ; in the storeroom hang pieces of dried beef, 
mutton, or in some parts, chamois. One Swiss 
delicacy — and it is very good indeed — consists 
of a joint of beef, which is first hung in the 
chimney and carefully smoked. It is then cured 
with salt and spice, and finally dried in the cold, 
clear winter air. When cooked it is very deli- 
cate and sweet in flavor. 

The produce of the dairy takes a great share 
in feeding a Swiss peasant family. Milk, cream, 
butter, cheese, curds — all are greatly relished, 
and a favorite dish is made of sweet cheese- 
curds stewed in cream, and then baked with 
fresh butter. 




Before the children go to school in the morn- 
ing they have a breakfast of bread with butter 
or cheese, and coffee, or a bowl of maize and 
milk beaten up together. When they come back 
to dinner they get a hunch of bread to begin 
with, and then potatoes and buttermilk, and a 
bowl of soup." in which perhaps a small piece 
of bacon has been boiled — perhaps not. Among 
the better-off peasantry the dinner is finished 
with pudding or pancakes. Supper at night is 
just the same as breakfast in the morning, and 
on this diet the Swiss children grow up to be 
rosy, hardy, sturdy youngsters, who will make 
very strong men and women. 

Well, we have dealt with clothing and food; 
what of firing? This may be had in plenty from 
the woods which clothe the mountainsides. But 
no man may cut where he pleases, not even in 

his own wood. The forest laws of Switzerland 
are very strict, for a great forest is a natural 
rampart against the onrush of avalanches from 
the heights above. So in the autumn the for- 
ester marks those trees which can safely be 
spared, and the woodmen fell them in the win- 
ter, when no other work can be done. 

The trees are cut into great logs, and when the 
spring comes and the snows melt, these logs are 
thrust into the torrents which dash down every 
slope. Down whirl the logs to the valley below, 
with its homesteads, and here thev are caught 
and drawn from the stream. Then they are 
stacked to dry, and before the next winter, axe 
and saw go to work upon them, and split and 
cut them into handy-sized pieces with which to 
stuff the great stove until it roars again through 
the long dark days of the bitter winter. 


Denmark is renowned for its schools. These 
schools are all under government control, and 
meet the wants of every class. Whether the chil- 
dren are educated at home or sent to school, they 
must begin lessons at the age of seven. Shirk- 
ing lessons is quite impossible for little Danes, 
as everybody thinks that education comes before 
all else, so parents do not encourage idleness or 
extra holidays during the school year. 

All children between the ages of seven and 
fourteen must attend school, either at home or 
in the government schools. The hours are not 
long nor wearisome. The classes are small, 
even in the free schools, never more than thirty- 
five pupils to a teacher, and generally less. The 
lesson lasts forty minutes, and then there is an 
interval for play. Lessons in writing, reading, 
and arithmetic are varied by tailoring lessons 
for boys, and cookery for girls, after they are 
ten years of age. At every school gymnastics 
play an important part — pleasant lessons these 
are for all — but perhaps the lesson the boys most 
delight in is their instruction in sloid. Each lad 
has his carpenter's bench with necessary tools ; 
and, as we know, every boy is happy wdien 
making or marring with hammer and nails. "I 
have seen," says a traveler, "some charming 
models as well as useful things made by the 
boys — a perfect miniature landau, complete in 
every detail, benches, bureaus, carts, tables, 
chairs, and many other serviceable prticles." 

Besides this pleasure-work at school, the boys, 
if they are farmers' sons, have practical lessons 
at home by helping their father on the farm. 

The authorities being anxious to help the farmer, 
they allow him to keep a boy at home half the 
day for instruction in farm work, but the other 
half must be spent at school. Often the prizes 
at the municipal schools are clothes, watches, 
clocks, or tools, all of which are worked for 
eagerly by the pupils. 

The boys and girls of Denmark begin early 
with gymnastic exercises, and soon become 
sturdy little athletes from sheer love of the prac- 
tice. All Danes pride themselves — and with 
good reason — on their national athletic exercises. 
At the Olympic Games held in London in 1908, 
the Danish ladies carried away the gold medal 
by their fine gymnastic display. 

It is an amusing sight to see the Danes at a 
seaside resort taking their morning swim ; each 
one on leaving the water runs about on the sun- 
warmed beach, and goes through a gymnastic dis- 
plav on his own account, choosing the exercise he 
considers best to warm and invigorate him after 
his dip. The children require no second bidding 
to follow father's example, and as they emerge 
from the water breathless, pantingly join in the 
fun. Sons try to go one better than the father in 
some gymnastic feat which the father's stoutness 
renders impossible ! The merry peals of laughter 
which accompany the display speak eloquently 
of the thorough enjoyment of all the bathers. 

The pleasant waters of Denmark are beloved 
of yachtsmen. Sailing round the wooded is- 
lands, you are impressed by their picturesque 
beauty, which is seen to advantage from the 
water. One is not surprised that this popular 



pastime comes first with every Danish boy, who, 
whether swimming, rowing, or sailing, feels per- 
fectly at home on the water. Everybody cycles 
in Denmark. Cycle-stands are provided outside 
every shop, station, office, and college, so that 
you have no more difficulty in disposing of your 
cycle than your umbrella. 

Football is a summer game here — spirited 
matches you would think impossible at this 
season — but the Danes have them, and what is 
more, they will inform you that they quite en- 
joy what appears to the spectator a hot, fa- 

tiguing amusement. Golf and hockey are also 
played, and "bandy" — that is, hockey on the ice 
— is a favorite winter sport. A bandy match is 
quite exciting to watch. The players, armed 
with a wooden club, often find the ice a difficulty 
when rushing after the solid rubber ball. This 
exhilarating game is known in some parts of the 
world as "shinty." The Danes excel in skating, 
skiing, and tobogganing, as well as in other win- 
ter games. Lawn-tennis and croquet are very 
popular, croquet being the favorite pastime of 
Danish girls and women. 


It is not easy to say whether Norwegian boys 
and girls are very good, or whether they are 
spoiled. You may travel all day on a steamer 
with a well-to-do family from the city, or you 
may live in a farmhouse with a peasant's family 
for a month, and the chances are that you will 
never hear the parents say "Don't." One thing 
we may be sure of: the children who live in the 
country parts do very much as they please ; in 
the summer they go to bed when they feel tired, 
sometimes not till nearly midnight ; and they are 
not worried about getting their boots and their 
clothes wet, because no Norwegian troubles his 
or her head about such matters. Moreover, the 
life is such a simple one that perhaps there is 
little opportunity for real naughtiness. 

These country children have a very easy time, 
as for the greater part of the year they have no 
school to go to, and they spend all the summer 
out in the open air, looking after the ponies, 
cows, sheep, or goats, or haymaking, or rowing 
about, or fishing, or something of the kind. In 
the winter they, as well as the town children, 
are all obliged to go to school, from the age of 
seven to fourteen or fifteen — that is, till their 
confirmation, and until this takes place they re- 
ceive religious instruction from the priest on 
Sunday afternoons, for there is no religious 
teaching in the schools. 

There is a great difficulty about the country 
schools, because in some districts the farms are 
miles and miles apart, and it would be quite 
impossible for the children to walk to school and 
back in the day. In such districts the govern- 
ment schoolmasters have to go about from place 
to place, and teach the children in their own 
homes. If there should be two or three farms 
close together, one of the farmers provides a 
schoolroom in his house, and the schoolmaster 
lives with him as his guest for a time, and then 

goes on to another house, just as once was com- 
mon in some parts of our own country, where 
the schoolmaster used to "board around." But 
the schoolmasters must give every child twelve 
weeks' schooling in the year. This does not 
amount to a great deal — only three months of 
school in the year ! 

The wonder is that the children contrive to re- 
member anything that they have learned, with 
nine long months in which to forget it. Yet 
they work hard while they are about it ; they are 
inspected every year, and they are required to 
pass quite difficult examinations at the end. It 
is expected, however, that before long the twelve 
weeks' compulsory schooling will be increased 
to fifteen weeks. 

In the towns the children are not forced to 
attend school for more than twelve weeks in the 
year, but there are, of course, numbers of private 
schools, high schools, etc., to which parents can 
send their children, on payment, for a superior 
education. And at such schools the work goes 
on for a much longer period of the year — in fact, 
all through the year, except for two months in 
the summer and a week at Christmas and at 

In spite of their long holidays, the children do 
not have half the fun that American boys and 
girls have. There is no baseball, football, 
hockey, golf, or any game of that sort, and there 
is not a tennis-court in the land. How then, you 
will ask, do they manage to amuse themselves? 

It must be remembered that the winter is much 
longer in Norway than it is with us, and even if 
the boys wanted to play football they would not 
be able to do so, as the ground is covered with 
snow. At that season they have their various 
winter sports to keep them busy — skiing, sliding 
on snowshoes. skating, tobogganing, and the like 
— and they do not require any other games. In 



the summer they go for walking tours into the 
mountainj, or they go fishing in the rivers and 
lakes, or sometimes shooting. 

Though the Norwegians boast that ball-games 
have been played in the country since Saga times, 
such games are of the most elementary kind, 
and would be scorned by any American boy. 
But for all that the Norwegian boys are every 
bit as manly as any other boys, because they en- 
joy many forms of sport which make them so; 
and they are strong, because they take plenty of 
exercise, and have physical drill in their schools. 

Of course the girls have dolls and dolls' 
houses and dolls' tea-parties, like the girls of 
every land, and there are toys of every descrip- 
tion in the stores. The peasant children, how- 
ever, who live far out in the country, never see 
a store, and have to provide themselves with 
things to play with ; but it is wonderful what an 
amount of amusement they can get out of an old 
bone, or a block of wood, tied to a yard or two 
of string. 

As a rule their fathers are good hands at carv- 
ing wood, so toys are easily made for the smaller 
children, and one finds everywhere such simple 
toys as wooden dolls, animals, miniature boats, 
sleighs, and carts. 

But the real enjoyment of the Norwegian chil- 
dren — at any rate of the girls — is the outdoor 
game, played when the weather is fine, both in 
the town and in the country, wherever there are 
enough children to make a game. To see a bevy 
of these quaint little girls throwing heart and 
soul into their games is delightful, and they 
have scores and scores of different ones. In 
most of them dancing and singing play a great 
part, and the most popular form of game is what 
is called a "ring dance," in which, as the name 
implies, the players join hands and dance round 
in a circle. 

Many of these ring dances are much like some 
of our games, and the tunes and words sung to 
them are almost similar. 

But we have not space to tell you the half of 
what we should like to say of all the different 
ways in which Norwegian children amuse them- 
selves. We will speak about some of the work 
they are taught to do, and then we must take 
leave of them. 

As soon as the snow has melted off the moun- 
tains the farmer's flocks and herds are sent up to 
the saeters, or highland pastures, usually in 
charge of the younger women and girls of the 
farm, and there, throughout the summer, the 
dairy work is carried on. As in all mountainous 
countries, rich and sweet herbage follows the 
melting of the snow, and the cows and goats 
give an abundance of good milk, which is turned 
into butter and cheese, to be sold or consumed in 
the winter. Life at the saeterhut, or mountain 
farm, is healthy and delightful, though much hard 
work has to be got through each day. 

Children seldom go to the saeters until old 
enough to be able to do real work, but one often 
sees a girl of fourteen or so looking after a flock 
of goats. She will be out with them all day as 
they feed on the mountainsides, and will do all 
the milking. When seen for the first time this is 
rather an amusing operation, and decidedly a 
practical one. The milkmaid seizes a goat, 
straddles her, with face toward the goat's tail, 
and, stooping down, proceeds to milk. From a 
little distance all you see is the goat's hind legs 
emerging from beneath a blue petticoat, which 
Loks most peculiar. 

But the children who are too young to spend 
the summer at the saeters find plenty to do at 
home, and they learn almost as soon as they can 
toddle that there is work for every one. Quite 
small boys and girls manage to do a good day's 
haymaking, and they can row a boat or drive 
a team before they have reached their teens. 
Such things they regard as amusements, for they 
have few other ways of amusing themselves, 
and their one ambition is to do what their fathers 
and mothers do. 


In speaking of Holland and the men and 
women and children who live in that little coun- 
try, we will tell you about them first as you 
would see them if you were to visit a village 
called Volendam. From what you would see 
there you could judge of things very much the 
same to be seen in many other parts of the 

Volendam is a tiny village on the Zuyder Zee, 

or South Sea. All the men in the place are 
fishermen. Nowadays they are rather poor, but 
at one time they caught a great many anchovies, 
which they sold for a very good price. They 
spent most of the money they earned in this way 
in buying jewelry for themselves, their wives, 
and their children, and as they wanted as much 
show as possible for their money, they bought 
great big silver buttons. 



First, we should tell you that they do not 
dress as we do. The men wear tight coats of 
blue or red, with striped waistcoats underneath, 
and very baggy trousers, which are made of red 
cloth, blue cloth, and dark velvet. They wear 
rough stockings and big wooden shoes, which 
are called sabots. On Sundays, if the weather 
is not suitable for fishing, they waddle like ducks 
up and down the one little narrow road of Vol- 
endam, with their hands in their big pockets 
and a cigar in their mouths, or else they squat 
on their heels in rows along the side of the 
road, and perhaps, instead of smoking a cigar, 
they put a lump of tobacco in their mouths and 
chew it as you might chew taffy. It sounds 
rather horrible, doesn't it? The little boys, even 
the tiniest ones, are dressed just like their 
fathers and big brothers, and when they come 
out of school they like to behave in just the 
same way, and they strut about very proudly 
with their hands in their pockets, and, if they 
can get hold of it, they have the end of a cigar 
in their little mouths. What a bad example this 
would be for us to follow ! 

The jewelry of the men consists entirely of 
buttons. At the waist of their wide trousers 
they have two silver buttons just as big as they 
can afford to have. Sometimes they are like 
saucers, and stretch right across the body. On 
the little boys they are not so large, but about 
the size of half-dollars, with a ship or a Dutch 
boy beaten or engraved on them. Their striped 
waistcoats fasten at the neck with two real 
gold buttons; they have earrings in their ears, 
and often rings on their fingers. Besides this, 
the buttons on their coats are of silver and 

The women's and girls' favorite jewelry is for 
their necks. They all wear necklaces made of 
five and six rows of corals with the most beau- 
tiful clasps. Of course, some of the poor peo- 
ple have imitation necklaces, but this is very 
seldom, for the girls will go without food and 
warmth so that their jewelry may be of the best. 
The women show each other how rich they are 
in the same way as in other countries ; namely, 
by their dress; but while many other women 
make themselves as slim and elegant as they 
can, the Dutch peasant woman, when really well 
dressed, must look very fat, for the more woolen 
petticoats she wears the more she is admired by 
her neighbors. 

On Sunday morning, when all the world goes 
to church, the women roll along looking as big 
as houses, and with each step they try to swing 
their clothes, which only come to the ankle, so 
that their friends may count how many petti- 
XVTT— 4 

coats they have on. And what do you think the 
poor folk do who have only their dress skirt to 
wear? They pad themselves all round with cot- 
ton-wool, so that they may look fat, and we 
fancy they must walk very quietly and modestly, 
so that their poor single skirts may not betray 
their poverty. All the women and girls wear 
tight lace caps very stiffly starched, so that the 
pieces which turn back from their faces stand 
out like white wings. The baby boys and girls, 
dressed in the same way as their mothers and 
fathers, are the dearest little things. They are 
like little dolls. A traveler says of them : "I 
used to pet them so much that they followed me 
wherever I went, and I bought sweets and fed 
them as if they were little pigeons. All over 
Holland in the villages it is the same : the babies 
dress like their parents." 

Each district in Holland has its own peculiar 
costume. So one might imagine one was living 
on the stage in a play, where every one is 
dressed up. In another village, called Axel, 
part of the costume is made of bright handker- 
chiefs which are pinned on to a frame on the 
shoulders. This frame is as high as the head, 
and the little girls look like butterflies as they 
run about in the sunny green fields. In another 
place — an island called Marken — all the women 
have a long ringlet of hair on each side of their 
faces, and a fringe cut straight across their 
foreheads. Of course, they wear a cap, so this 
is all the hair they show; but the old ladies, who 
haven't any hair left, wear corkscrew curls 
made of false hair and even of cotton. In this 
island the boys are dressed like girls until they 
are six years old, and the only way to tell them 
apart is that the boys have a little button on 
their caps. When six years old the boys wear 
trousers, but the top of their dress is still a 
girl's, and they look very quaint and amusing. 
This island is in the Zuyder Zee. 

In Holland in the winter you can skate to your 
heart's content. All the canals are frozen, and 
instead of walking or driving everybody uses 
skates, even the men and women carrying big 
baskets on their heads as they go to market to 
buy and sell. The little children learn to skate 
as you learn to walk, and they have such a splen- 
did balance that they just tie their skates to their 
stockinged feet with a bit of string and glide 
along as if they had never done anything else. 
The wooden sabots they wear to walk in are 
not easy things to manage, but the little Dutch 
babies toddle along in them, and even run quite 
fast. In any case, they do not get wet feet if 
they go on the grass. They eat potatoes and 
black bread, and black bread and potatoes ; some- 



times they have a little bacon-fat to dip their 
potatoes in, sometimes they have a little cheese 
and fish, but they eat meat very rarely. 

In the country districts all over Holland the 
houses are built alike. In a few^ villages they 
are thatched, but with these exceptions they are 
gaily painted little buildings with bright-red 
tiled roofs. The walls are often of planks of 
wood painted green, and the little window-frames 
are the freshest white. The people spend much 
more time and thought on the cleanliness of 
their houses than on their own persons, and no- 
where in the world will you see brighter, cleaner 
little villages than in Holland. The whole of 
the outside of the house is washed every week, 
and the owners do not forget the bricks or cob- 

bles which pave the road in front of them. Their 
windows shine like diamonds, and indoors their 
bits of brass and copper are rubbed till they 
might serve as mirrors. 

Instead of having bedsteads as we do, these 
people sleep in a kind of cupboard in the wall. 
The bed is made two or three feet from the 
ground, and when they are inside they draw the 
little curtains and settle themselves snugly in 
their box. It seems a wonder that they ever 
wake up, it must be so very stuffy; and often two 
or three babies sleep with their mother and father 
when there is only one bed. However, some of 
the houses are little farms, and the elder children 
sleep in the hay and straw in the stables with 
the horses and cows. 


The upper classes in Italy live in vast pal- 
aces, very stately and grand perhaps, but far 
too big to be made comfortable, particularly in 
winter. The size of the rooms in these old 
Italian palaces is wonderful. In one palace in 
Florence, we are told, the drawing-room is so 
enormous that one corner is used as a billiard- 
room, with a full-sized table ; another part is 
devoted to music, and is occupied by a concert 
grand; another part is the hostess's boudoir; and 
all the rest serves as an ordinary reception-room. 
When a dance is given, the carpet is partly rolled 
up, some of the furniture is pushed aside, and 
there is a ballroom ready for use. Roman houses 
are even larger. 

Rich and poor often live together in a very 
odd fashion in Italy. It is not merely that the 
palace and the hovel stand side by side. They 
very often do that; and indeed they are very 
often under one roof. 

A great house is divided into flats, each occu- 
pying one story. The finer parts of the building 
are often inhabited by people of great wealth, 
while the garrets above them and the cellars be- 
low swarm with wretched creatures, who often 
have not enough to eat. The latter see splendid 
equipages drive up to their own doors, as it 
were, every day, and costly viands brought up- 
stairs for great banquets. At night they see la- 
dies glittering with jewels enter the house, and 
hear the strains of dance music, while they them- 
selves are starving above and below. Nowhere 
is there a rich quarter inhabited by the rich 
alone, nor a poor quarter containing no good 
houses. The slums invade all parts of the town. 

and sometimes are found near the gates of the 
Royal Palace itself. 

In the country it is the same : the nobleman's 
villa is surrounded by the houses of his contadini, 
or peasantry. In Tuscany, where the laborers 
and farmers are better off, the contrast is not so 
striking or painful ; but in the South one often 
comes across a fine castle, furnished with com- 
fort, and even luxury, the sideboard bright with 
silver plate, the walls covered with silk and tap- 
estry and good pictures, placed in the midst of 
a village of hovels. 

The Italian of the middle class never eats mofe 
than two real meals a day. When he awakes 
he drinks a cup of coffee and milk, perhaps with 
a piece of bread and butter, perhaps not. His 
first meal comes between ten and twelve, and is 
a substantial luncheon, when he eats eggs and 
macaroni, a dish of meat served with vegetables, 
and ends with cheese and fruit. With this meal 
he drinks wine, which is, of course, the national 
drink, and accompanies every meal among rich 
and poor. After lunch he takes a rest before 
resuming his occupation, and in summer this rest 
becomes the siesta, when every one dozes through 
the heat of the day. 

He does not take tea, which, as a rule, he looks 
upon as a medicine, and his next meal is din- 
ner, eaten about six o'clock. The order of the 
dinner is much the same as with us. but there 
is one great difference in the fact that almost 
every eatable is cooked in oil. This is not so bad 
if the oil be excellent, sound olive-oil, but at 
times it is rancid, and then the result is far from 
tasty to an American palate. The favorite con- 
diment is garlic. If you are invited to an Italian 



dinner, you must not refuse anything. Your 
hosts press every dish upon you and every differ- 
ent wine. To refuse, and to persist in your re- 
fusal, would give offence. It is as much as to 
say that you do not think much of their dinner. 
Children are a very conspicuous feature of 
family life. They are here, there, and every- 
where, and are not only seen, but heard. There 
is no such place as a nursery in an Italian house- 
hold. As soon as the children are old enough 
to sit on a chair they live with their parents 
the whole day long. When the lady of the house 
has company, her offspring are generally with 
her, and are allowed to sprawl over the guests, 
and, if they can talk, they frequently interrupt 
their elders or contradict them. Children of six 

dine with their father and mother, and remain 
up until ten or eleven o'clock. Babies are some- 
times taken to the theater, and children of five 
quite often. 

Everywhere in Italy children are humored to 
the top of their bent, and the baby is king of all. 
Every one makes way for a child. Parents, in 
their love and care for the babies, become gen- 
tlemen and gentlewomen. Harsh voices are soft- 
ened for a baby's ear; the price of sweets is 
lowered by the veriest sharper of a street ven- 
der ; and more than one handsome, lawless 
brigand has been known to come down from his 
mountain fastness, stride through the neighbor- 
ing town, and, at the risk of his life, demand 
that his child be baptized. 



On a certain day, toward the end of the fifteenth 
century, two boys walked homeward through 
the streets of the beautiful city of Florence, in 
Italy. The name of one of the boys was Fran- 
cesco Granacci, who was then a pupil of the 
leading painter of the city, Domenico Ghirlan- 
dajo. The name of the other boy, who had that 
day, in company with his friend, made his first 
visit to the great artist's studio, was Michael 

This was a great day for Michael Angelo. 
For months and years he had dreamed of being 
an artist, and now for the first time he had seen 
and spoken to the famous teacher, w^atched the 
work of the pupils gathered in the studio. 
Had it been left to his choice, Michael Angelo 
would have joined the school the next morning. 
But he had no reason to believe his father would 
allow him to take up paint brushes instead of 
going into a profession, or the woolen trade, 
like his brothers. 

In fact, it was because his parents, who were 
of some rank in Florence, though with little 
wealth, had planned for him a great position in 
law or politics, that Angelo had been sent to an 
academy where it was expected he would get a 
good education. But instead of studying his 
books, Angelo made chalk drawings on the walls 
and floor of his room. This greatly disappointed 
his father, who first rebuked him, and then, when 
the lessons were persistently neglected for the 
pictures, added a flogging. The whole family 
was worried about the boy's obstinate wish to 
be an artist. This was why the lad, elated by 

his visit to the art-school, was still doubtful 
of the effect his enthusiasm might produce at 

This enthusiasm w^ould have had little influ- 
ence with Michael Angelo's father, but for one 
important fact. This important fact was that 
the boy's drawings had extraordinary merit. 
Nobody, not even the annoyed brothers and 
uncles who made such continued remonstrance, 
denied that they were remarkable. So that 
something more eloquent than Michael Angelo's 
spoken arguments was constantly pleading his 
cause. Perceiving that his son had not merely 
great energy, and great hopes, but great natural 
aptitude for art, the father finally gave up his 
own .cherished plans, and permitted Michael An- 
gelo to become an apprentice of Ghirlandajo. 

When this long-desired permission was given, 
Michael Angelo was just passing his thirteenth 
birthday. How much confidence the master 
had in his new apprentice is shown by the fact 
that instead of exacting a fee, or taking him on 
trial, he agreed to pay Michael Angelo six gold 
florins for the first year, eight for the second, 
and ten for the third. From the outset, the 
young artist pursued his studies, as well as the 
apprentice work assigned to him. with the ut- 
most earnestness and activity. His progress in 
drawing astonished his companions, and almost 
bewildered his master, who one day exclaimed 
on seeing one of Angelo's original .sketches: 
"The boy already knows more about art than I 
do myself." 

At this time the control of the Florentine 





government was in the hands of Lorenzo de' 
Medici, then probably the most distinguished 
man in all Italy. Lorenzo took a most tyranni- 
cal view of the people's rights, and his personal 
habits were not always what they should have 
been. But he was a man with a brilliant mind, 
who made great and successful efforts to increase 
the splendor of the city, and who cajne to 
be called Lorenzo the Magnificent. He gave 
every encouragement to art and literature, 
particularly when they might extend his own 
reputation for magnificence. His taste and 
judgment in matters of art were equal to his 
shrewdness and courage as a politician. Dur- 
ing the time of Michael Angelo's apprenticeship, 
Lorenzo formed new plans for furthering art 
study in the gardens of San Marco, in which he 
placed many valuable examples of the ancient 
masters. When Lorenzo suggested to Ghirlan- 
dajo the sending of worthy pupils to study 
sculpture in these gardens, the master selected 
Michael Angelo and his friend Francesco. 

It has frequently been said that the Florentine 
teacher was jealous of Michael Angelo's genius 
as a draughtsman, and was prompted by this 
feeling, in turning the lad from painting to 
sculpture. Ghirlandajo had certainly received 
some occasion for irritation, since the apprentice 
was always very positive in his opinions, and, 
on one occasion, at least, went so far as to cor- 
rect a drawing which the master himself had 
given to one of his pupils as a model. Yet there 
is no evidence of any unkindly feeling in Ghir- 
landajo's recommendation. It is quite probable 
that Michael Angelo had shown a strong lean- 
ing toward sculpture. At any rate, he was as 
delighted to find himself in the gardens of San 
Marco as if he had been dropped into the Gar- 
den of Eden. 

One afternoon, the Duke Lorenzo in walking 
through the garden came upon young Michael 
Angelo, who was busily chiseling his first piece 
of sculpture. The Duke saw in the stone the 
face of a faun which the boy was copying from 
an antique mask, but which, with his usual im- 
patience of imitation, he was changing so as to 
show the open lips and teeth. "How is it," 
said the Duke, drawing closer, "that you have 
given your faun a complete set of teeth? Don't 
you know that such an old fellow was sure to 
have lost some of them?" Michael Angelo at 
once saw the justice of the criticism. Art- 
ists are not always ready to receive adverse 
comment. ]\Tichael Angelo ■ himself was quick- 
tempered and hard to move. A hot word to 
one of his boy companions on a certain occasion 
brought so severe a blow in the face, that all 

truthful portraits of Michael Angelo have since 
had to show him with a broken nose. But the 
Duke's criticism was kindly given, and was 
plainly warranted, and the young sculptor could 
hardly wait until the Duke walked on before 
beginning the correction. When the Duke saw 
the faun's face again he found some of the teeth 
gone, and the empty sockets skilfully chiseled out. 

Delighted with this evidence of the lad's will- 
ingness to seize and act upon a suggestion, and 
impressed anew by his artistic skill, the Duke 
made inquiries, learned that Michael Angelo 
had borrowed stone and tools on his own ac- 
count in his eagerness to begin sculpture (he 
was first set at drawing from the statuary), and 
ended by sending for the boy's father. The 
result of the consultation was that the Duke 
took Michael Angelo under his own special 
patronage and protection, and was so well 
pleased after he had done it that no favor 
seemed too great to bestow upon the energetic 
young artist. Michael Angelo, then only fif- 
teen, not only received a key to the Garden 
of Sculpture, and an apartment in the Medici 
Palace itself, but had a place at the Duke's 
table. In fact, a real attachment grew up be- 
tween Michael Angelo and the Duke, who fre- 
quently called the boy to his own rooms, when 
he would open a cabinet of gems and intaglios, 
seek his young visitor's opinions, and enter into 
long and confidential talks. 

Michael Angelo found himself in the com- 
pany of the best instructors, and otherwise sur- 
rounded by many influences that developed his 
mind and incited his ambition. The most illus- 
trious people in Italy were daily visitors at the 
Palace, where the Duke not only gave imposing 
entertainments, but gathered quiet groups of 
artists, writers, and musicians. It is likely that 
there were many distracting and even dangerous 
temptations in life at such a palace. But fortu- 
nately Michael Angelo had a strong will, and 
little love for things that were not noble. He 
permitted nothing to stop his progress in art. 

It was under the encouragement of one of 
his teachers that Michael Angelo, when about 
seventeen, undertook to chisel an important 
bas-relief of the Centaurs and the, in 
which his success was marvelous. Michael 
Angelo himself, looking on the work many 
years later, said that he wished he had never 
given a moment to anything but sculpture. 

This remark of Michael Angelo recalls the 
fact that at the time the Centaurs were carved 
the author of the work was steadily increasing 
bis knowledge and grasp of painting and archi- 
tecture, as well as acquiring useful ideas of his- 



tory and literature. A world of thought-riches 
was opening up before him. It may, therefore,' 
be imagined that his grief was very great when, 
at the end of three years of such happy advance- 
ment the Duke Lorenzo died, and Michael 
Angelo returned to his father's house in much 
misery of mind, and set up his studio there. 
Lorenzo's son Piero asked the boy back to the 
palace. But the place never was the same, for the 
new Duke had not his father's qualities of mind. 
One of his whims was to induce Michael Angelo 
to work during a severe wmter oil an i im- 
mense figure in snow. This was undoubtedly 
the finest snow man ever built ; but Michael An- 
gelo had no heart for work that so soon must 
melt away. 

Befcre his return to the palace, Michael An- 
gelo had begun a series of careful studies in 
anatomy, to familiarize himself with every line 
and dimension of the figure. He toiled at 
this study for years, until his mastery of the 
human form was complete. He never painted 
or chiseled a figure ' without working out in a 

Michael Angelo was born in 1475 at a castle in Tu 
father's name was Lodovico Buonarroti, and he himse 
centuries he has been popularly called Michael Angelo, o 
worked in the San Marco Gardens, may still be seen i 
tare representing Michael Angelo at work on the faun' 
sketch, was executed by Emilio Zocchi, and occupies a 

drawing the most delicate details of the anat- 
omy, so that no turn of vein or muscle might 
be false to the absolute truth. It is by such 
means that any mastery is secured. Behind 
every work of genius, whether book, picture, 
or engine, is an amount of labor and pains — 
yes, and of pain — that would have frightened 
off a weak spirit. 

When political disturbances broke out in 
Florence, Michael Angelo hurried away to Ven- 
ice, and to Bologna. Poor Florence was always 
tumbling from one revolution into another. 
The troubles of Florence were reflected in the 
life of Michael Angelo, who never again found 
the peace of those San Marco gardens. But 
Michael Angelo's stern and courageous mind 
was never crushed by disappointment. After 
a life crowded with labors, he left behind him 
colossal triumphs in painting, in architecture, 
and in sculpture, besides making a great name 
as a poet. He was a giant in every labor 
that he undertook, one of the world's greatest 

scany where his father held office as a governor. His 
If was christened Michclagniolo Buonarroti, but for four 
r Michelangelo. The head of a faun, upon which the boy 
n one of the museums of Florence. The piece of sculp- 
s head, and which forms the illustration given with this 
place in the Pitti Gallery at Florence. 





If you have read — and of course you have the houses of great nobles, where they served 
— Stevenson's "Garden of Verse," you will as pages, or as little maids of honor, and did 
remember the delightful poem of four lines many things no longer included in the educa- 
tion of the sons and daughters of well-to-do 
parents. Sometimes the boys waited at table; 
almost always it was their duty to hand round 
to the great people the water and towels for 
the businesslike hand-washing that was then 
the fashion before and after meals. Some- 

that describes the "Whole Duty of Children": 

A child should always say what 's true 
And speak when he is spoken to, 
And behave mannerly at table : 
At least as far as he is able. 

Perhaps it has made you wish that duty was 
such a very simple thing for young people times they were no better than the servants of 
now. I am told, but I hope it is not so, that 
manners, as a study, have gone out of the 
school course altogether, in favor of more 
big books and even more lessons than ever. 
But even in my time, which, after all, was not 
centuries ago, we thought a great deal about 
manners. I look back still, and blush all over 
at the thought of the weekly politeness class, 
when we were not only taught to "behave 
mannerly," but made to give examples of how 
to do it ! Oh, that awful moment when, with 
almost one hundred pairs of eyes — and laugh- 
ing eyes — fixed upon me, I had to get up and 
practise dropping a curtsy or picking up a 
handkerchief. I have never suffered so from 
stage-fright since. 

But that is not what I started to write 
about. I wanted rather to tell you something 
that I fancy will surprise you as much as it 
surprised me. More than four hundred years 

those times, and were set to work by a touch 
of the whip, if necessary. 

Now, in the nobler houses there were often 
troops of these youngsters, and you can im- 

ago — that is, in an age when we have a way of agine that it was not the easiest thing in the 

thinking people were shocking barbarians be- world to keep them in order. My wonder is 

cause they had not any railway trains, or elec- that the princes and nobles and prelates put 

trie lights, or telephones, or trolleys— there were up with the nuisance of it all. But they did, 

Englishmen who wrote books of "Curtesie," as and no doubt it was for their own comfort 

they spelled it then, and "Demeanour," for the that manners were more seriously cultivated 

young; and the funny part of it is that the than book-learning. "If you have not good 

rules they laid down, though longer and more manners you are not worth a fly," one of the 

elaborate, are very much the same as Steven- old writers told the youths in his charge, 

son's in his four lines of advice. "All virtues are included in curtesie, which 

In those days fathers and mothers chose comes from heaven," a second assured them, 

to provide for bringing up their own chil- Even when children were sent to school, it 

dren, boys and girls both, by sending them to was chiefly that, like the "only son of a lord of 

* The illustrations with this article are from Wright's " Domestic Manners and Customs," 
by kind permission of J. S. Virtue & Co., Limited, London, England, 

H.T.&G.D, II. 4. 



high degree" in the ballad, they might learn speaks to them; they must not chatter or let 
courtesy ! their eyes wander, but answer sensibly and 

As I have said, the rules for good manners shortly ; they must stand quietly and keep their 
were written ; and often, that they might be heads, hands, and feet still. As I read this, I 
the sooner got by heart, they were in verse, seem to hear a terrible voice out of the past 
Later on, in the fifteenth century, a few poems crying out to me: "Don't wriggle!" 
of the kind were printed in books ; but the Other things that the babees were taught to 
greater number remained in manuscripts, for- do, children do no longer — more's the pity ! If 
tunately preserved as treasures in the British any one older came into the room, the babees 
Museum and other libraries until, not many gave place to him; if any one praised the ba- 
years ago, a learned society called the Early bees, they rose up and thanked him heartily ; and 
English Text Society collected and published they were continually making bows and salu- 
them in a big volume, edited by Dr. Furnivall, tations that, I am convinced, cost them hours 
and this is how it came about that I learned of torture in a politeness class of their own. 
about them. And now we come to the part we cannot 

The first is "The Babees' Book." In the understand so well. For the babees were bid- 
old days children were "babees" much longer den to be ready to serve at the proper time — 
than they are now, and when poems were ad- to bring drinks, or hold lights, or anything 
dressed to "bele babees," or "sweet children," else, and so get a good name ! At noon, when 
they were usually intended for school-boys or the lord of the household was ready for his 
the youths brought up as pages or "gentle- dinner, some babees poured out water for 
men henchmen" in court or at great houses, him, others held the towel, and all stood by 
"The Babees' Book," therefore, though you him until he told them to sit down. And 
might despise it for its name, is realy a "Little dinner over, again the babees came with water 
Report" of how young people should behave, and towels. 
I do-not give it in verse, 
as it is written, because 
I find fifteenth-century 
English very hard to read, 
and I am sure you, too, 
would find it so. 

"O young babees, 
adorned with every grace, 
this book is for you," 
says the writer, "and the 
only reward I seek is 
that it may please and 
improve you. It is to 
teach you how you who 
dwell in households 
should behave at meals, 
and how you should have 
only sweet, blessed, and benign words to an- As for their behavior during the meal, once 
swer when you are spoken to." Doesn't that they had been allowed to sit down, they were 
sound just a little like Stevenson? And listen told a great many things that "sweet chil- 
to what follows, and tell me if you have not dren" are now expected to know without 
heard much the same thing at home. When being told. They were to eat their broth with 
the "bele" or "fair babees" enter into the room, a spoon; they were not to lean on the table, 
they must kneel on one knee to their lord. Of not to put their knives in their mouths or their 
course no American babee would do that, meat in the salt-cellar, not to keep all the good 
But wait : they must look at any one who things for themselves, not to cut their meat like 




field-laborers, who, it is explained, have such 
an appetite they don't care how they hack their 
food ; they were to have clean plates and knives 

until they had washed. And the verses end 
with the pretty warning, "Sweet children, let 
your delight be courtesy, and avoid rudeness." 


for their cheese, which seems no more than rea- 
sonable. They were not, another writer says, 
to throw meat bones under the table, which 
suggests that most unmannerly things did go on 
when no one was looking. I believe the 
"grown-ups" often needed the same advice, for 
you can read in history how the rushes which 
covered the floor instead of a carpet, in those 
days, were often strewn with bones and broken 
pieces from the table. At the end of the 
meal the babees were to clean and put away 
their knives ! I washed my own knife, and 
my fork and spoon too, after meals, regularly 

There are several of these poems, but in 
almost all the chief care is to teach the babees 
how to "behave mannerly at table," probably 
because at other times and in other places 
they kept out of the way of their lord and 
master, and there was less chance of his being 
disturbed. Occasionally the professor of man- 
ners reminded them that the courteous youth 
should get up betimes, bathe, go to church, 
say good morning to everybody ; that he 
should be true in word and in deed, which 
again is like Stevenson ; that he should keep 
his promises, never tell tales, and always mind 


for eleven years of my life; but then I was at his own business; that he should everywhere 

boarding-school, while the "bele babees" were so conduct himself that men would say of him, 

living in the finest palaces and castles in the "A gentleman was here." Occasionally there 

land — which makes a difference! After the was a reminder that "sweet children" should 

knife-cleaning, they were to sit in their places walk demurely in the streets, and that they 



shouldn't have their own way in everything. 
But, evidently, it wa^ioped that once young 
people had learned to behave themselves at 
table in the presence of their lord, all else 
would follow as a matter of course. 

Children who stayed at home were no more 
at ease. A poem called "The School of 
Virtue" gives them careful directions how to 
set the table, serve the dinner, clear away, 
fold up the cloth, and, finally, bring basin, 
jug, and towels for their parents to wash ; and 
then, all things done, to make a low curtsy. 
"Learn all the good manners you can," the 
poet adds, "for Aristotle, the philosopher, 
taught that manners in a child are better even 
than playing the fiddle !" 

Now that you have seen how important 
"courtesy" was thought to be, perhaps you 
would like to know how the "bele babees" 
behaved — or misbehaved — when they paid no 
attention to their lessons in manners. I am 
afraid bad boys have always been the same 
since the world began. "Don't go bird's- 
nesting, or steal fruit, or throw stones at men's 
windows; keep away from fire and water, and 
the edge of wells and brooks," are a few of 
the warnings in an old "Lesson of Wisdom for 
all Children." There was a writer called Lyd- 
gate, who lived just about the time some of 
these books of curtesie were composed, and 
w^ho wrote a poem, confessing his wickedness 
as a boy, that gives us a better idea of what 
■went on even then. Lydgate, it seems, was 
not sent to a noble's house, but was brought 
up by the monks and went to one of their 
schools. He says that until he was fifteen he 
loved no work but play; I think I have heard 
of boys to-day who have exactly his tastes in 
the matter. He was afraid of the rod, nat- 
urally, for it was never spared when he was a 
child. Little girls were then taught to look 
upon "sharp and severe parents" as the great- 
est benefit they could receive, and there is the 
record of one, Elizabeth Paston by name, who 
was beaten once or twice a week, sometimes 
twice a day, and on one occasion had her 
head broken in two or three places. Poor 
little thing! If this is the way the girls were 
treated, you can imagine the fate of the boys. 

But, fear the rod as he might, Lydgate was 
still late at school ; he talked when he ought 
to have been studying; he told stories to get 
out of scrapes; he made fun of his masters; 
he stole apples and grapes ; oh, dear ! oh, 
dear ! — he liked counting cherry-stones better 
than church ; he wouldn't get up in the morn- 
ing; he wouldn't wash his hands before dinner; 
he pretended to be ill when he wasn't; he 
never thought of anybody when there was 
question of his own pleasure ; and, altogether, 
he was about as bad a boy as could be found 
from one end of England to the other. I don't 
believe our old friend Frederick, who did 
so many naughty things in the nursery rhyme, 
was one bit worse. But, that bad boys may 
take heart and know that there is hope, I must 
add that Lydgate grew up to be a great man, 
whose reputation has lasted to our day, and 
that he wrote many poems, among them this 
confession of the apple-stealing and truant- 
playing of his school-days. 

There is another poem by an unfortunate 
little "Birched School-boy," who sang sadly 
of the birch-twigs that were so sharp. Think 
of making a song out of your w^hippings ! I 
do not doubt for a moment that he got only 
what he deserved, but I can't help feeling 
sorry for him, he is so plaintive. "Hay, 
hay!" he begins, "I'd sooner go twenty miles 
than to school on Monday !" But then, when 
a boy is late for school, and, asked by his 
master where he has been, answers, "Milking 
ducks," what can he look for in return for his 
impertinence but a good "peppering" of one 
kind or another ? 

It was all very well for this little fifteenth- 
century truant to sigh, and wish his master was 
a hare, and his own book a wild-cat, and all the 
school-books hounds, when "to blow my horn 
I would not spare!" But he knew perfectly 
well, if he went his twenty miles, what would 
be waiting for him afterward. 

It was for just such bad boys that babees' 
books and books of curtesie were written, and 
let us hope that Lydgate was not the only 
"sweet child" to profit by them— and by the 
birch-twigs — and to grow up to be famous. 

This is not a chronicle of an infant phenomenon, 
but just a true story of a bishop, and a boy 
whose life was largely molded by the following 

The oaks of England have always been cele- 
brated, and I know of no finer sight than an 
ancient grove still in its prime, growing in a 
sunny glade of Richmond Park. One character- 
istic of this forest, and I can recall a score of 
them, is that each individual tree seems to have 
had a chance. It has all the room it wants to 
spread sidewise, stretches its great arms wide, 
its feet strike deep into the rich loam, and its 
proud head rises toward the sky, without let or 
hindrance, so that each is perfect in form, after 
its kind. 

With youthful presumption and vanity (for I 
was just twelve, I remember), I had been wrest- 
ling with one of these monarchs of the forest, 
among the most difficult objects in nature to 
portray. I find with all my years of practise, 
the foreshortening of the branch of a tree often 
brings me up standing, but nothing daunts youth- 
ful impudence. My tools were a home-made 
easel, the cheapest kind of color-box to be 
bought in the toy-shop of a small English town, 
and brushes of the limpest. I had been engaged 
in this important work of art for three half-holi- 
days (Wednesday and Saturday afternoon school 
did not then "keep" in England) . I had been try- 

ing to get every detail of trunk, bark, leaf, and 
branch. Bad as it all probably was, the careful 
study that I made of that oak-tree helped me 
my life through. 

And, by the way, there is among the studies 
sold for the art schools of England, the repro- 
duction of a pencil-drawing of a lemon tree, 
made in Sicily by Sir Frederick Leighton. It 
was the work of many days. In his lectures at 
South Kensington to young art students (where 
the original drawing is), he used to tell how 
many hours he spent upon it. Truly, it is a won- 
derful study. Every foreshortened branch and 
leaf, the markings and blemishes of the same, a 
perfect representation of a lemon tree. I heard 
him say in one of his talks : "I suppose many of 
you students in this day of impression look upon 
this elaborate drawing as a waste of time. I, on 
the contrary, think it time well spent, for when 
finished I felt sure I knew something, I may say, 
all, about a lemon tree, which has proved of life- 
long value to me in my finished pictures." 

I recall this talk of Sir Frederick Lcighton's 
to encourage the numerous young artists whose 
work I see from time to time in magazines, 
enforcing careful conscientious di awing from 
nature to acquire skill in rendering; appreciation 
of good form and color ; and to gather material 
for design. To compare small things with great, 
this careful study when I was a boy, brought 




knowledge and love of the oak-tree that have 
never deserted me. 

Up to the moment I relate, I had been quite 
free from molestation; my chosen subject vi^as so 
far from the public road that I felt quite safe ; 
moreover, only my head and the top of my easel 
w^ere visible from the highway. The whole glade 
was filled with an under forest of tall bracken 
(the giant fern, Ptcris aquilina). Lying down 
on one's face in the miniature forest was a sen- 
sation. It was full of little sunny glades between 
the stems of the sturdy ferns, populated by all 
the little people of the ground : mice, beetles, ants, 
and other small things. It was a popular belief 
among the boys that in one of those thousands 
of bracken-stems you would find your name; if 
you cut them diagonally near the ground you 
would see a black marking very like a signature, 
or at any rate a monogram. The singular part of 
it is that no two of them are alike, and sometimes 
something near enough to an initial will turn up 
for an imaginative boy. 

My only audience had been the tame fallow 
deer of the park. They had become so used to my 
presence and fixedness that they evidently began 
to look upon me as a natural product of the grove, 
and they grew so bold in their inquisitiveness that 
more than once I felt their breath upon the back 
of my neck. 

As I said, up to this moment for three whole 
afternoons all of nature had been my own. Many 
vehicles passed along the distant drive ; none, 
however, came my way, and I rejoiced in my 
security, but, like earthquakes that come without 
warning, my destiny was on the road. A gor- 
geous carriage and pair with clanking head- 
chains pulled up at the nearest curve, and a tall, 
handsome, clerical-looking gentleman came wad- 
ing through the bracken. He greeted me cor- 
dially with a merry laugh and said : "I could not 
resist the temptation of seeing what the youthful 
artist was up to." I wanted to sink into the 
ground, but his cheery encouragement and praise 
made me feel more at ease, until he beckoned a 
lady to follow him. They asked my name and 
age, where I lived, and with a waving, cordial 
good-by they were away to their carriage. I 
don't know that as a boy I felt any particular 
sensation from the little visit, but it proved a 
turning-point in my life. 

At tlie next sitting this great work of art was 
finished, and when I reached home, the first thing 
my father said to me was : "Whom do you know 
in town to send you packages by the London 
Parcels Delivery Company? Here is something 
that arrived five minutes ago." Imagine my de- 
light on opening it to find a real grown-up artist's 

color-box, a half-dozen silver-mounted brushes, 
and under the brushes a card inscribed "With the 
best wishes of George Augustus Selwyn, Bishop 
of New Zealand." Up to that day my education 
had all pointed toward the life of a merchant, 
but the bishop was my destiny, though his living 
on the other side of the globe prevented us from 
meeting again in this world. What he gave, me 
was to him only a color-box. To me it was a 
heaven-sent sign, as a symbol of sacred interest 
in my welfare. In my home I was only a little 
chap who liked to amuse himself with paints. 
After the bishop laid his hands upon me I felt 
myself dedicated to the work of transcribing the 
beauties of the world. 

However, that is not quite the end of the story. 
Some years ago while sketching in England I was 
overtaken by a bad spell of weather; day after 
day a steady downpour ; but fortunately every- 
thing is packed away closely in "The tight little 
island." There half an hour in the train will al- 
ways bear you to something worth seeing. On this 
particular day, fifty minutes carried me to the 
quaint old cathedral city of Lichfield. The ancient 
borough has now become a place of pilgrimage 
for Americans, although it is a little out of the 
beaten track. After seeing everything of interest 
in the minster, as I thought, I breasted the rain- 
storm on my way to the railroad and had gone 
some distance from the cathedral when the good 
old verger came running after me. His black 
gown flying wildly in the wind, he carried me 
back to show me a great piece of work by 
Foley, the celebrated English sculptor. "I want 
you to see this," the panting verger said; "you 
know we call him our handsome bishop." And 
truly it was a beautiful face reposing in its calm 
sleep of death ; but imagine my surprise to read 
amid lines of Latin eulogy the name of my 
friend "George Augustus Selwyn, Bishop of New 
Zealand and nineteenth Bishop of Lichfield." 
There lay the helpful friend of my youth,— his 
dear face that I never expected to see again, 
restored to me in the sculptor's marble, after the 
lapse of half a century. 

One little incident that the good old verger told 
me I must pass on : Two Maori chiefs visited 
England a year or two ago and made straight 
for Lichfield Cathedral. Happening to meet 
my verger, they inquired for the resting-place 
of the good bishop. He conducted them to the 
tomb, where they immediately fell on their knees. 
The verger left them to their reverent devotion. 
An hour later he thought it time to look them 
up. They were still on their knees. WHio shall 
say how many kindly acts of the good bishop 
had inspired these semisavages to this devotion ! 





The older readers of this volume will remem- 
ber from their histories, the great figure of 
Oliver Cromwell, who did so much toward giving 
England her most prized liberties, and eventually 
became Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, 
and perhaps the greatest personage of his time. 
I feel certain that these readers will be interested 
to hear something of Cromwell's boyhood, and 
the places where he lived when a lad. 

About seventy miles due north of London, on 
what used to be called the Great North Road — 

old town of Huntingdon. For centuries it has 
been a prosperous county-seat, and in its day pos- 
sessed a castle fortified by William the Conqueror, 
and boasted no less than seventeen churches and 
monasteries. These latter, however, disappeared 
when Henry VHL dissolved the religious orders 
in England — all except one which the King be- 
stowed upon one of his trusty sul)jects, one Rich- 
ard Cromwell, of whom the King was very fond. 
Richard's son, called from his love of display 
the Golden Knight, inherited this monastery 


the main thoroughfare of England's east coast and on its site built a lordly mansion, Hinchin- 
from the metropolis to Edinburgh — lies the good brook Manor, still standing, as here pictured, in 




all the glory of its towers, battlements and oriel 
windows above the valley of the River Ouse. 

This Golden Knight had a younger brother, 
Robert Cromwell, who lived down in the town of 
Huntingdon in "Cromwell House," a spacious 
place with extensive lands. 

Robert married a worthy dame, who, as one 
of the Stuntney Stewarts, joined to his estates 

record of the birth of this "greatest and most 
typical Englishman of all time" — a sense of awe, 
however, that changes to amusement when one 
deciphers above the entry, written by some visi- 
tor: "England's plague for years." And this sen- 
tence, in turn, has been crossed out by some later 
traveler who evidently was loyal to Cromwell. 
Oliver's birthplace, "Cromwell House," is to- 


the fine old brick farmhouse that appears in the 
drawing at the head of this article. 

They were blessed with a large family, and in 
1599, on the 25th of April, the fifth of their nine 
children was born, a boy named Oliver after his 

At the top of the parish register page of All 
Saints Church at Huntingdon, is the record 
of this event, and it is with a certain sense of 
awe that one fingers the yellowing paper covered 
with faded Gothic letters, and reads the simple 

day supplanted by a more modern structure, 
standing rather removed from the little town at 
the end of a twisting lane. As we peep through 
the iron gate, we feel sure that the general aspect 
is not so different from what it was some cen- 
turies ago : an ample, square house, with windows 
opening to the ground, through which the chil- 
dren could step out on the smooth English lawn 
shaded by oaks and fir-trees. 

Here little Oliver grew up with his eight broth- 
ers and sisters. 



The second day following his fourth birthday 
was a great day for Huntingdon, and a greater 
day still for the Cromwell family. Up on the hill 
at Hinchinbrook Manor, where Oliver's uncle 
lived, all was in a turmoil; the best linen was 
brought out ; the pewter and 
silver polished to its bright- 
est luster ; cooks and scul- 
lions fumed in the kitchen ; 
lackeys and maids scurried 
through corridor and hall, 
for there was to be a guest 
that night, and such a guest ! 
— no less a personage than 
James VI. of Scotland on 
his triumphal progress from 
Edinburgh to London to 
succeed Queen Elizabeth, 
and to found the ill-fated 
house of Stuart as James I. 
of England. And when the 
august presence arrived, 
what a clatter in the courts 
as the heavy coach-wheels 
rolled over the paving 
stones ! What a stamping 
of hoofs and neighing of 
steeds ! What low obei- 
sances, and what a sump- 
tuous dinner — a table groan- 
ing under loads of silver and 
smoking viands ! 

Oliver's father, brother 
of the host, was much oc- 
cupied we may be sure, as 
was his mother, too. So 
can we not picture our four- 
year-old boy, on his sturdy 
little legs, wandering about 
with his brothers and sis- 
ters under the guidance of a 
nursery-maid, his gray eyes 
wide, his mouth agape at all 
the goings-on? Can we not 
picture him staring at the 
young princes — at little 
Henry, Prince of Wales, 
who was to die scarce nine 
years later, and leave his 
brother Charles heir to the throne of England? 
Between Oliver and this same Charles, there was 
but a year's difference in age, and one cannot 
help wondering, in thinking of these two chil- 
dren face to face, if any thoughts but child- 
thoughts crowded Oliver's little brain ; any ink- 
ling that one day he would wrest the crown of 
England from this same weak prince, and him- 

self sit in the highest seat, be Lord Protector of 
the Commonwealth, the greatest man not only 
in England, but in all Europe ! Next day King 
James went on, to sit upon his throne in White- 
hall; and Oliver grew up, not — as some writers 

— «. / 


would have us believe — in a country village, shut 
off from the active life of the day, but in a thr/v- 
in-g town, only twelve hours' journey from the 
metropolis, and on the great highway between 
London and Edinburgh. 

In the courtyard of the "George" (then much 
as it remains to-day) he might have seen the 
stages each day bring in their loads of people, 



and his father, who had been in Parliament, re- 
ceive the news of the hour. 

Soon the boy was put in the grammar-school 
under the tutelage of one Dr. Beard; and the 
teachings of this worthy master, a great friend 
of Richard Cromwell's, must have left an in- 
delible imprint upon the lad's character. He 
seems to have conquered a lasting affection in his 
pupil's heart, for all through Cromwell's career, 
the two men remained in close touch. 

The old grammar-school stands to-day, quite as 
it looked in Cromwell's time. 

Toward the end of the last century it was dis- 
covered that the front of the building was only 

When Oliver was fourteen there was an- 
other royal progress through the town ; but this 
time attended with no banquets, no festivities, 
only with a mournful pomp. James had ordered 
the body of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, 
to be brought from Peterborough Cathedral down 
to London to its final resting-place in Westmin- 
ster Abbey, and on its way it rested over night in 
All Saints Church. Surely Oliver was gaping 
in the crowd. 

He was now growing up, and at home ab- 
sorbed ideas and formed his character from the 
talks he overheard. Three of his uncles had been 
in Parliament, his father also; Dr. Beard was 



a shell, hiding a much more ancient structure. 
Under the direction of an able architect, the 
building was then restored to its old-time form. 
The expense of the work was borne by a distin- 
guished playwright in memory of his son, who 
had been killed in a railway accident near by. 

So now the quaint schoolhouse turns its bat- 
tered Norman faqade, its queer old gable and 
bell-cote toward All Saints churchyard. 

As we sat in the whitewashed schoolroom, and 
wandered in the dormitory with its prim, snowy 
beds; or as, at luncheon, we shared the headmas- 
ter's table and watched the boys relishing their 
curdled plum tart ; or as we sipped our tea by the 
tennis-court in the long afternoon shadows — that 
boyish figure with the great gray eyes, with the 
nose a bit to one side, with the broad square head 
and the manly figure, constantly hovered around 
us: strong, fond of his outdoor sport, and wilful, 
as they say he was. 

He fits, too, into the landscapes by the Ouse — 
with its fishing, sv/imming, boating and visiting 
the country fairs. 

thoroughly abreast of the times and they all dis- 
cussed every phase of daily events, of the "des- 
potism" of the King and the persecution of the 

Just two days before his seventeenth birthday, 
the lad went to Cambridge, a few miles away, and 
was enrolled a member of Sidney Sussex College. 

Cromwell's college career was short-lived, cut 
off after the first year by the death of his father. 
The lad hurried home to the funeral of his parent, 
who was buried beside the Golden Knight. 

Oliver at eighteen was now the head of his 
branch of the house, with a widowed mother and 
six sisters more or less dependent upon him, so it 
behooved him to fit himself as quickly as possible 
for a career. He accordingly went to London to 
gain a general knowledge of the law. His caires 
do not seem to have weighed too heavily upon 
him, for two years later he undertook new re- 
sponsibilities by marrying, in Cripplegate church, 
Miss Elizabeth Bourchier. 

Bride and groom went back to Huntingdon to 
live, as is supposed, with his mother. Then for 



nearly ten years history gives us no picture of 
him but it is easy to imagine him well occupied 
with his duties; with farming his lands; with 
yeomanry drills in which he took a vital interest, 
as his uncle and grandfather had before him. 

In 1628 Cromwell was elected to Parliament. 
In his very first speech, he quoted his old school- 
master, Dr. Beard. 

But now Cromwell's great public career be- 
gan, and we can hardly follow him within the 

limits of this article. His youth was about 
ended. He sold his portion of his father's estate 
to remove to St. Ives, and later to Ely where he 
lived but a few steps from the grand old cathe- 
dral. The year 1638 found him father of nine 
children, five boys and four girls, and a very few 
years later, this "Lord of the Fens" was raising 
his famous Ironsides, and the great civil war of 
England between the Roundheads on one side 
and the Cavaliers on the other had begun. 


The picturesque ruins of Hastings Castle comprise the remains of a square and circular tower, standing on the 
brink of a western clifT on the southern coast of England. Hastings Castle was probably 
built soon alter the days of William the Conqueror. 
XVII— 5 



One cannot be a lawyer and a poet at the same 
time— at least, so thought a young Englishman 
named Lawrence a good many years ago, and so, 
though he had been bred to the practice of law, 
when he became of age and the master of a small 
inheritance left him at his father's death, he 
turned his back on his profession and determined 
to be a poet instead. But, alas ! history saith not 
how very, very many have intended to be poets, 
but only tells us how few have become such, and 
the name of Lawrence is not to be found among 
them. He mistook the wish for the ability. The 
poetic thoughts, when committed to paper, added 
nothing to his income, and when, after four years 
of this delightful existence, he began to see the 
bottom of his purse, and at about the same time 
fell in love with the daughter of a clergyman in 
the neighborhood and married her, he realized 
that some more remunerative means of livelihood 
had to be found. 

So he obtained first one, then a second, small 
government position. But when he lost his sec- 
ond post, he took a small inn in Bristol, called the 
White Hart, thinking, perhaps, that the land- 
lord's business of making himself agreeable to his 
patrons might offer an easy sort of life. To 
show his intelligence and taste, he fitted up a 
library for the benefit of his guests, and hung 
engravings of the great masters on his walls, 
instead of the gaudy pictures usually found 
in inns of the period. Here, on May 4, 1769, 
a son named Thomas was born, one of sixteen 
children, of whom only five outlived their child- 

When little Thomas was three years old Mr. 
Lawrence took his family to Devizes and there 
became landlord of the Black Bear, an establish- 
ment of a much better class than the White Hart 
had been, for it was the best inn in the town and 
was patronized by all the wealthy, notable, and 
fashionable people who came down from London 
and made it a stopping-place on their way to 
Bath, the famous watering-place, which lay 
twenty miles beyond. 

Little Thomas, as he ran about the house, at- 
tracted the attention of the visitors by his unusual 
beauty and precocity, and his father, finding him 
wonderfully apt, taught him to repeat some of the 
verses he himself loved so well. By the time the 
child was five years old it was his father's great- 
est pleasure to stand him on a table and bid him, 
for the amusement of his guests, repeat passages 

from Milton and Shakspere, which he would do 
so intelligently that the fine ladies and gentlemen 
who heard him were delighted. 

But the little fellow had another accomplish- 
ment even more remarkable— a knack at drawing 
portraits. Where he acquired it no one knew, for 
he was never taught ; it seemed to come without 
thought or effort. The elder Lawrence was so 
proud of his wonderful boy that he was con- 
tinually singing his praises, in season and out of 
season. An occurrence of this kind is described 
by Thomas Lawrence's biographer, Williams, on 
the authority of Mrs. Kenyon herself: 

"Mr. and IMrs. Kenyon [in 1775] arrived late 
at the Black Bear, tired and out of humor, when 
Lawrence entered and proposed to show them his 
wonderful child. They were about to refuse, 
when the child rushed in, and Mrs. Kenyon's 
vexation was turned to admiration. He was rid- 
ing on a stick and went round and round the 
room. Mrs. Kenyon, as soon as she could get 
him to stand still, asked him if he could take the 
likeness of that gentleman, pointing to her hus- 
band. 'That I can,' said the little Lawrence, 'and 
very like, too.' A high chair was placed at the 
table, pencils and paper were brought, and the 
infant artist soon produced an astonishingly strik- 
ing likeness. Mr. Kenyon now coaxed the child, 
who had got tired by the half-hour's labor, and 
asked him if he could take the likeness of the 
lady. 'Yes, that I can,' was his reply once more, 
'if she will turn her side to me, for her face is 
not straight.' His remark produced a laugh, as 
it happened to be true." 

Long years ago the Black Bear disappeared 
from Devizes, but the charming picture by Mar- 
garet Dicksee, which we are privileged to repro- 
duce, has recreated one of its rooms and made it 
the setting for a scene that must have been many 
times repeated— the small artist intent upon seiz- 
ing the likeness of the lovely sitter (of whom he 
certainly cannot complain that her face is not 
"straight"), the young man in riding-dress behind 
the chair, dividing his attention between the por- 
trait and the original, whom he doubtless thinks 
the prettiest girl in the world, while in the back- 
ground stand mother and sister, full of pride in 
the wonderful little son and brother, and serenely 
certain of his success. 

David Garrick and his wife used to pass 
through Devizes every year on their way to and 
from Bath, and it was part of the program that 




the little Lawrence should recite his new "pieces" his eldest brother and sister, having completed 
for them and show them such of his portraits as their education, found positions and contributed 
the sitters had not carried away with them, and regularly to the family income, 
we are told of one particular occasion when Gar- Before leaving Devizes Tommy had been al- 
rick said, as he patted the curly head: "Bravely lowed to attend school for two years, and this 
done. Tommy ! Whether will ye be, a painter or was all the education he ever received at his 
a player, eh?" parents' hands. His clever fingers must be al- 

The famous Mrs. Siddons sat for the young ways busy in order that father, mother, brothers, 
artist; Sheridan, Dr. John- 
son, and Burke marveled at 
his precocity ; and the belles 
and beaus applauded and 
petted him enough to turn 
the head of any child with 
a spark of vanity. But, 
oddly enough, the gifted lit- 
tle fellow, in spite of all 
this flattering attention, did 
not grow forward or self- 
conscious, while his bright, 
sunny temper, his beauty, 
and the pretty courtliness 
of his manners — caught, 
perhaps, from the passing 
guests of the Black Bear — 
made him a host of friends 
who spread the fame of the 
wonderful little Tommy 

Few of us are so embar- 
rassed with talents as to 
render the choice of a 
career difficult for that rea- 
son, but Thomas was one 
of the few, for success 
seemed certain in two di- 
rections. When he was 
eight or nine years old, 
however, he was taken to 
see a famous collection of 
pictures by the old masters, 
probably the first great 
paintings he had ever seen. 
He stood absorbed before 
one by Rubens, and as he 
finally turned away said, 

with a deep sigh : "I shall never be able to paint 
like that." But nevertheless he then and there 
decided to be a painter. 

Not long after this the Lawrences moved to 
Oxford, where the father's occupation was ap- 
parently that of business manager for his clever 
little boy— an occupation even more congenial 
than that of keeping an inn. From this time 
Tommy seems to have been the main support of 
the family, rather a heavy burden for a pair of 
ten-year-old shoulders, although about this time 

I'uruierly owned i>y Mr. Josejjh Jeriersuii. 


and sisters might live in comfort, and he helped 
his brothers to obtain the education that he might 
not have himself, one of them becoming a major 
in the English army and the other a clergyman. 

On one occasion a wealthy baronet who had 
become interested in the lad offered to give a 
thousand pounds toward his art education ; but 
Tommy could not be spared, and his father de- 
clined the proposal. 

But it must not be thought that Tommy for a 
moment felt himself ill-used, for he was happy in 



From tlie painting owned by Lord dc C.rey Wilton. 



being allowed to do the work he loved. His 
studio in Oxford was the resort of admirals, 
bishops, lords and ladies, statesmen and scholars; 
while at Bath, whither he went in the season in 

quest of sitters, he was 
a little personage, ad- 
mitted into the most 
exclusive circles. His 
portraits of Mrs. Sid- 
dons and Admiral Bar- 
rington, made at this 
time, were engraved 
and widely sold, and 
Georgiana, the beauti- 
ful Duchess of Devon- 
shire, was also his 
patroness. His pastel 
portrait of her is now 
in Chiswick House, the 
property of the present 
Duke of Devonshire. 

The family life of the 
Lawrences seems to 
have been a very happy 
one ; Tommy was a de- 
voted son and brother, 
while he was the love 
and pride of all. His 
father would sit and 
read aloud to him while 
he worked, and it was 
his mother's chief care 
to keep her handsome 
Jjoy freshly and becom- 
ingly dressed. The ad- 
mirers of Thomas Law- 
rence, however, must 
always regret that he 
was not allowed to 
study the great masters 
of painting while he 
w-as still young, for 
when, in later life, he 
visited Italy and en- 
joyed that privilege, 
the effect on his work 
was marked, and he 
himself felt, as was the 
case, that the portraits 
he then painted far 
surpassed in breadth 
and quality all his pre- 
vious canvases. 

At last, in 1787, when 
Thomas was eighteen, 
the time came when he 
felt he must try to 
make a place for himself in a larger world than 
that of Oxford and Bath, and he set his face to- 
ward London, whither he went accompanied by his 
father. This step had evidently been planned for 



a long time, for they had put aside sufficient 
money from his earnings to permit them to en- 
gage rooms in a good quarter of the city, not far 
from the house of Sir Joshua Reynolds, then an 
old man. Young Lawrence soon called upon him, 
showed him his work, and waited, trembling, for 
the verdict of the great mas- 
ter. Reynolds at once saw 
the unusual quality of the 
work, gave the young artist 
the benefit of his criticism, 
'and became his kind friend 
and adviser. 

Until this time Lawrence 
had drawn only in crayon or 
pastel, but he now began to 
study at the Royal Academy, 
working in oil, and so far 
from thinking, as his re- 
markable success might have 
led him to do, that he knew 
about as much as was neces- 
sary, he applied himself with 
unwearying patience and per- 
severance. He had the love 
and capacity for woik in an 
unusual degree : from his 
tenth year until his death at 
sixty-one he labored almost 
without interruption, seizing 
every opportunity for study, 
even after he became presi- 
dent of the Royal Academy. 
On one occasion he became 
so absorbed that he stood be- 
fore his easel paintinsf for 
forty-eight hours practically 
without rest or interruption. 

Almost immediately on ar- 
riving in London, Lawrence 
found patrons, and doubtless 
his way was made easier by 
the fact that he was singu- 
larly attractive personally, 
with a slight, erect figure, 
framed in long, curling brown hair, and unusual 
grace. It was said of him in later years that if it 
had been his business to drive flocks of geese to 
London, he would have done even that gracefully. 

At first he charged three guineas each for por- 
traits, and made three or four a week; but when, 
at twenty, he painted the lovely portrait of Miss 
Farren, Lady Derby, and he found himself the 
fashionable painter of London, he regularly re- 
ceived thirty guineas for a head and one hundred 
and twenty for a full-length portrait. Twenty 
•years later he received three times these rates. 

He had for his patron the King himself, George 
HI, who in 1792 appointed him "Painter in Ordi- 
nary to his Majesty," and who insisted that the 
artist should be admitted at once to the Royal 
Academy, although at the time he had not yet 
attained the neres'^arv aee. So the rules of that 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Manzi Joyant iS: Co. 


a handsome face 

institution were changed to permit him to become 
an "associate" member, which satisfied the King. 
With all these honors crowding fast upon him, 
Lawrence's good common sense never deserted 
him, and he carried himself with so much 
modesty and tact that he escaped much of the 
envy and jealousy that too often come with suc- 
cess. He was generous, too, to a fault, and not 
only continued to provide for his parents, but 
gave freely to every needy brother artist, or to 
any one else whose distresses were brought to his 
knowledge. And so, though he earned a great deal 
all his life, he was always in need of money, not 



for his own wants, for they were not extravagant, 
but for those of others who appealed to him. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Manzi JoyaiU & Co. 

He was kind and gentle always, not only to 
human beings, but to all the dumb creatures that 

came in his way ; and he had a real affection for 
his own pets and those of his friends. He had 
a fine cat, of which he was very fond, and a 
certain spaniel, belonging to a friend, was his 
special favorite. He put this dog into one of his 
best-known portraits, and whenever he dined 
with its master he always had a chair set beside 
him for the dog, whom he laughingly called his 
"patron," and would say, as he patted it on the 
head or smoothed its silky coat: "I hope I have 
made you live at least a hundred years." 

Some of the most notable of Lawren'ce's paint- 
ings are portraits of children, in whose soft 
curves and fresh color he delighted, while his 
quick sympathies and understanding enabled him 
to win the confidence and affection of his little 
sitters. And many of his child-portraits are 
familiar pictures to-day, through copies and en- 
gravings of them that are treasured on the walls 
of thousands of homes both in England and 
America. Of his portraits of older people it was 
said that he always made his men look brave and 
his women beautiful. 

In 1815 Lawrence was knighted and became 
Sir Thomas Lawrence ; in 1819 he was elected 
president of the Royal Academy, and held the 
post until his death in 1830. He was buried in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, beside his friend and master, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

H.T.& G.B. II. 5. 






It has taken old Father Time a long while to 
get the world into good, regular running order 
as it is to-day. For many hundreds of years 
people had very strange and uncertain ways of 
telling time, for they did not have any clocks 
or watches to mark the hours. In fact, they did 
not even know anything about hours or minutes, 
but reckoned time merely by days and months 
and years, although they never could agree when 
the day began. Some said it began at sunrise 
and others thought it began when the sun set, 
while some said it did not begin until mid- 
night and still others were sure it began at 

Well, after the world had gone on for a long 
while with its days, months, and years, the day 
and night were finally each divided into twelve 
parts, or hours. It mattered not how long or 
how short the daylight part was, it was di- 
vided into twelve hours just the same, for the 
hours were lengthened or shortened to suit the 
length of the day in the various seasons of the 
year. In some of the long summer days each 
hour had seventy-five minutes, while in the short 
winter days, when the hours had to be crowded 
so as to get them all in between sunrise and 
sunset, each hour had only forty-four minutes. 

These hours were measured by sun-dials and 
hour-glasses and candles and other curious 
time-pieces, which were about as changeable 
and uncertain as the hours themselves. Of 
course when clocks were invented such things 
went out of use, for clocks were so much more 
accurate and reliable, and would keep on re- 
cording without having to be watched all the 
time to see that they did not stop or run out. 

At first clocks were crude affairj, and were 
not much to be relied upon. They could not 
well be made for house use, and were chiefly 
placed in the towers of churches and town halls. 
Each morning and evening the clock bell would 

ring at a certain hour, so that all within sound 
of its deep note could keep track of the time, and, 
if they were fortunate enough to have a clock 
at home, could set it to agree with the town 
clock, which was more likely to be correct than 
their own. But now Uncle Sam does a simi- 
lar service for the people all over this great 
country by sending at noon each day an electric 
signal which enables them to set and regulate 
their clocks and watches. The work is done 
by officers and clerks in the United States Naval 
Observatory at Washington, where they make 
careful calculations and look after the great 
clocks that regulate the time of the country. 
Some of the college observatories also furnish 
several portions of the country with standard 
time much in the same way as does the Naval 

Until a few years ago each town and city had 
its own time, for, as you know, time is reckoned 
by what are known as meridians of longitude — 
imaginary lines running north and south on the 
earth's surface. You all remember these lines 
running up and down across the maps in your 
geographies. Now when the sun is directly over 
one of these lines it is noon at all places that hap- 
pen to be on that meridian, but of course places 
lying east and west of this would each have a 
different meridian and therefore a different time. 

This was good enough before the days of the 
railroad and the telegraph, but now it would be 
a tremendous bother if each place were to use 
its own local time, and so we make use of a 
system called standard or railway time. 

According to this plan the country is divided 
in such a way that there are only four different 
times in the entire United States, each exactly 
an hour different from that of the adjoining 
divisions. Thus when it is twelve o'clock at 
New York it is eleven o'clock at Chicago, ten 
o'clock at Denver, and nine o'clock at San 




Francisco. These different standards are called 
Eastern Time, Central Time, Mountain Time, 
and Pacific Time, and the time of all places in 
any one of these divisions is precisely the same, 
no matter what their local time may be. 

In Europe some of the countries calculate 
their time from the meridian that passes through 
Greenwich in England, but the United States 
calculates from the meridian that is seventy-five 
degrees west of Greenwich. When the sun is 
directly over this meridian, it is said to be noon 
at Washington, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, 
and all other towns and cities in the Eastern 

Strange as it may seem, Uncle Sam does not 
make use of the sun for reckoning time, but he 
turns his attention to some of the regular steady- 
going stars, or "fixed stars," as they are called. 
Every clear night an astronomer with a big tele- 
scope looks at certain of these stars and makes 
his calculations, from which he can tell just 
when the sun would cross the seventy-fifth me- 
ridian. One of the great clocks in the observa- 
tory is called the transmitter, because it trans- 
mits or sends out the signal that keeps standard 
time. This clock is set and regulated by the 
star-time, and then every day at three minutes 
and fifteen seconds before twelve a switch is 
turned on and the beats of the pendulum of this 
clock are sent by electricity over the wires to the 
telegraph offices in Washington and New York. 

When the telegraph operators hear this sound 
on their instruments they know that the noon 
signal is about to be sent out, and they at once 
begin to connect the telegraph wires with other 
towns and cities, until in a minute or two the 
"tick, tick" of the clock at Washington is heard 
in hundreds of telegraph offices. The beats 
stop at ten seconds before twelve as a notice 
that the next "tick" will be the noon signal, 
and so as to give the operators time to connect 
their wires with the standard time-balls and 
clocks. There are time-balls in a great many 
cities — usually on top of some prominent build- 
ing, where they can easily be seen. The one 
at Washington is on the roof of the State, War, 
and Navy Department Building, at the top of 
a high pole, ready to drop the instant the signal 
comes over the wire. In the government offices 
at Washington and in many places in other cities 
there are large clocks connected with the observ- 
atory by electricity. These are so arranged that 
when the twelve-o'clock signal is flashed over 
the wires, the hands of each one of these clocks 
spring to twelve, no matter what time the clock 
may show ; in this way hundreds of clocks are 
set to the correct time each day. 

Well, the moment the sun is supposed to cross 
the seventy-fifth meridian, the telegraph instru- 
ments give a single tick, the time-balls drop, 
the clocks begin to strike, and everybody in 
the district knows it is twelve o'clock. 


















Temple of the Empress of Heaven, China. 

This is the 13th day of the fifth moon of the 33d 
year of K\vang-su, very early in the morning— 


that is, "very early" for me, because I ordered 
my "boy" last evening to call me at eight o'clock 
this morning and not a minute before. Here, in 
the rambling old temple where we live, we have 
learned to go to bed with the sun pn the 14th and 
on the last day of each Chinese moon, because we 
know that the wailing pipes of the early morning 
celebrations before the gods on the ist and 15th 
of the moon will be certain to wake us at a truly 
heathenish hour. But when an extra, unan- 
nounced, unexpected festival day is ushered in 
with cymbals, pipes, and firecrackers, then we 
just have to lose our morning sleep and try not 
to lose our tempers. This morning is one of those 
dawns of misery. Even as I write the temple 
bells, the drums, and those peculiar jig-time horns 
are setting up a discordant hubbub in the court- 
yards, while at intervals a big cracker sends me 
springing into the air with a start that fearfully 
tries my nerves. At first this morning I endeav- 
ored to sleep, but I soon gave that up to don my 
kimono and sally forth to find out the cause of 
this gratuitous Fourth of July. Out on the ter- 
race in front of the inner gates of the temple, to 
which the rays of the rising sun had not yet bent 
down, there was gathered a small group of men 
and boys watching such a display of firecrackers 

as would have attracted a whole City Hall Park 
full of people at home. Yet their interest was 
apparently much like their numbers — very small. 
They just gazed at the exploding end of the red 
string of noise without any comments and with- 
out any more evident interest than they took in 
seeing that the small boys picked up all of the 
uncxploded crackers that were blown out of the 
danger circle by their more powerful brothers. 


My appearance in a kimono and straw sandals 
seemed to furnish them with more excitement 
than the rope of crackers which hung from the 
firecracker pole hard by. Such a din! Can you 
imagine a string of firecrackers, large and small 
woven together, of over 100,000? 

But I am getting ahead of my story. By way 




of introduction I meant only to tell you that I 
have for some time been planning to write a let- 


ter to your good editor in the hope that he might 
be willing to pass on to you of the fast-disappear- 
ing American "firecracker age" my story of how 
this country, the native land of the "whip-guns," 
manufactures and uses these crackers which we 
think of as belonging only to our Fourth of July. 

The desire and determination to write this let- 
ter had their birth one day in a city of North 
China when I was walking along the street where 
many of the firecracker-makers live— since.dubbed 
"Firecracker Row" on my private chart of the 
city — and when I suddenly realized how much I 
should have liked as a boy, when I was "shooting 
off crackers," to see these places and to know 
their ways of manufacture. It is difficult not to be 
interrupted nor to interrupt these lines. Now 
there are two little pigtailed heads stretched up 
just over my window-sill, peeping in and asking 
if I do not wish to buy the tiger-lilies they have 
gathered on the hillside. So first I will try to tell 
you how the crackers are made and then how 
they are used out here, in the hope that you may 
find as much interest in reading the story as I 
have found in gathering the information and pic- 
tures for it. 

Several times I went into the city to visit Fire- 
cracker Row, and on one occasion took a series 
of photographs to show more clearly than words 
will do the important steps in the process of man- 
ufacture. The first step consists in cutting the 
rough brown paper into pieces such as you can 
see piled up on the back of the bench just below 
the lamp in Fig. i. These are long enough to 

make a hollow tube of several layers in thickness, 
and wide enough to give the tube a length just 
twice that of the finished cracker. From the top 
of his pile the workman takes a pack of these 
slips, lays them out with one end arranged just 
like steps, and then slides down the stairs, as it 
were, with a brush of paste, so as to make the 
outer ends of the slips stick fast when rolled 
against the tube. Then he bends the other— the 
dry — end around an iron nail, and places the nail 
under a board, which rolls it along the slip until 
all the paper has curled around it, just as you can 
see the old man rolling one in Fig. 2. Once the 
cracker skeleton is thus formed, he gives it an 
extra roll or two down the bench for good mea- 
sure, slides it off the nail into a basket, and has 
another started before you realize what he is 
about. Then one of the small apprentices in the 
shop arranges the skeletons together in a six- 
sided bundle, like those on the drying-board in 
Fig. 3, in each of which he puts just 507. Why 
that particular number, I could not find out. 

FIG. 4. 


Once dry, the skeletons receive their covering 
garment of red paper, which makes them so truly 
"little redskins" — this from the hands of one of 
the workers without the aid of any machine what- 
ever. He just rolls one of the narrow slips 
around the tube with his fingers and hurries the 



growing agitator into another basket to await the 
time ior stuffing in the material that will make 
him such a lively fellow. Once more, however, 
they all have to be packed up into the six-sided 
bundles, this time with two stout strings tied 
around them a third of the way from the top and 
bottom, leaving the middle free. You can see 
clearly in Fig. 4 the way the workers take their 
big knife and chop right down through the whole 
bundle to make the clean ends for the tops of the 
shorter tubes. 

These shorter tubes next have a thin paper cov- 
ering pasted over both tops and bottoms before 
the bottoms are closed by tapping them with a 
nail that is just a little larger than the hole in the 
tube, so that it crowds down some of the paper 
from the sides. With the bundles right side up, 
the workman then makes holes in the paper cover 
over the top, scatters on this the powder dust, and 
distributes it fairly evenly among the 507 hungry 
ones bv means of a light brush. \\'hen the dust 
has been tamped a little, the powder finds its w-ay 
to the middle of the tube in the same manner, the 
fuse is inserted by another workman, the top 
layer of dust added, and the whole supply of bot- 
tled fun packed in by another tamping with a nail 
and mallet. Completed and still crowded together 
in the bundles, the little redskins, with the fuses 
sticking out of their caps, seem to wear a festive, 

FIG. 5. 


promising look that clearly says: "You give us a 
light, and we '11 do the rest. And what a high old 
time it will be !" 

When asked how many of these bundles one 
man could make in a day, the good-natured mas- 
ter of the shop— whose smile in Fig. 6 is proof 

enough to support my statement— said that one 
man is counted on to make twenty bundles up to 
the point where the powder is put in, when the 
crackers are passed along to others to finish and 
weave into strings. What a string means here in 
this land, where the diminutive "packs" we used 


to buy for a nickel w^ould be scorned, may be 
gathered from a glance at those which the maker 
is holding up in Fig. 5 and at those on the drying- 
boards in the view shown in Fig. 3. 

Once the crackers have been fully prepared for 
stringing, either they are put together in such 
strings as you see in the pictures or they have big- 
ger fellows — four or five times the size of the little 
ones — plaited in at regular intervals. Then they 
are wrapped neatly with red or white paper in 
long packages bearing on the face a red slip with 
the shop's name printed on it in gilt characters. 
Some of these packets would have seemed mon- 
strous—needlessly extravagant — in those days 
when I used to make one or two nickel packs last 
the better part of a Fourth of July morning by 
firing them one by one in a hole in the tie-post or 
under a tin can. To give these longer strings 
sufficient strength to hang from a pole, as is the 
usual way of firing them, the workmen weave in 
with the fuses a light piece of hemp twine. But 
even this is not an adequate protection against a 
break in those monster strings that come out on 
special occasions. The one that started this letter 
to you was fifteen feet long when I arrived on 
the scene to investigate the disturbance and had 
already lost one half its numbers (I have seen 
strings from thirty to fifty feet long). To keep 












such a .string from breaking, the Chinese fasten 
it at intervals to a rope which runs through the 

pulley at the top of the pole, and then draw^ the 
line up until the bottom clears the ground. As 
the explosions tear away the lowest crackers, the 
rope is let down and, at the same time, held out 
away from the bottom of the pole to make a 
graceful curve of the last few feet of the string. 
When such long strings have eaten themselves 
up, you can picture the amount of fragments 
around the basp of the pole. There are literally 
basketfuls of them to be first wetted down to 
guard against fire and then swept up or allowed 
to blow away when the winds so will. 

Thus far you have heard only of little and big 
crackers. However, there are many distinguish- 
ing names among the Chinese for the several 
varieties and sizes, which I am going to give you 
before passing on to the story of the special uses 
of crackers in the Chinese life. First come the 
ordinary p\cyi p'ao, or "whip-guns," the small 
ones which derive their name from the similarity 
which their explosion bears to the snapping of a 
whip. Sometimes they are called simply "whips," 
in the same way that the Chinese speak of many 
things by shortened or changed names. To make 
these names seem more real to you I have had 
my Chinese teacher write out for me on sepa- 
rate slips the characters which represent them. 
More diminutive than the ordinary crackers are 
the "small whips," about an inch long, that are 
made especially for the small children to use with- 
out danger. For one American cent you could 
buy about loo of these. Then above the whip- 
guns the next class is the "bursting bamboos," 



which are said to have taken their name from the 
fact that in early times bamboo was used as the 
tubes for these crackers. If such were the case, 
a hne of them must have "made the splinters fly." 
Even still more powerful are the "hemp thunder- 
ers," or, to take a little liberty with the transla- 
tion, the "hemp sons of thunder," whose name 
also indicates their construction and their magni- 
tude. Bearing a close similarity in power to our 
cannon crackers, these have been known at times 
to break the second-story paper windows in a 
small compound. They play an important part in 
the worshiping or propitiating of the gods in our 
courtyard, inasmuch as it is considered good form 
to set them off at intervals while the whip-guns 
—which my teacher assures me "do not require 
any watching"— are keeping up their unbroken 
stream of praise and prayer. They may be con- 
sidered as good lusty "Amens" throughout the 

Slightly different in form are the "double 
noises," which are nothing more or less than our 
"boosters" that go off first on the ground and 
again up in the air. To intersperse these through- 
out the explosions of the whips during any spe- 
cial demonstration is also considered good form. 
Then allied to these we find another booster, 
which when it explodes on the ground drives ten 
others up into the air to become the "flying in 
heaven ten sounds" with the Chinese. These are 
only "for play," and that chiefly in the homes 
from the 13th to the 17th days of the first moon 
of the year. With the "lamp flower exploders," 
that is, our flower-pot, the list of the most com- 
mon forms of crackers and fireworks becomes 
exhausted, although the Chinese have several 
other less usual species, together with many al- 
ternative names for both these and the ones I 
have mentioned. 

The time when the Chinese receive most crack- 
ers is at the New Year season, when, among the 
well-to-do families of Tientsin and Peking, it is 
customary to give a boy the equivalent of our 
fifty cents for his purchases. In Peking the shops 
issue special red notes, like our old "shinplasters" 
in value, for this one use at the New Year. In 
giving the cracker money to the boys, the parents 
often make smaller presents to the girls, who are 
wont to buy paper flowers with their pennies, in 
proof of which the Chinese have a proverb which 
runs, "Girls like flowers; boys like crackers." 

But this juvenile use of the whip-guns con- 
sumes only an infinitesimal part rf the whole sup- 
ply of the year. At many festivals and on many 
occasions the head of the house, the manager of 
the shop, or the officers of the gild require great 
quantities of these propitious harbingers, Great- 

est of all occasions is the passing of the year, 
when the people keep up the successor to the 
ancient custom of setting off the "bamboo guns" 
in order to drive away the evil spirits of the past 
twelvemonth and to usher in all that is good for 
the coming one. All night long the crackers have 
been popping in the town below, and an early 
gathering in the temple is held to add the final 
touch before the new day shall break. 

When morning came, I wandered leisurely to 
my office through the business section of the town 
to watch the fun at the big shops. Never shall I 
forget the picture of that street with its dozen or 
more great red strings of crackers hanging in 
front of the bigger hongs and seemingly waiting 
for some word to start the fusillade. Fortunately 
this came and the storm broke as I waited. For 
sheer noise, vivacity, and demonstrative liveliness 
I never have seen the equal of those snarling, 
bursting lines that poured out their wrath with 
incessant fervor upon the evil spirits below and 
shot up their welcome to the good ones above. 
Then, although this display on New Year's Day 
seemed grand enough to last a long time, there 
came more explosions as the shops took down 
their doors and began again their routine busi- 
ness on the 5th or 6th of the moon. Further- 
more, custom demands in certain parts that 
throughout the first ten days of the year there 
shall be occasional snappings of the whips, to be 
followed on the 15th, at the Feast of Lanterns, 
by a still greater demonstration. 

When a new shop is opened, it is customary 
for all the front boards to be left up until just 
before the opening ceremony takes place ; then 
one or two boards are taken down, the manager 
and his assistants come out to light a string of 
crackers, and, as the whips are snapping, the re- 
maining boards come down to the sound of this 
propitious music of the land. Very often there 
are several strings hung from poles or tripods, 
and one is lighted after the other in such a way 
as to maintain a long, unbroken stream of noise. 

In most parts of the empire it is also customary 
for an official, when he receives the seals of office 
from his predecessor, to have a string of crackers 
let off at the proper moment. And I must confess 
to having yielded myself to the pressure of my Chi- 
nese assistants in having purchased a few for use 
at the time we opened our new office at this place. 
Likewise, when a military official is leaving a 
post, he is usually accorded a send-off with crack- 
ers which have been subscribed for by his men. 

And thus, from what has gone before, you may 
catch some idea of the persistency with which the 
little redskins have poked their noses into almost 
all the important celebrations of the Chinese life. 





It will doubtless surprise many readers to learn 
that Uncle Sam has one of the largest collec- 
tions of toys in the world. He keeps them in 
the National Museum at Washington, where 
they may be seen by hundreds, nicely arranged 
and labeled, in the exhibition hall. But on the 
balcony in the west end of the big building is 
the real Santa Claus shop. Like the spider's 
parlor in the nursery song, the way to this won- 
derland is '"up a winding stair." 

On each side of the long balcony is a range 
of tall pine cases fitted with drawers in which 
are stored toys and games from all parts of the 
world. To be sure, these drawers contain many 
other interesting objects besides, for it is in this 
department that everything relating to ethnol- 
ogy is sorted and catalogued for exhibition. 
Ethnology is the science which tells us of human 
races in their progress from savagery to civiliza- 
tion — how people in all parts of the world live, 
of the things they use in everyday life, and how 
they use them. 

The toys and games in Uncle Sam's collec- 
tion have been gathered, by his agents, from 
every known country. Many of them are rare 
and costly, and beautifully made; but the most 
interesting and unusual are the product of un- 
civilized hands. Some are gorgeously colored 
and decorated with beads and shells, while others 
are grimy and pitifully mean; but they have each 
brought their measure of joy to some childish 
heart, somewhere. 

Of dolls alone there are enough to give any 
little girl reader a new one every day until she 
becomes too old to care longer for them ; ivory 
babies from Alaska, dressed in little coats of 
deer fur to protect them from an Arctic winter ; 
South Sea Island puppets with scarcely any 

clothes at all ; Indian papooses decked with 
beads and buckskin ; pink-cheeked waxen beau- 
ties from Paris; almond-eyed Japanese in red 
kimonos; black wooden images from the Congo; 
and various other dolls fashioned from clothes- 
pins, pine-cones, and corn-husks : 

Some in rags, 
Some in jags, 
And some in velvet gowns. 

Uncle Sam is especially rich in Alaskan dolls. 
Some of them are of ivory, no bigger than your 
thumb ; but the clothing is made with the great- 
est care from the softest sealskin, trimmed with 
beads and edged with white hair from the leg 
of the deer. Others are two or three feet in 
height, and are carved from wood, and equally 
well dressed, even to their mittens, skin caps 
with ear-flaps, and their perfectly correct snow- 
shoes. Then there are the dolls of the Zuni 
and the Moqui Indians of Arizona and New 
Mexico. These are a brilliant and cheerful 
gathering, and occupy a drawer all to them- 
selves. Some are made of wood and others of 
baked clay, and all are painted in gaudy colors. 
Some among them have real hair, done up in 
funny little knots above their ears, or in braids 
with feathers and red flannel. I show you a 
picture of one of them ; he represents a fire- 
dancer. His body is painted black and is span- 
gled all over with glistening tinsel, which makes 
him appear as if he were covered with sparks. 

Many of the more beautiful toys were made 
by the Eskimos. During the long Arctic nights 
these wonderful little people carve, from the 
tusks of the walrus, figures of every conceivable 
shape and design. Often entire villages are 




made, the huts, bidarkees (or canoes), and dog- 
sledges being in perfect miniature. The long 
sledge shown in the picture is from Labrador. 
It is a fine specimen of native workmanship. 


The dogs are cut out of fine-grained white wood, 
and are most natural in their attitudes. The 
toy-makers of Nuremberg or of Switzerland 
could not have done more skilful work. The 
art of these Arctic folk is the more wonderful 
when one considers the very primitive tools 
which they have to use. The knife with which 
they carve the dainty little figures is seldom 


more than a bit of steel barrel-hoop, ground 
down to an edge, and lashed with thongs of wal- 
rus-hide to a handle of bone or drift-wood. 

The toys of the Zuni Indians are modeled in 
clay and baked to prevent them from crumbling. 
Cows, goats, and frogs, streaked and spotted with 
paint, hold the first place in this collection, but 
there are also clay whistles and bird-warblers, 
the latter quite like the tin ones seen in our 
shop-windows. The bird is made to sing by fill- 
ing its hollow body with water and blowing 
through a tube inserted in its back. There are 
also clay rattles of various shapes and sizes in 
the Zuiii exhibit, and wooden birds that flap 
their jointed wings like those we hang upon our 
Christmas tree. 

XVTI— 6 




In the collection of games there are a great 
many objects interesting either for the oddity of 
their shape, curious operation, or beauty of 
workmanship. One novel game consists of four 
pieces of bone attached by a bead string to a 
long steel bodkin. The bodkin is held in one 
hand and the bones tossed up into the air. A 
skilful player may succeed in catching one or 
more of the bones upon the steel point, and 
scores accordingly. This game is a favorite with 
the Cheyenne Indians, and is not unlike our own 
game of "cup-and-ball." 

A card game from Persia, valued at many 
hundreds of dollars, has its board inlaid in solid 
gold; and a set of chessmen from India are of 
beautifully carved ivory, each "man" being at 
least four inches in height. 

Another curious game, from which our "jack- 
straws" is probably descended, consists of a 
bundle of arrows of carved ivory or wood. It 
was an ancient custom to toss these arrows into 
the air, and after they fell to the ground they 


were drawn out by the men 

grouped around them. In 
this manner, and according 
to the inimber and symbols 
upon the arrow, captains 
were appointed in the army 
and various duties were 
assigned the soldiers. 

The so-called "bull-roar- 
er," one of the oldest of 
toys, has an interesting his- 
tory. It is nothing more 
than a bit of wood attached 
to a string, which, on be- 
ing whirled around rapid- 
ly, produces a loud, rum- 
bling sound. The ancient 
Egyptians believed that the 
rumbling of the "bull-roar- 
er" would be answered by 
the rumbling of thunder; 
consequently during a 
drought the men would 
sally forth, "bull-roarers" 
in hand, to invoke the rain- 
god to send them water 
from the skies. This curi- 
ous toy is still used by 
some savage tribes, who 
believe its roaring 
will frighten away 
spirits that may be 
ing near. 






Tops and teetotums abound in the west bal- 
cony of the National Museum. They differ but 
little the world over. Uncle Sam has scores of 


them from Alaska, India, the Congo, China, and 
some from the Zuni Indians. They are of 
various shapes and colors, some long and slen- 

red, green, and black. The large top shown in 
the drawing is spun by pulling a thong or cord 
made of rawhide through a hole in the side of 
its socket. One can find its elegantly finished 
descendants in any toy-window, it may be, with 
the word ''Patented" marked upon them. 

Another exhibit of especial interest to boys is 
a collection of balls — baseballs, handballs, and 
footballs. One among them is a nicely rounded 
bit of solid rubber. Others are built up of tightly 
wrapped deer-hide; these are used by the In- 
dian boys. There are others still of wood; and 
one ball in particular, which it would not be 
advisable for any boy to attempt to "take off 
the bat," even with an extra heavy pair of 
catcher's gloves, is made of stone incased in 
buckskin. The large football in the picture is 
of Siamese manufacture; it is made of woven 
bamboo, is very springy, and is indestructible. 



der, others short and thick, with "pegs" of ivory, Dice, dominoes, parcheesi, and checkers have 

stone, horn, bone, or metal. Those of the Zuni not been forgotten by Uncle Sam in his collec- 
are painted in gaudy stripes or rings of white, tion of games. He has a generous supply of 



them on hand. Some counters are mere bits of 
bone, roughly whittled wood, or painted shells. 


while Others are of elaborately carved and pol- 
ished ivory. 

The mounted soldier, dressed in the costume 
of a warrior of the Spanish invasion, is from 
Mexico. His armor is made of bits of leather 
and is covered with strips of tin-foil to repre- 
sent steel, as are also his feather-bedecked 
helmet and the point of the spear which he car- 
ries in his hand. 

The thought that comes to one when viewing 
the toys and games of savage and semi-civilized 

races is the similarity that exists between them 
and those of our own race. "See how these 
poor people have tried to copy our playthings," 
one is tempted to say; but here we are mistaken, 
for our toys and games, as well as many of the 
articles we use every day, are nothing more than 
improvements upon the crude forms and designs 
handed down to us by these savages, for as men 
become more civilized, so the work of the hand 
and the brain advances — ever going on toward 
the stage of perfection. 

When next you are visiting Washington, do 
not fail to visit the National Museum, where the 
guardian of the treasure in the west balcony 


will show you more dolls and balls, tops, tee- 
totums, and wonder-things than one could dream 
of in a year of Christmas eves. 


When the Camera was Unknown 

By Morris Wade 

The making of silhouettes can hardly be 
classed among the lost arts, since there is so 
little art about them. The best of them repre- 
sent the human profile in a crude way, and 
they were regarded as rather a cheap kind of 
pictures even m the days when they were 
most popular. Indeed, the very word sil- 
houette means something poor and cheap and 


it had its origin in a spirit of ridicule. It is 
taken from Etienne de Silhouette who was a 
French Cabinet Minister in the year 1759 
when the treasury of France was very low 
because of costly wars with Britain and Prus- 
sia and by the extravagances of the govern- 
ment. When F-tienne de Silhouette became 
minister of finance he set about making great 
reforms in the public expenditures. He was, 
by nature, a very "close" man, and he went 
to such extremes in keeping down the public 
expenses that he brought great ridicule upon 
himself, and finally anything that was cheap 
and poor was referred to as a la Sillwucttc. 
A very crude picture was popular at that 

time. It was made by tracing the shadow or 
profile of a face projected by the light of a 
candle on a sheet of white paper and the out- 
line defined with a pencil. This was such a 
very poor and cheap sort of a picture that it 
was at once called a silhouette in further de- 
rision of the very saving French minister and 
the name has "stuck." It is an instance 
of the curious derivation of some words in 
common use, and this unkind slur on a man 
who was really trying to introduce needed re- 
forms in the spending of the public money 
has long been accepted as a good and proper 
word. Indeed, there is no other word used 
for pictures of this kind, although there were 
such pictures long before Monsieur Etienne 
de Silhouette had his name attached to them 
in so embarrassing a way. 

Madame Pompadour brought the silhouette 
into popularity by showing a great liking for 
it, and the pictures made by casting a shadow 
with a lamp were called profiles a la Pompa- 
dour. They were to be seen all over France. 

Then the silhouette became popular in 
America a great many years ago, and a man 
named Charles Wilson Peale, who had a mu- 
seum in Philadelphia, became famous for his 
cleverness in executing them. He invented 
a kind of a machine which traced the profile 
with extreme accuracy. Even George Wash- 
ington sat to Peale for a silhouette, and all 
the most prominent gentlemen and ladies of 
the day felt that they must have silhouettes 
of themselves. 

Then there was a boy of seventeen named 
James Hubard who came to this country 
from England and went from place to place 
setting up "Hubard Galleries" to which the 
people flocked to have silhouettes of them- 
selves made by the clever "artist." He had 
many samples of his work on exhibition and 
the people paid fifty cents for admission to 
the gallery. This also paid for a silhouette 
which young Hubard cut out in a very few 
seconds with a pair of scissors. He was 
looked upon as a great genius, and he ex- 
hibited with pride a silver palette presented 
to him by the Philosophical Society of Glas- 
gow in appreciation of his unusual talent. 
On the palette were the words : " Presented 
to Master James Hubard by admirers of his 




genius in the city of Glasgow, Scotland, 
February 14, 1824." 

Young Hubard exhibited his silhouettes at 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and 
in New York and Boston. He became am- 
bitious to do better work than any mere 
maker of silhouettes could do, and he finally 
made quite a reputation as a painter of por- 
traits. He remained in our country and died 
in Richmond, Virginia in 1862, his death hav- 
ing been caused by the explosion of a shell 
he was filling with a compound he had manu- 
factured for the use of the Confederate Army. 

Another noted silhouettist coming to this 
country from foreign lands was Monsieur 
Edouart who arrived on our shores in 1838, 
and for nine or ten years he was kept busy 
making silhouettes of people who admired 
this kind of art. Edouart kept a copy of each 
silhouette he made and he valued his collec- 
tion so highly that it quite broke his heart 
when the entire collection went to the bottom 
of the sea while Edouart was returning to his 
native land from America in 1847. 

America produced a silhouettist thought by 
many to be as clever as any who had come 
to our country from foreign lands. This was 
William Henry Brown who was but sixteen 
years old when he cut a very fine silhouette 
of General Lafayette who was then on a visit 
to this country. In some respects Brown was 
even cleverer than any of his predecessors 
had been. He was a kind of a "snap shot" 
silhouettist for he could make silhouettes of 
men and women on the street without the 
subjects of his pictures being aware of the 
fact that they were having their "likenesses" 
taken. Indeed, he had such remarkable skill 
in memorizing faces and forms that he could 
look at a person on the street and cut a won- 
derfully good silhouette of the person after 
returning to his studio. He went farther 
than other silliouettists had done, for he made 
cuttings of ships and railroad trains and pro- 
cessions in which the figures were readily 
recognized. He made one cutting twenty-five 
feet long with sixty-five persons in it, and so 
clever was the execution that it was easy to 
recognize every figure in it. 

One may see in one of the public school 
buildings in Boston, two silhouettes of un- 
usual interest, for they are of George and 
Martha Washington. Possibly they are the 
work of Peale, but there is nothing to indi- 

cate the name of the silhouettist. Under- 
neath the frame in which the profiles are, is 
this information in regard to them: 

" The within are profiles of General and Mrs. 
Washington taken from their shadows on a wall. They 
are as perfect likenesses as profiles can give. Presented 
to me by my friend, Mrs. Eleanor P. Lewis at Wood- 
lawn, July 1832. 

" Elizabeth Bordley Gibson." 


The Mrs. Eleanor P. Lewis referred to was a 
great-granddaughter of Martha Washington. 

The silhouettes were presented to the school 
by Mr. Edward Shippen of Philadelphia. 
They are the original profiles, and not copies. 
The invention of the daguerreotype by M. 
Daguerre in 1839 put the nose of the silhou- 
ettist quite hopelessly "out of joint." No 
one wanted a silhouette after having seen the 
daguerreotype. Then the daguerreotype lost 
favor because of the perfection of the art of 
the photographer. This art of the photog- 
rapher has now reached a degree of perfection 
that was undreamed of by those who first 
practised it. 



On the 30th of May, 1898, our morning news- 
papers announced to the eager public that Cer- 
vera's fleet lay "bottled up" in Santiago 
harbor. No boy of the present generation will 
forget, as long as he lives, the electric effect of 
that headline. Nor will he be less likely to 
remember how a coaling vessel was by and by 
sunk athwart the narrow entrance to that 
harbor, with the idea of "corking up the bot- 
tle." Now that the excitement of those days, 
together with the events of the war itself, have 
become matters of history, it will be well 


worth while to revisit this famous "bottle," 
and some others of its type. 

The detail of Santiago harbor is shown on 
this page. At the first glance we notice how 
narrow, how very narrow, the entrance is. In- 
deed we are told that it is only six hundred 
feet in width, a dimension not exceeding the 
length of a good-sized Atlantic steamer. And 
this narrow passage from the sea leads be- 
tween two rocky hills, almost mountains, into 
an inland waterway, — the Bay of Santiago de 
Cuba. Well, within this great salt water bottle 
lay the seven vessels of the Spanish fleet, so 
well hidden by the intervening hills that the 
American vessels, reconnoitering on the out- 
side, at first could spy no trace of them within. 
H.T.&G.D, IT. 6. 8 

These arms of the mountain, coming so 
near together, are useful in times of peace, 
also, to keep out the great storms that now and 
again lash the Caribbean Sea. On the outside, 
a hurricane may be sinking every vessel in its 
track, while within, a boy may safely row his 
boat. The effect of this mountain fence with 
a gateway through it may be best imagined by 
remembering how some ports, having no such 
protection by nature, have spent millions of 
dollars in building breakwaters of piles and 
rocks. What things it would mean to Chicago, 
for instance, or Galveston, could either rub her 
Aladdin's lamp and find herself lying snugly 
in a bottle harbor, instead of crouching behind 
her fence of sticks and stones ! 

If we now take a trip around the world, over 
the maps of a good atlas, we shall find that 
this geographical bottle is a very common type 
of harbor, the world over. The coasts of Cuba 
show a succession of such inclosed bays, 
Havana harbor being typical. It often hap- 
pens that nature herself provides the corks, 
also in the shape of islands that almost block 
up the entrance, or at least block the view 
from the outside. Such a cork is Corregidor 
Island, in Manila Bay, or the rocky Alcatraz 
fortress just inside the Golden Gate, at San 
Francisco; and Smith Cay occupies a similar 
position at Santiago. 

The Annapolis Basin, in Nova Scotia, is 
very typical among these geographical bottles. 
A fairly good map of that beautiful country 
will show a narrow gap on the Bay of Fundy 
side of the peninsula. This gap, known as 
Digby Strait, breaks through a long ridge that 
the people call North Mountain. Through this 
break rush the famous tides of Fundy, and fill 
up an inland basin of salt water twenty miles 
long and several in width. The entrance, 
from the outside, is mysteriously invisible to 
the landsman's eye. To a passenger crossing 
the Bay of Fundy from St. John is seems as if 



the captain were steering his trim side-wheeler 
head on, into a blue mountain wall. But at 
last the forested mountain opens, and through 
the break the interior hills of Nova Scotia close 
the distance. One can imagine the tremendous 


tide race through this Digby Strait when we 
know that the ordinary tidal rise in this region 
is anywhere from forty to seventy feet. It is 
so great, in fact, that the wharves at Digby are 
two-storied affairs; and people go aboard 
steamers from the upper or lower story, ac- 
cording to the height of the tide. 

New York harbor is, in most respects, a geo- 
graphical bottle — only it has two mouths in- 
stead of one. Added to the principal opening, 
the Narrows, a sort of side entrance is pro- 
vided by the East "River," leading out into 
the Sound. 

The coast of Australia presents several ex- 
amples of the geographical bottle, the finest 
being the harbor of Melbourne. An ordinary 
map shows this city located apparently upon a 
first rate harbor of the bottle type we have 
been examining. As a matter of fact the bot- 
tle is really there — a magnificent enclosure of 
salt water fully thirty-five miles across, in either 
direction. Into this bay, called Port Phillip, 
there flows the Yarra River ; and oddly enough, 
Melbourne, with its half million people, hides 
itself away nine miles up this stream! Below 
the city the river has two sand-bars which pre- 
vent the passage of large vessels. The heavy 
ocean traffic, therefore, has its terminus in the 

bay, whence the journey is continued to town 
by rail. The explanation for this awkward sit- 
uation seems to be that, in the early days of 
Melbourne, the one idea of the settlers was to 
build as near as might be to the gold diggings. 
So up the river the miners planted their settle- 
ment, never dreaming that one day it would 
become a great metropolis, imprisoned behind 
the sands of the useless Yarra. 

Rio de Janeiro has a splendid enclosed har- 
bor — the best in all South America ; better far 
than the shallow "Lake" Maracaibo, which 
looks so ideal upon the map. Here again, at 
Rio, we have a great salt water inlet, some 
seventeen miles across, communicating with 
the ocean by a narrow strait. 

In nearly every case these natural bottles are 
what the geographer calls "drowned rivers." 
That is to say, the coastal lands in the vicinity 
have subsided, allowing the sea to flow in, and 
convert what was a lowland valley into a partly 
enclosed marine area. Divers have gone to 
the bottom of New York Bay and have found 
there the ancient bed of the Hudson River, as 
that stream flowed before the mouthward part 
of its valley subsided into the sea. The old 
bed reaches through the Narrows and well out 
into the floor of the Atlantic. Of course, as 
the sea water entered the sinking valley, any 
hills rising thereabout would become islands, 
in the new order of things. And there we find 


them to this day, in almost any of these in- 
closed inlets. 

Next in order of value, after the "bottle" 
harbors, are the river-mouths that have be- 
come walled in by sand-bars. Sometimes these 



reaches of water are very spacious, and their 
protecting islands of sand are many miles in 
length. Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, in 
North Carolina, are of this sort. But such a 
harbor, besides being too shallow for use by 
large vessels, is liable to all sorts of changes 
of bottom, as each freshet from the river shifts 


the sands about. It is easy to see how much 
better a harbor is one of our geographical 
"bottles," lying behind two stalwart, unchang- 
ing mountains that push their noses toward 
each other just far enough apart to allow a 
fine deep water strait between them. 

The poorest type of natural harbor is just a 
V-shaped dent in the coast, where, granted 
good weather, vessels may run in and unload, 
putting off again before the next heavy storm. 
Vineyard Haven, in the island of IMartha's 
Vineyard, is one of these. In the terrible 
storm that swept the Atlantic coast in Novem- 
ber, 1898, a dozen or more sailing craft made 
for this little dent in the coastline. But they 
drove before the wind and the wild sea smashed 


them all against the shore. It even threw parts 
of these wrecks across the wagon road that 
skirts the bay. One heavy schooner was driven 
entirely through a stout steamer wharf, cutting 
the latter in two ! It takes such happenings as 
this to awake the imagination of the "land- 
lubber" to the differences in harbors. 

Perhaps the most notable "bottle" harbor in 
the world is that at San Francisco. Here is a 
vast reach of water fifty-five miles long and in 
some parts twelve in width. Into this bay the 
tides of the Pacific flow, through the famous 
Golden Gate. This is a strait about a mile in 
width in its narrowest part, and very deep. 
The proud Californians look out over this se- 
rene expanse and tell you that here is anchor- 
age for the combined navies of the world, 
which, indeed, seems a very mild statement of 
the case. Aside from the immensity of this 
harbor facility it is interesting to notice that 
Calfornia's two big rivers, after traversing the 
great interior valley, flow into this bay. Thus 
nature has furnished two serviceable water- 
roads, leading from a most notable natural 
harbor into the very heart of a rich farming, 
mining and lumbering region. These rivers, 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin, are of the 
same commercial significance to California 
that the Hudson is to New York. 

The harbor at San Francisco is the more 
noteworthy because it is the only one of first 
magnitude south of Puget Sound in the ex- 
treme northwestern part of the Union. Be- 
tween these points, which, as you will see if 
you look at the map, are widely separated — 
California presents to the Orient an inhospita- 
ble cliff-coast, only occasionally broken by a 
little beach or minor inlet. Little coasting 
steamers make landings, it is true, at several 
points along this grim front; but it is a matter 
of considerable hazard. In some places along 
this coast great cranes, fixed upon the cliff, 
hoist people and freight ashore in baskets. And 
the daring little skipper must even then keep 
one eye to windward lest a crashing storm 
drive in upon him and forever terminate his 
service on the sea. Thus the two great har- 
bors mentioned must for all time share the 
greater part of the Pacific Ocean commerce.* 
One familiar with the Atlantic seaboard can 
parallel the situation by blotting out, in his 
mind's eye, all the ports between Savannah 
and Portland, save only New York. And be- 
tween these, in place of the numerous hospita- 
ble inlets, substitute a scarcely broken sea- 

* San Diego, in the extreme south, has a fine landlocked harbor, more than 20 square miles in 

extent, and steamship connections with the Orient. 



cliff. He will then have the conditions before 
him which give to San Francisco its pre- 

But we have side-tracked the discussion by 
these speculations. What we really must do 





now is to cast up, in a general way, the vari- 
ous points that give importance to any harbor. 

In the first place it must really be a harbor, 
— that is, it must be a body of deep water at 
least partly hidden behind some able-bodied 
peninsula that will hold at arm's length, so to 
speak, the fierce ocean storms ; and it must 
have a deep channel, free from rocks, leading 
out to sea. But now, after we have our harbor, 
it is not enough. There must be something in 
the back country worth going after. Either 
gold, which started Melbourne and San Fran- 
cisco in business, or hides and wheat, which 
have made Buenos Aires, or manufactured 
goods which have built up Liverpool. In short, 
the country round about must have something 
worth exporting before it can attract ships to 
its harbor and so build up a port. We might 
easily pick out, upon the map, some very good 
harbors which have never come into use, in 
any large way, because the back country has 
nothing in it that the world wants. The splen- 
did fiords of Norway are examples of this sort. 

But, after all, Norway, aside from its lum- 
ber, which has Iniilt up a medium-sized town 
here and there, has nothing very much to offer 
the world except some codfish and the stout 
and honest hearts of its emigrants. And so 
those magnificent fiords, which, by the way, 
are only a variation of our geographical 
"bottle," remain grand and romantic and 

lonely, with the memory of the ancient vikings 
haunting their solemn aisles. 

On the other hand we have Africa, teeming 
with stuff that people want — ivor} and gold 
and tropic fruits, but presenting that same for- 
bidding cliff front that most of California 
does. In the days of exploration Vasco da 
Gama and the rest of them coasted along for 
many a weary day in hope deferred of seeing 
that inhospitable cliff break away and let them 
into some snug harbor. We have but to recall 
the late Boer war to see how very important is 
the port of Lourenqo Marques in those parts — 
simply because it has the only real harbor for 
hundreds of miles, on either hand. 

There is one thing yet to consider. There 
must not only be a productive country back of 
the harbor, but there must be a good road, or 
the possibility of one, leading from the harbor 
well up into that back country. Alaska, for 
example, has magnificent harbors all along the 
'Tnside Passage" and also, she has plenty of 
gold in the back country. Her chief concern, 
at present, is about routes over the mountains 
from the mines to the ports. 

The very best kind of a road that commerce 
has ever found to travel on is a deep and quiet 

South PACiFi^ 

Tvr i 1 e s 


river — especially a river that leads from the 
sea, where the ships of all countries are sailing, 
far into a land that is rich in the things those 
countries want. If we now look over the 



world map we shall see that wherever such a 
river reaches the sea a big seaport has grown 
up. We have Cairo on the Nile, and New 
Orleans on the Mississippi, and New York on 
the Hudson; Buenos Aires, the metropolis of 
the southern hemisphere, on the Plata ; Para, 
young, lusty and hopeful, at the mouth 
of the Amazon ; Hamburg on the Elbe ; and 
so on, in an indefinite list. This matter of a 
good water-road inland is so important that 
often man has patched up some sort of a har- 
bor where none existed so as to avail himself 
of one of these great waterways. New Or- 

leans, for in- 
stance, from 
most points of 
\ iew, is built 
in the most 
unlikely place. 
The streets are 
lower than the 
surface of the 
river and only 
a great dike 


the big stream from sweeping the city off the 
continent of North America. The city of 
New Orleans stands like a toll-gate, at the be- 
ginning of this long water-road up the center 
of our country. And in South America, Buenos 
Aires has a precisely similar station, as a glance 
at the map will show. New York got its start 
by the same condition. Here was the bay, an 
excellent harbor, and there was the Hudson, 
reaching back into a rich country; and there 
also was Long Island Sound, just as good, for 
trade purposes, as another river. And finally, 
along came De Witt Clinton, and others who 
made the Erie Canal, and so made the Hudson 
twice as much of a road by opening from it 
their "big ditch" into the Great Lakes. His- 
torians tell us that this new waterway, the 

canal, enabled New York to outrace Philadel- 
phia and become the metropolis. Philadelphia 
had the Delaware, and all the trade it could 
give, but it had no waterway through the moun- 
tains to the country in the west. 

It is of interest, now, to see how Chicago 
got her start. Some of the histories make much 
ado over the "natural harbor" which the ex- 
plorers found. But every one knows that that 
natural harbor was the mouth of the merest 
shred of a little muddy stream, reaching inland 
to nowhere in particular. It was all very well 
for a canoe harbor, into which the red man 
might paddle on the way to the portage. But 
so far as commerce is concerned, in the modern 
sense, if Chicago had had nothing but her 
"harbor" to start her in business, she would 
not be much of a town to-day. Chicago's 
fortune was based upon several factors, all 
working together, and the quiet little mud 
creek she grew up on was perhaps the least of 
them. So we find that sometimes the harbor 
makes the town, as in the case of San Fran- 
cisco, and in other instances the town makes 
the harbor, as in Chicago. 

In September, 1900, the whole world was 
thrilled with horror over the great disaster at 
Galveston. Here was a case in point. A 
prosperous city had grown up at that place be- 
cause the rich Texas cotton region absolutely 
demanded a port out of which its product could 
be cheaply shipped. Galveston Bay was the 
best site that offered itself as a harbor. But 
this "bay" was merely a portion of the Gulf 
of Mexico, very insecurely partitioned off by a 
low sand-bar. An unusually heavy storm swept 
westward across the Gulf. The waters piled 
up along the Texas coast. They piled up over 
that low bar and drove irresistibly upon the 
doomed city. Similar catastrophes have hap- 
pened before, in the Gulf. Off the Louisiana 
coast there once thrived a summer resort called 
Last Island. Although merely a sand-bar, a 
big summer hotel had been built upon it. This 
hotel was thronged with guests at the time of 
the disaster. The implacable waters, driven 
by a big outside storm, piled fearfully and 
steadily up ; and in the morning only a mere 
vestige of the island itself served to mark the 
ill-fated pleasure-place. 






How would you like a pie not only sweetened 
and spiced but made hot with a sprinkling of 
pepper? or a cake full of fruit and also strongly 
peppered? I rather think you would call these 
things spoiled, and beg to have them made in 
a different way. If, however, we had lived some 
four or five hundred years ago, we should have 
thought, like every one else in those days, that 
no dish, sweet or otherwise, was complete with- 
out the pungent taste of pepper. No doubt it is 
as well for our digestions that we in these times 
like our food prepared in simpler fashion. 

Perhaps it would surprise you to know that 
this taste for pepper, and the value which was 
once placed upon it, played an important part 
in the discovery of America. In case this last 
statement seems improbable, let me tell you 
something of the history of pepper, and its im- 
portance in the commerce of the world dur- 
ing the Middle Ages. There are a great many 
common things, you know, that have very in- 
teresting stories belonging to them, and they are 
generally worth hearing. 

The native country of the pepper-plant is 
Southern India, and its culture there is very old. 
The berry, or peppercorn, which is ground for 
our use, is produced on vines which are trained 
against trees, very much as you may see the 
grape-vines in an Italian vineyard. The berries 
are dried in the sun and sent to market in bags. 
Black and white pepper are made from the same 
berries, but the black contains the ground husk, 
which the other does not. This addition of the 
husk gives the darker color and stronger flavor 
to black pepper. 

The old Eastern nations, the Egyptians, the 
Greeks, and the Romans all knew and used a 
great many spices, and among them was always 
pepper. How soon it came to be so highly 
esteemed as it was in the Middle Ages is not 
certain; but as early as 410, when the great 
Northern conqueror, Alaric the Visigoth, be- 
sieged Rome, and was induced to retire by taking 
a ransom, three thousand pounds of pepper 
formed part of the treasure he carried away 
with him. 

Later on, taxes began to be paid in pepper in- 
stead of in money, and the Jews, especially, who 
dealt largely in this, among other spices, were 

obliged, in many cases, to give to the govern- 
ment so many pounds of it yearly. In the twelfth 
century, according to an old law, the Jews paid 
to the Pope a tribute of one pound of pepper and 
two pounds of cinnamon. From certain Proven- 
cal villages the archbishop received annually 
from one half to two pounds of pepper, in pay- 
ment for allowing the Jews to have a copy of the 
book of their law, a synagogue, a lamp burning 
perpetually, and a cemetery. In 1385 the King 
of Provence imposed on the Jews in his do- 
minions a tax of sixty pounds of pepper. 

So much traffic in this spice came to the city 
of Alexandria that one of its streets and a gate 
were named for it; and as for Venice, an Italian 
proverb said, "II ncro c il bianco hanno fatto 
ricca Venecia," which means, "The white and 
the black have made Venice rich." In other 
words, it was through the pepper and the cotton, 
brought from the East by the ships of Venice, 
and by her merchants sent all over Europe, that 
the city gained a large share of its vast wealth. 
In the fifteenth century pepper was the article, 
more than than any other, that the Venetians 
sent to France, Flanders, England, and, above 
all, to Germany. 

People used to make presents of pepper. Even 
kings and ambassadors gave and received it. 
When the republic of Venice wished to show 
special gratitude to the Emperor Henry V., they 
made him an annual gift of fifty pounds of it. 
After a victory gained by the people of Genoa 
in iioi, each soldier received as part of his pay 
two pounds of pepper. 

In many countries there prevailed a curious 
system which obliged certain persons to furnish, 
at stated times, pepper in small quantities, in 
most cases about one pound. These payments 
were called "peppercorn rents," and the term has 
not entirely died out yet. In England the tax 
on pepper in 1623 was five shillings a pound, 
and even imtil the eighteenth century it amounted 
to two shillings and sixpence per pound. 

You can easily imagine what a high price 
people had to pay for an article so much in 
demand, and what an enormous amount of it 
must have been used. I said that they put it 
even in sweet dishes, and, in fact, the rage for 
peppered food was so great that it was consid- 



ered absolutely essential in every sauce. People 
would not have said then, "I haven't enoueli 
salt in my soup" or "on my meat," or "enough 
sugar in my pudding," but, "There isn't enough 

In medieval days the spice trade formed the 
base of a large part of the commerce carried 
on, particularly between the East and Italy, and 
gave the name to it. There were a few mer- 
chants who sold nothing else but cinnamon, 
ginger, cloves, and such things, including, of 
course, pepper, and there were, in Paris, men 
known as pcvricrs, who dealt exclusively in pep- 
per. Generally, however, a spice merchant en- 
larged his business to include a great many other 
things beside what we now call spices, and would 
sell olive-oil, dried fruits, medicines and per- 
fumeries, paints and pigments, pearls, corals, 
minerals, metals, soap, and even paper; also, 
strange to say, he would be expected to keep 
on hand a stock of furs and skins. But spices 
were bought and sold in larger quantities than 
any of the other articles just mentioned, and 
were of greater importance. In France a grocer 
is still called an cpicicr — a spice-merchant — 
which is, of course, the old name that has never 
been changed. 

You must imagine yourself in the Middle Ages, 
and think of all the difficulties then connected 
with carrying on business. When our merchants 
want anything, there are swift ships and fast 
trains everywhere; all countries are open, and 
we can telegraph from one end of the earth 
to the other. The products of India and Africa 
are at our very doors, and we have only to ask 
to obtain them. But it has not always been 
so, and we ought to remember the long voyages 
taken, the weary searching made, the dangers 
from wild beasts and savage peoples encountered, 
before we, in our time, could obtain so comfort- 
ably and easily what seem to us only ordinary 

Four and five hundred years ago there was, 
it is true, a great amount of luxury in France 
and Italy. People wore beautiful clothing, mag- 
nificent jewels, and ate choice food; art flour- 
ished, and science made great progress. But 
at what a cost were even the necessaries of 
living obtained ! From the far East to Europe, 
how long the journey was, and what months 
were consumed in bringing, over the deserts of 
Arabia, across the plains and mountains of 
Persia, under the burning sun of India, or in 
boats from Syrian and Turkish ports, the things 
which European civilization required. When we 
remember the difficulties of the medieval mer- 

chants, we can understand one of the principal 
motives which led so many persons to search for 
new and shorter routes to the countries where 
the spices grew, and where the land was rich 
in products which would bring them wealth. It 
was the love of adventure and the desire to see 
new and strange places which started large num- 
bers of the early voyagers, but it was, more than 
all, for commercial reasons that most of the 
expeditions were undertaken. 

There is no need to tell American boys and 
girls anything about the men who discovered the 
different parts of their own country, but it is 
possible that you will like to hear about one or 
two of the persons who inspired those discov- 
eries, and especially to know what part pepper 
had in leading travelers to new and unexplored 

In the year 1260 there passed through Con- 
stantinople two Venetians, named Maffeo and 
Niccolo Polo. They were on their way, as a 
matter of speculation, toward the East, and, by 
various chances and changes, went on until they 
reached Bokhara in Turkestan, where they felt 
a long way from home, and thought they had 
made a great journey. But here they fell in with 
certain envoys on a mission to Cathay, or China, 
and bound to the court of the great monarch 
Kublai Khan. The two brothers were induced 
to accompany them, and thus became, as far as 
we know, the first European travelers to reach 
China. There is no time to tell of how they 
found Kublai Khan at a place called Cambaluc 
(the old name of Peking), just rebuilt by him, or 
of his beautiful country-seat at Shangtu, north 
of the Great Wall. But some day, when you 
read those lines which Coleridge left unfinished, 
and which begin — 

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 
A stately pleasure-dome decree, 

you might remember the visit the two Venetians 
paid the place. 

The Chinese monarch was delighted to meet 
these intelligent men from the distant and civ- 
ilized West, and when they went home he made 
them his messengers to the Pope, begging them 
to return with teachers and missionaries from 
Europe. After a long time they did reach China 
again, having visited home in the meanwhile, 
and although they had not succeeded in hav- 
ing the teachers sent, they brought with them 
Niccolo's son Marco, then fifteen years old, who 
became the famous traveler and the first Euro- 
pean explorer to write a book about what he 



had seen. If you have not done so yet, you for one ship which left India with a cargo of 

should read it. pepper to be sent on to Alexandria, a hundred 

When you read his book, you will notice how or more went to China, 
often he speaks of the spices of the Eastern Marco Polo's book made a great impression 


This map is a copy of a very beautiful one made maps to be found, it is certain that such drawings 

in the early part of the fifteenth century, and now were made, and he left most accurate directions for 

preserved in the famous library of San Lorenzo, at future scholars to follow. So, from his time until 

Florence. When you look at it you will see what a the discoveries of the great navigators, what was 

small part of the world was known in those days, called, from this early geographer, the Ptolemaic 

and what curious ideas people must have had of the system of geography was the best and only system 

relative positions and sizes of different countries, known. 

Notice, for instance, the place occupied by India, and Some of the names on this map may puzzle you, for 

see how the land shuts in the Indian Ocean. they are the old ones by which the people of the Mid- 

You must remember that this and all other maps die Ages knew the countries. But you will be able to 

of the period were drawn largely from imagination make out a good many of them. You will see the 

and a slight amount of actual knowledge. But they island of Ceylon called Taprobane, the Straits of 

were founded on the measurements and speculations Gibraltar, Calpc ; Gallia and Albion, of course, you 

of a famous Egyptian philosopher and geographer, will recognize as France and England, since the 

called Ptolemy, who lived in the second century, names are not unknown to-day, and a little study 

and who left very extensive writings. Although in will soon show you how the different countries were 

the copies of his works there were no drawings of supposed to be placed. 

countries, and how he mentions pepper as one 
of the most important articles of commerce in 
those lands. The Chinese, at that time, valued 
pepper so much that they willingly paid fifteen 
ducats for a bushel, and Marco Polo say? that 

on his fellow-countrymen, and the interest al- 
ready felt in the unexplored East was largely 
increased by reading his stories. One traveler 
after another sailed from the different ports of 
Italy, and made voyages, more or less success- 



fill, in various directions. As at this time the 
principal traffic of Europe came through Venice, 
the Venetians were the first to interest them- 
selves in expeditions to distant countries. Every 
year a Venetian squadron passed through the 
Straits of Gibraltar, and stopped at Lisbon on 
the way to England and Flanders. The sailors 
told stories of the Eastern countries with which 


their city carried on commerce, and the Portu- 
guese and Spaniards were the next to catch the 
exploring fever, and began to make voyages of 
exploration for themselves. They went down 
the west coast of Africa, making their own one 
bit of territory after another, until, as you know, 
Vasco da Gama sailed quite around the Cape of 
Good Hope, and showed that path to India. 

Prince Henry of Portugal, himself a navigator, 
was largely responsible for these African dis- 
coveries, and he was influenced by Marco Polo's 
book to attempt his own expeditions and en- 
courage those of others. 

Here in Portugal pepper was again of impor- 
tance, for it is said that the desire to find it 
by an easy and cheap route, and thus to reduce 
its price, was one of the reasons why the Por- 
tuguese were so anxious to get to India by sea. 
Its price was certainly lowered after the mer- 
chants began to bring it directly from Ind*^ and 
Ceylon in ships; and it became a monopoly of 
the Portuguese crown, continuing so until the 
eighteenth century. About this time the culture 
of pepper was extended to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and part of the traffic was turned nat- 
urally from Italy to Portugal, as being in more 
direct communication. 

Now let us go back a little, and this time to 
Florence, one of the greatest commercial cities 
of the past, particularly during the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. Her merchants were of 
the richest in the world, and certain trades and 
arts flourished there as nowhere else. 

Among these merchant families was one called 
Toscanelli, and they carried on business in 
'"spices" and in the oth?r articles usually com- 
ing under that head in those days. They sent 
in every direction for their goods, and every year 
visited the old Italian town called Lanciano, 
where was held the great fair of spices, and 
where merchants came to buy and sell from all 
countries of Europe, and even from Asia. Here 
one would be sure to find many travelers, and 
to hear many stories of strange lands and little 
known peoples, and here, no doubt, great im- 
petus was given to research in new directions. 

The Toscanelli family were rich, and owned 
a great deal of property in Florence, and a street 
in the city still bears their name. There is, too, 
a fine old villa, not far away, which belonged 
to them five hundred years ago. But they are 
remembered especially for one famous repre- 
sentative of their name, and he was a man whom 
Americans should hold in great regard. Well 
known and esteemed in his own day, Paolo del 
Pozzo Toscanelli has almost been forgotten since 
by the world in general, until comparatively 
recent times. However, in 1871, at the meeting 
in Antwerp of the Geographical Congress, all 
the scholars, historians, and scientists present 
unanimously agreed in calling him the inspirer 
of the discovery of America. He died in 1482, 
ten years before Columbus touched the shores of 
the New World; but it was by the chart he 
drew, and according to his plans, that the great 
Genoese laid his course. 

Toscanelli lived out the whole of his long life 
in Italy, a hard student, a skilful physician, and 
a remarkable scientist. He was the founder of 
modern astronomy, and was the first to men- 
tion some of the comets best known to later 
astronomers. His knowledge of mathematics 
was profound, and his interest in geographical 
researches intense. There is still, in the Cathe- 
dral of Florence, the gnomon, or sun-dial, he 
made, and it has been considered the most per- 
fect in existence. 

On the death of his brother, he took the place 
almost of a father to his nephews, and, as they 
carried on the business, he interested himself 
largely in their success. It was for their sake 
that, aside from his scientific interest in the 
voyages of the day, he began to think and plan 
new routes and ways to the country of the 
spices. The Turks were interfering with the 
introduction into Venice, and thus into Italy, 
of the products of India, and merchants of 
Florence were beginning to feel the effect of 
this obstacle to commerce, when Toscanelli de- 



clared it possible to reach the East by sailing 
west. On the chart which he made he traced 
a line from Lisbon, across the sea to Quin-sai 
(Han-chau), on the Chinese coast; and in a 
letter which he wrote on June 25, 1474, to his 
friend Christopher Columbus, he explained his 
ideas and theories regarding the voyage. 

At the same time that Toscanelli sent this 
letter to Columbus (who was then at Lisbon), 
he also wrote to another person a letter to be 
given to the King of Portugal. In this letter, 
among other things, he said : 

"Many other times I have reasoned concern- 
ing the very short route which there is by way 
of the sea from here to India, — the native land 
of the spices, — and which I hold to be shorter 
than that which you take by Guinea. For greater 
clearness of explanation, I have made a chart 
such as is used by navigators, on which is traced 
this route, and I send it to your Majesty. . . . 
I have depicted everything from Ireland at the 
north as far south as Guinea, with the islands 
and countries, and I will show how you may 
reach the places most productive of all sorts of 
spices. Also I have shown in this chart many 
countries in the neighborhood of India, where, 
if no contrary winds or misadventures arise, you 
will find islands where all the inhabitants are 
merchants. Especially is there a most noble 
port, called Zaitou, where they load and unload 
every year a hundred great ships with pepper, 
and there are also other ships, laden with other 
spices. This place is thickly populated, and there 
are cities and provinces without number, under 
the rule of a prince, called the Great Khan, 
which name means 'King of Kings.' . . . 
Here you will find not only very great gain and 

many rich things, but also gold and silver and 
precious stones, and all sorts of spices in great 
abundance. . . . From the city of Lisbon 
you may sail directly to the great and noble 
city of Quin-sai, where are ten bridges of mar- 
ble, and the name of the place signifies 'City of 
Heaven.' Of it are told most marvelous things 
of its buildings, of its manufactures and of its 
revenues. This city lies near the province of 
Cathay, where the' king spends the greater part 
of his time. . . . You have heard of the 
island of Antilla, which you call the Seven Cities, 
and of the most noble island of Cipango, which 
is rich in gold, pearls, and precious stones, and 
the temples and royal palaces are covered with 
plates of gold. . . . Many other things could 
be said, but I will not be too long. . . . And 
so I remain always most ready to serve your 
Majesty in whatever you may command me." 

With such ideas as these in his mind, you 
know why Columbus thought he was landing 
in the Orient when he stepped ashore on the 
island of San Salvador. He had even brought 
with him a letter and fitting gifts for the Great 
Khan, or Emperor of Cathay. 

To-day pepper grows in many countries be- 
sides those of the East, though the best still 
comes from India, and a great deal of business 
is carried on in its cultivation, preparation, and 
exportation. It has become an ordinary thing 
to us, and we expect it on the table as a matter 
of course. Perhaps, however, when you remem- 
ber its old importance, and that the trade in this 
spice really did help to lead voyagers toward 
America, you will regard it as something much 
more interesting than a mere everyday addition 
to your food. 




tp c^ 


Let us sail in imagination with Columbus about 
the Caribbean Sea, and picture to ourselves the 
clear water, and the lovely islands and shores 
that enclose it. Then let us pass into the 
neighboring gulf, to mount into the country 
of Mexico, to look at the irregularly shaped 
bridge of land. Central America, that joins the 
great north and south continents of the New 

Let us look carefully at the shape of the gulf, 
into which the Father of Waters, the Mississippi, 
and the Great River of the North, the Rio 
Grande del Norte, pour the southern drainage 
of North America. The two peninsulas of Yuca- 
tan and Florida shut it in like doors, and Cuba 
lies between them. Columbus, in his journal, 
wrote of Cuba : "This is the most beautiful 
island eyes ever beheld. One could live here 

Let us notice, too, the way in which the vast 
bulk of North America tapers through Mexico 
to Central America. We must next make sure 
that we see clearly that Central America consists 
of four narrow isthmuses, with bulging masses of 
land between them. The most important of the 
four are Tehuantepec, 125 miles across, where 
North America ends, though Yucatan and a small 
neighboring state are included in Mexico, and 
Panama, only about 35 miles across, beyond which 
South America begins. Then let us pause for a 
moment's thought about the mighty mountain 
chain stretching, under different names, for thou- 
sands of miles from Alaska in the far north, to 
the extreme tip of the pear-shaped southern con- 
tinent. There are many volcanoes in this long 
chain, especially about the middle of it, in Cen- 
tral America and Mexico. At Panama the great 
heights sink to about 3000 feet and the pass, or 
saddle, between these low mountains is less than 
300 feet high. To the west of the mountains 
lies the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. 

Four hundred years ago no one could have 
given this simple description of the position of 
Mexico and Central America. Columbus died 
fully believing that the land he discovered was 
part of Asia ; it was only by degrees, as his suc- 
cessors cruised about the low-lying shores of the 
gulf and the sea, as they caught glimpses of the 
ocean beyond, as they sought, ever in vain, to 
find a way for their ships through Central Amer- 
ica to that ocean, that the truth came to them 
that they were not on the fringe of Asia, but on 
a great continent which lay between them and 
their desires. How one envies them the first 
entrancing sight of the Pacific Ocean from 
Panama ! 


Wonderful rumors spread by these adventur- 
ous spirits soon reached Cuba, one of the first 
islands settled by the Spaniards. There were 
stories of massive temples and great stone idols; 
of large towns with thousands of busy workers ; 
of people with rich clothes and great possessions 
in gold and silver and jewels. 

All these, they said, were to be found inland 
from the shores of the gulf. Daring deeds were 
daily occurrences in the sixteenth century, but 
one of the most romantic and desperate expedi- 
tions ever planned and carried out was that of 
the brilliant Spanish commander, Cortes, to test 
the truth of these rumors, and to annex whatever 
he might find for his emperor, Charles V. of 
Spain, just twenty years after the death of 

Eleven ships, carrying 400 Europeans, 200 na- 
tives, 16 horses, and 14 guns, seems but a small 
force with which to attempt a passage into an 
unknown land. But Cortes, who wrote history 
with his sword, knew no fear, and pushed for- 




ward in spite of all obstacles. We long to fol- 
low him every foot of the way, but must be con- 
tent with glimpses of his bravery and dash ; with 
the mere mention of the shipwrecked captive 
Spaniard and the lovely native girl who acted as 

As the wonderful story unfolds, we see the 
founding of the port of the True Cross — Vera 
Cruz — the friendliness of the tribes near the 
coast, the famous beaching and burning of all the 
ships, save one, that had brought the expedition, 
so that none could retreat. The best one was 
spared to send home to Spain with news and 
specimens of the work and treasures of the 
country. On and on toiled the party from the 
hot, unhealthy lands by the sea, with their tangle 
of tropical vegetation, up the rugged country 
which leads by high terrace steps to the great 
plateau of Mexico, 7000 feet and more above the 
level of the sea. 

What a treat was the pure, cool air, the grand 
sight of the snow-topped volcanoes before them, 
and how astonished were the travelers at the 
prickly cactus hedges, and the cultivated fields 
and fine forests and lakes, and the wealth of 
bright flowers on every side ! Surely the plateau 
and its ridges of mountains must have reminded 
the Spaniards of their far-away home country, 
and given them courage to venture on, so as to 
add to her dominions and glory. 

Montezuma, the ruler of this fair country, be- 
longing to the Aztec or Mexican race, had more 
than once sent presents and messages to Cortes, 
begging him to go away. But Cortes went stead- 
ily on till he reached the city of Tenochtitlan, the 
ancient city of Mexico, on the great lakes that 
lay in the midst of the plateau. 


The Aztecs were terrified at the pale faces of 
the Spaniards, at the horses and guns, none of 
which they had seen before, and they seem al- 
most to have believed that Cortes was the white 
war-god of their legends come back as he had 
promised centuries before, for the guns appeared 
to them to flash lightning, and the horses to 
travel like the wind. If Cortes was disappointed 
with Tenochtitlan, he did not say so in his letters 
home, but enlarged on the glory and splendor of 
the city, its temples and buildings, its cypress- 
crowned hill, Chapultepec, with its magnificent 

It was not long before Cortes got Montezuma 
entirely into his power. So great was the tact 

and resource of the great commander, that it 
seemed as if all were about to be peaceably ar- 
ranged for the transfer of the country and its 
government. But Cortes had to return for a 
time to Vera Cruz, and his deputy at Tenochtit- 
lan enraged the Aztec people with his cruelty. 
Cortes returned only just in time to save his 
forces from utter destruction. Montezuma, still 
a prisoner, was persuaded by the Spaniards to 
speak to his subjects, and urge them to stay their 
attack on the strangers. An impressive sight 
he must have looked standing on the flat roof of 
the palace, dressed in his blue and white mantle, 
his blazing jewels, fine crown, and golden san- 
dals dazzling in the sun. But the moment of sur- 
prised stillness caused by his appearance passed, 
and the furious people, refusing to listen longer, 
flung arrows and stones in a great tumult. Mon- 
tezuma — their King — was fatally wounded during 
this encounter. The day after his death, when 
things looked black indeed for the Spaniards, 
Cortes cut his way out of the capital in the dark- 
ness. This was known as the "sad night." Men 
and horses perished in numbers on the narrow 
path by the waters of the canal and lake, and, 
when the remnant gathered together in the coun- 
try beyond, Cortes wept tears of despair. 

But the genius of the leader shone only the 
brighter for this check. Somehow he managed 
to rally his forces, and wi4:hin a week he utterly 
defeated the brave Aztecs, who came out to 
withstand him. They fled in confusion, more than 
ever convinced that he must be a god, and^ not a 
mere man. Within eight months, by means of 
help from neighboring tribes, and by unheard-of 
efforts in organizing an ariny and arranging for 
its keep and transport, the beautiful plateau of 
Mexico, with its ruined capital, Tenochtitlan, was 
under the power of Cortes. When the town rose 
again by the lake, it was as the City of Mexico. 

The country, for a while, was put under mili- 
tary rule, and became part of the huge dominions 
which so oppressed the weary emperor, Charles 
V. of Spain, Austria, and the Netherlands. 
Cortes was not content with these successes. He 
made many explorations in Central America, al- 
ways hoping to find a way through to the Pacific- 

By degrees more colonies for Spain were 
founded, in Yucatan and Honduras, and in other 
parts of the land, whose secrets were revealed by 
the energy of the great commander and his offi- 
cers. Cortes even pushed up the long, narrow 
Gulf of California, and before long the Span- 
iards had also found their way far beyond the 
plateau of Mexico in all directions. The history 
of the peoples whom the Spaniards found in 





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Mexico and Central America has not yet been 
fully unraveled. Scholars are still at work 
studying the wonderful ruins of temples that are 
discovered from time to time, the carvings on 
great stone idols and altars, and the picture 
writing on various relics. Some of these we can 
see for ourselves in museums, and interesting it 
is indeed to trace resemblances in them to the 
work of other countries, such as Egypt and Baby- 
lon and China. 


Where the first people came from to settle in 
America, we know not, but the remains found on 
the soil show that, through the long centuries 
before the vast lands were discovered by Euro- 
peans, different races of people had lived and 
died on them for generation after generation. 
Sometimes they destroyed the works of those 
who went before them ; sometimes they grafted 
their own stock and works upon those of their 
predecessors. In time we hope to understand 
more about these shadowy tribes; about the Tol- 
tecs and their interesting legends; about the 
Mayas and their high civilization ; about the Az- 
tecs and their curious picture-writing, and their 
settlements on the plateau of Mexico after cen- 
turies of wandering. 

When Cortes went to Honduras, he passed, all 
unknowingly, a wonderful palace of the Mayas, 
hidden by the thick growth of trees and shrubs. 
As relics are found they are carefully studied, 
with a view to trace the various customs, beliefs, 
and histories of the old peoples and tribes who 
for thousands of years had been making progress 
in civilization, not only unknown to the dwellers 
in the Old World, but equally strange and un- 
known in many cases to other dwellers in their 
own world, which we have come to call the New. 


As we know, the Spaniards classed the natives 
they found in the New World all together under 
the mistaken name of Indians. Now, the civiliza- 
tion and conversion to the Christian faith of 
these so-called Indians was one of the chief ob- 
jects of the Spanish conquerors. Bands of de- 
voted missionaries went out from Europe to the 
new possessions to teach the natives to give up 
their wild, roving life and the heathen customs of 

their religion, such as offering human sacrifices 
to idols. 

Cortes himself did his best to persuade Monte- 
zuma to accept Christianity, but the Aztec chief 
was only puzzled by the new ideas so hastily 
thrust upon him. Everywhere, in the first zeal 
of overthrowing heathenism, idols and temples, 
inscriptions and carvings were cast down, buried, 
defaced ; so that the task of finding out the truth 
about the past has been made even harder than 
it might have been. 

But, deep as is the wonder and interest of the 
story of the old New World ; of the early peoples 
in Mexico and Central America, as shown by the 
works of their hands ; and romantic as is the 
story of the introduction of the natives to the 
Spaniards, the growth of the country under 
Spain is still more interesting; and even more 
thrilling and romantic than the conquest of Cor- 
tes are the events of the last hundred years. 


As the years passed on, the native races settled 
down — after many difficulties — to the new re- 
ligion and the new rulers. The burning of vic- 
tims, under the terrible Inquisition of the Chris- 
tians, must have seemed to the Mexicans strangely 
like the sacrifices offered to the cruel gods of 
their forefathers, and all sorts of superstitions 
belonging to the old faith were grafted on to the 
new. Viceroys were sent out from Spain during 
three centuries to govern — or misgovern — in the 
king's name, sixty-four of them in all. 

Some were good and kind, some terribly the 
reverse. Throughout these years the missionary 
priests were hard at work trying to mfluence the 
natives toward a spirit of quiet obedience; the re- 
ligion they offered them did not teach them to 
think for themselves. Many beautiful towns were 
founded after Spanish models, with Spanish 
names and fine cathedrals ; schools and colleges 
rose up in them, and Spanish families went out 
to make new homes in the Far West. 

Roads and bridges made travel and trade 
easier. As agriculture was extended and im- 
proved, mining and forestry were developed, and 
the raising of cattle then became an important 
industry. Both Mexico and Central America 
offer vast possibilities in all these directions. 
Round the tropical lowlands, rice, sugar, cocoa, 
and cotton grow easily. On the rising terraces, 
coffee, Indian corn, and tobacco find suitable con- 
ditions, and wheat-fields lead up to the grassy 




.- > c?"=^«i»-^_.;«i»-4^« .•;<*'*c'^-:^ 

,_iiv-^.:-i2-».. Si"' ■-*-, r --^ •^.?*ar-'li *■ .-' 

'- ■ :-*-.^ 

From stereographs, copyright 1901 by Underwood ^ Underwood. 


upper: view of Monterey, Mexico, 
lower: chapultepec castle, city of MEXICO. FC»RMBR SITS PF MONTEZUMA'S palace. 




downs, which make good pasture land for the 
cattle and the splendid horses, for which the 
country gradually became famous as the years 
went by. 


The magnificent forests abound with every val- 
uable kind of tree, from the rubber-tree to the 
mahogany. As for the mines, Mexico is rich in 
various kinds of metal — silver, gold, copper, and 
lead, among many others. Sulphur is obtained 
from the crater of the smoking mountain Popo- 
catepetl. Another remarkable volcano is Jorullo, 
thrown up by an earthquake in a single night in 
1759, from fertile fields of sugar and indigo. 

In time many Spaniards intermarried with the 
natives, particularly in Central America ; and so 
many great men of these countries are descended 
from the conquered, as well as from the con- 
querors, and a large mixed nation has grown up, 
with a certain number of pure-blooded Spaniards 
at the top of society, and many natives "of no 
account" at the bottom. New Spain gradually 
came to include nearly all the country round the 
Gulf of Mexico, and reached out northward to 
California, though the outlying districts were 
very thinly peopled. 

Spain ever needed all she could get out of her 
distant provinces, for her wars at home were 
constant in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. Under some viceroys the taxes were ex- 
cessive, and the people were oppressed in order 
to send riches to Spain ; but under other viceroys 
the rule was milder and sometimes even indul- 


When the feeling of revolt against tyranny 
was voiced in different countries, and the longing 
for independence and freedom ever grew 
stronger, until it found expression in the Amer- 
ican and French revolutions, Mexico also realized 
its hardships. A time of struggle began against 
rule from overseas, which lasted for many years. 
Hidalgo, born five years after the time of the 
Boston tea-party, was one of the first Mexicans 
to say boldly that he wanted Mexico to be Mex- 
ico, not a helpless dependency of Spain. 

When he and his little band of friends dared 
to raise their banner with the cry, "Up with true 
religion; down with false government!" it was 

an unheard-of thing that any ordinary man of 
the country — not appointed by Spain to office — 
should venture even to express an opinion. 
Hidalgo, a man of the people, boldly worked for 
government by the people. The end of a most 
exciting campaign of nine months was apparent 
failure, for Hidalgo and his companions were 
taken prisoners and shot, and their heads for ten 
years remained fixed on spikes at the corners of 
a large building in Guanajuato, a rich and flour- 
ishing city in the second largest mining province 
in Mexico. 

The people who lived in those times no doubt 
thought Hidalgo had failed. We who live a hun- 
dred years later know that he succeeded glor- 
iously in awaking his countrymen, and preparing 
the ground for the great struggle that was com- 
ing. To-day, in front of the building where his 
dead lips preached to all that passed by, stands 
a bronze statue of "Hidalgo, the first liberator 
of his country." 

The next great name is that of Morelos, who, 
three years after the execution of Hidalgo, was 
leading the Independents from victory to victory, 
on the Pacific coast, in the picturesque country 
of lower levels, shaded with the banana and 
orange trees, and on the higher plateau, taking 
towns or defending them, forming a congress, 
and sending out a declaration of independence, as 
their northern neighbors had done some years 

But the tide turned, and in 1815, six months 
after Napoleon lost his last battle, Morelos, who 
had much of the ability, without the opportuni- 
ties, of the upsetter of the peace of Europe, was 
in his turn taken prisoner and shot. The Royal- 
ists hoped that now the troublesome new ideas 
were stamped out. How little they knew ! The 
heroic, patriotic Morelos, whom they treated with 
insult and shot, is now adored by the Mexican 
people. They know that the attention of the mass 
of the people, first awakened by Hidalgo, was 
fully aroused by the life and sacrifice of Morelos. 
He showed them, as well as the world looking 
on, that the old Mexican blood was capable of 
great deeds, and that freedom for the country 
was no mere dream. 

We look in vain on the map for the city in 
which he was born under the name it bore at that 
time, Valladolid, for it has since been renamed 
Morelia, after its greatest citizen. 

For some time after the death of Morelos, 
ideas of independence worked and grew chiefly in 
secret, in the mountains and in far-off spots. 
Presently a change came about whch gave the 
Mexicans a chance to ask for more freedom. 




When the King of Spain was obliged to give 
way to liberal demands in the mother country, 
to abolish the hated Inquisition, to give freedom 
to the press, great rejoicings took place in the 
colonies, and a new leader appeared on the scene 
— Iturbide, of Mexican blood, hitherto an officer 
in the Royalist army. A wide-spread revolution 
burst out all over the country, in which not only 
the insurgents took part, but many of the Span- 
ish as well as Mexican chiefs, who declared for 

Iturbide hastened to meet the last governor 
ever sent from Spain at Vera Cruz, and soon 
convinced him that his services were not needed 
as viceroy. The outcome of their conference 
was the Treaty of Cordova, which settled the in- 
dependence of Mexico. Iturbide made a tri- 
umphal entry into the capital at the head of the 
Independents, and so ended, amidst scenes of 
wild enthusiasm and rejoicings, the Spanish rule 
three hundred years after the arrival of Cortes. 

The present national flag, with its white for 
purity, green for union, red for independence, 
stands for the three articles of the national faith 
settled at this time. The device of the eagle and 
serpent on a cactus-bush refers to an old story 
connected with the settlement of the old Aztec 
tribes on the plateau. Many Spaniards went 
home now, and opinions were greatly divided 
among those who remained as to whether the 
government should be a monarchy or a republic. 
Iturbide, who had much love of splendor and 
state, as well as personal ambition, managed to 
arrange his position as Emperor of Mexico, but 
only for a few months. 

In the end he, too, was sentenced to be shot; 
but after his execution, when angry feeling had 
subsided, his faults and failings were forgotten, 
and his countrymen recognized that it was his act 
that had freed Mexico from the control of Spain. 
Over the house of his birthplace — he was a fel- 
low-townsman of Morelos — is the inscription : 
Libertador de Mexico, meaning Liberator of 

A very confused time followed. Revolutions 
and different forms of constitutions and plans of 
government rapidly followed each other. There 
was one man, whose name stands out in the con- 
fusion, who was mixed up in every event of these 
troublous years. This was Santa Anna, first 
making his name as a soldier fighting in the wars 
of independence and expelling the Royalists from 
Vera Cruz, when Spain made its first and last at- 

tempt to win back Mexico. He was elected presi- 
dent in 1833. 

It was about that time that troubles began 
with Texas, now our great State on the Gulf of 
Mexico. Three hundred families had gone to 
colonize it from Mexico a few years before, and 
a large number of Americans had also settled 
there on grants of land. An insurrection against 
the oppressive Mexican government broke out, 
which ended in the Texans becoming independent 
for a period of about ten years, and then Texas 
was annexed to the United States by treaty, and 
admitted to the Union very soon after. 


Many people in the United States were against 
this annexation, because the laws of Texas al- 
lowed slavery; also many people in the States 
thought a war with Mexico would follow if 
Texas were annexed, as Mexico had never given 
up hope of reconquering that State. These op- 
ponents were soon seen to be right, and Mexico 
and the United States were quickly at war. In 
due time, also, the annexation of so much slave 
country upset the balance in the United States, 
and helped to bring on, some years later, the 
dreadful Civil War between North and South, 
which settled the slavery question forever. 

The Mexican War did not last very long. The 
American troops were well armed and disciplined, 
and fought steadily. The Mexicans were brave, 
too, but the long course of revolutions had 
spoiled both officers and men, and they could not 
hold their own. 

Santa Anna, through these years, had very va- 
ried experiences ; at one time general in the field, 
then head of the government, then in retirement 
at Havana, then back again to help his country 
when in dire straits. But his eloquence and en- 
thusiasm, his power of raising money and troops, 
were all in vain. Vera Cruz was taken, beautiful 
Pueblo, with its many-colored tiles glittering in 
the sun, fell without a blow; even the City of 
Mexico, the capital, was occupied, when the hill 
of Chapultepec, so connected with old Mexican 
history, had been taken after a terrific struggle. 

Santa Anna was there in the most exposed 
places; the brave boys of the military college on 
Chapultepec were there, receiving their first les- 
son in actual warfare. It was indeed a terrible 
day, with the horrid noise of war and the boom- 
ing of cannon mingled with the frantic ringing 
of church bells in the city, encouraging the Mex- 
icans to think that the victory was theirs. The 

H.T.&Q.D. 11. 7. 



bells were silenced when the shouts of the Amer- 
icans cheered the tearing down of the old colors 
and the running up of the new on the strong- 
hold, the ancient hill of Chapultepec. This was 
practically the end of the Texan War. 


After peace had come to the long-distracted 
country, there was a short time of quiet, when 
reforms were beginning to take effect, and then 
troubles and quarrels broke out again. These 
were bad enough for three European Powers to 
make them an excuse for interference. England 
and Spain soon withdrew their remonstrances, but 
Napoleon IIL, wishing for military glory, man- 
aged to set up a European prince, Maximilian of 
Austria, brother of Emperor Francis Joseph, as 
Emperor of Mexico, to be supported by the arms 
of France. His short reign of three years is 
indeed a tragic story. With his young and charm- 
ing wife, Carlotta, Maximilian set up a gay court 
in the beautiful palace, restored and furnished in 
grand style, on the famous hill of Chapultepec. 
The. National Museum in the city close by holds 
the heavy silver plate, the great glass coach, and 
many other gorgeous reminders of the brilliant 
days that passed like a dream, with dinners and 
dance, and fetes under the fine trees and among 
the wealth of sweet roses. The native President 
Juarez withdrew on Maximilian's entry to the 
north of Mexico, and bided his time. 

Suddenly there came a crash. The Civil War 
was raging in the United States while Napoleon 
HI. made his schemes, and our people were fully 
occupied for a time. As soon as it was over, 
they hastened to remind France that the countries 
of Europe had no right to interfere with the 
nations of the American continent, and that they 
could not recognize a monarchy in Mexico. Na- 
poleon was afraid to venture on a w-ar with the 
United States, so he was compelled to withdraw 
the help in money and soldiers he had promised 
to Maximilian, to keep him on the throne that he 
had persuaded him to accept. 

The poor Empress Carlotta rushed off to Eu- 
rope to try what personal pleading would do with 
Napoleon and with the Pope, but she failed to 
move either. The strain and sorrow of it sent 
her out of her mind, and she never recovered. 
Maximilian refused to give up the throne or to 
leave the country. He was taken prisoner and 


As the French left the country, and the empire 
they had created drew to its tragic end, one of 

the greatest of Mexican leaders was making his 
w^ay to the front. This was General Porfirio 
Diaz, who took possession of the capital for the 
Liberals in 1867. Less than a month later the 
patient, long-enduring Juarez entered it in sol- 
emn state. Four years after the death of Juarez, 
Santa Anna died, poor, blind, and neglected. 
Though possessing great bravery and military 
skill, he had always been turbulent and difficult, 
and often did his country harm instead of good. 

Diaz became president first in 1877, and held 
many long terms of office, working hard, and, 
in many ways, successfully, for the benefit of his 
country. He, too, lived at Chapultepec, where 
he looked down from the cypress shade on the 
beautiful wide view, on the lakes and distant 
volcanoes, whose snowy tops blush rosy-red in 
the sunset, and on the city spreading in every 
direction. Many were the reforms and schemes 
for improvements that he carried through. Stren- 
uous were the efforts he made to pay off debts, 
to extend trade and industries, to improve the 
water-supply, to make the most of the rich soil 
and fine climate, the vast space and rich minerals 
with which Mexico is blessed. 

For many years Diaz had the support of his 
most influential countrymen, and of the majority 
of the Mexican people. But at last, in 191 1, a 
successful revolution was led by Francisco I. 
Madero. Diaz resigned and left the country, and 
Madero was elected to succeed him in the presi- 


Railways now connect the United States with 
Mexico, and the iron horse climbs the romantic 
route of Cortes and his train, from the coast to 
the plateau, by means of most difficult engineer- 
ing. A great line is also built across the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec, connecting the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and lines also cross the other isthmuses 
of Central America. Spanish rule lasted in Mex- 
ico for about three centuries, and was thrown off 
early in the ninteenth century. Several inde- 
pendent republics have since been formed : Guate- 
mala and Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Sal- 
vador, and Panama. None of these is a large 
country. Their productions are very like those 
of Mexico. Both earthquakes and revolutions are 
very common occurrences in Central America. 

There is a railway across the narrowest 
isthmus — Panama — but the need for ships to pass 
direct from ocean to ocean has long been press- 
ing, and is at last to be supplied by means of the 

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Panama Canal, about which we tell you in an- 
other place. 

Cortes and the rest gazed ardently on the Pa- 
cific from Panama, and did their best to find a 
natural passage to it through Central America. 
They would have been filled with wonder at the 

sight of this artificial river, whose completion 
will realize their dream — a way made by the 
anxious thought of hosts of engineers, and the 
labor of thousands of workmen, by which ships 
shall at last pass direct from one ocean to the 


The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea are 
partially enclosed on the east by a large number 
of islands, which are known as the West Indies. 
These stretch, in the form of a curve, from the 
coast of Florida to the northern shores of South 
America. The whole group may be divided into 
three smaller groups, namely, the Bahamas, the 
Greater Antilles, and the Lesser Antilles. 

Some of these were at one time part of the 
mainland, but most of them have been raised 
from the ocean-floor above sea-level, either by 
volcanic action, or by the gradual building of the 
coral insect. Nearly all are mountainous, and we 
can imagine these islands as being the summits 
of a range of mountains joining the two con- 

The West Indies were the first parts of the 
New World to be discovered, and from the time 
of their discovery they have often changed own- 
ers. The Spaniards at first held the greater part, 
but gradually they have all passed out of their 
hands. Many of the islands are now independent, 
while the remainder are divided chiefly between 
England and France. 

Among the many islands which form the West 
Indies, Cuba and Jamaica may be mentioned as 
the chief. Cuba, the largest and wealthiest island 
in the group, has an area about the same as that 
of Tennessee. It lies about a hundred miles 
south of Florida. It was one of the first parts 
of the New World to be claimed by Columbus 
for Spain, and it was the last of the colonies to 
be taken out of the hands of that nation. For 
over four centuries it remained under Spanish 
rule, but, in the second half of the nineteenth 
century, owing to oppression and bad govern- 
ment, it fell into a state of decay and rebellion. 
In 1898 the United States forcibly took it from 
Spain and governed it till 1902, when the Cuban 
people set up a republican form of government 
for themselves. 

The coast-line is extremely indented, and is 
studded with countless islands. The whole length 
of the island is traversed with mountain ranges, 
the summit of which is Turquino Peak, about 
8400 feet high. These heights lead gradually 

down in terraces to the coast-plains, which are 
drained by a large number of short rivers. 

The vegetable life of Cuba is abundant. Large 
forests of hard woods cover the mountainsides, 
and the lower slopes and plains produce the 
sugar-cane, the tobacco-plant, and such tropical 
fruits as pineapples, oranges, bananas, etc. There 
are few native animals, but imported domestic 
animals thrive well. In 1907 the population of 
the island numbered 2.048,980, of whom 1,440,013 
were white and 608,967 were colored. The only 
towns of much importance are Havana, the cap- 
ital ; Matanzas, and Santiago de Cuba. 

Jamaica, "the land of springs," lies to the 
south of Cuba, and is somewhat smaller than the 
State of Connecticut. Originally a colony of 
Spain, it was taken by the English in the time 
of Cromwell, and has been retained by England 
ever since. The population is composed chiefly 
of colored people, who number about five hun- 
dred thousand. 

The island is mountainous in the center, and 
the higher slopes, having a cool climate, afford 
an excellent retreat during the dry season from 
the tropical heat of the coast. There are numer- 
ous streams in all parts, but few are of use for 

The chief product of the island is sugar-cane, 
but owing to the competition with the beet-root 
sugar of Europe, the trade has declined. Coffee, 
spices, and tropical fruits are also produced in 
abundance. Animals are few, but the rivers con- 
tain fish and alligators. The chief city is the sea- 
port of Kingston. 

Haiti is larger than Jamaica, and is divided 
into two republics. The natives and negroes 
raised a successful rebellion against the French, 
who owned it, and set up a republican govern- 
ment, in which the whites have no part. Porto 
Rico is now in the possession of the United 
States, our country having acquired it by treaty 
at the close of the Spanish-American war. 

Among the Lesser Antilles, the chief islands 
are St. Vincent, Barbadoes, Trinidad, and Mar- 
tinique. The first three are British possessions, 
and are flourishing islands, chiefly engaged in the 





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From photographs, copyrigb' 

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sugar trade. Trinidad is noted for its Lake of 
Pitch, from which large quantities of pitch, or 
asphalt, are taken and exported. 

Martinique is the chief of the French West 
Indies. St. Pierre, the capital, was a city with 
an increasing trade, but it was destroyed in 1902, 
and thousands of lives were lost. At the same 
time much damage was done in other islands, 
especially in St. Vincent, where there was also 
great loss of life. We will now tell you briefly 
the story of these sad disasters. 


The French island of Martinique forms one of 
the group known as the Windward Isles, many 
of which owe their origin to volcanic action. On 
this account eruptions are frequent, and the 
islands are often disturbed and shaken by earth- 

Near the base of the volcano Mont Pelee lie 
the ruins of the once charming port of St. Pierre. 
This has been described as "the quaintest, queer- 
est, and prettiest withal among West Indian 
cities — all stone-built and stone-flagged, with very 
narrow streets, wooden and zinc awnings, and 
peaked roofs of red tile." It was left a mere 
shapeless heap of ashes and mud. Before the 
eruption of May, 1902, Mont Pelee, one of sev- 
eral striking heights, looked down upon as fair 
a scene as could be imagined. Between these 
mountains lay rich, grassy valleys covered with 
the choicest vegetation, and with all the shrubs 
and delicate blooms of a beautiful garden. Up 

the slopes stretched away dense woods of ma- 
jestic trees — cedar, mahogany, oak, ironwood, and 
palm — the last-named overtopping the others in 
its effort to reach the sunlight and air. Climbing 
round all these were enormous creepers, throw- 
ing out their long feelers and forming one vast 
network of brilliant foliage. 

But there came a terrible change. Mont 
Pelee suddenly began to shoot forth long, lurid 
flames of fire, and a huge crack was formed 
from which issued an awful stream of red molten 
mud. The air was filled with blinding, choking 
clouds of ashes, and down upon the luckless city 
of St. Pierre poured the destructive lava. Within 
a short time it was a mass of flames, while thirty 
thousand of its panic-stricken inhabitants per- 
ished within a short space of time. i\Iost of the 
shipping in the harbor was reduced to ashes by 
the intense heat. A few vessels escaped, and 
stirring stories were told of heroic attempts to 
rescue fellow-creatures from death by fire or 

A similar disaster, though in a smaller degree, 
had overtaken the island of St. Vincent — also one 
of the Windward Islands — a British possession. 
Here, too, the volcano, La Soufriere, had sud- 
denly burst into eruption, pouring out streams of 
hissing lava, and hurling forth stones and dense 
columns of ashes. From a smiling paradise of 
fruit-laden gardens and plantations, this unfor- 
tunate island was converted into a vast ash- 
heap, while the scene was made the more desolate 
from its tale of over two thousand victims. 





No other country in the world, perhaps, can 
show a greater variety than India in its inhabi- 
tants, both as to the number of races and tribes 
and also as to the degrees of civilization. The 
three hundred million people who dwell in India 
may be broadly divided into two classes, the 
Hindu and the Dravidian. The Hindus are the 
descendants of a superior and intelligent race 
which invaded India and drove the natives of that 
time into the central and southern parts. 

Besides these, there are many hill-tribes, fierce 
and almost uncontrollable, scattered over the 
fifteen hundred mile stretch of the Himalayas; 
and in the northwest of India, the restless moun- 
taineers are constantly giving trouble and caus- 
ing troops to be sent against them. The Hindu 
branch is divided into innumerable sects, each 
speaking a different language or dialect. But it 
is this branch which represents the highest cul- 
ture among the people of India, for, hundreds of 
years ago, the Hindus numbered among them- 
selves many learned and wise scholars. 

Naturally there are many faiths among such a 
diverse people. Brahmanism is the religion of 
the Hindus, and is chiefly remarkable for the 
social divisions known as castes. Of these castes, 
or classes, there were originally four, but they 
have, in course of time, developed into a very 
large number. The original four castes were the 
Brahmans or priests; the military or ruling class; 
the mercantile, comprising the farmers and 
tradesmen ; and the laboring class. Below these 
were the outcasts, known as pariahs, who were 
held to be so degraded that even their shadow 
defiled the food of their superiors ! The mem- 
bers of each caste are extremely careful that 
they shall not perform any office which is looked 
upon as belonging to another caste. You can 
understand, therefore, why so many servants are 
needed in a house, for one who will bring you 
your tea or cofifee will not sweep the room, while 
the man who looks after your horse will refuse 
to cut grass for the animal. 

After Brahmanism comes Mohammedanism, 

which was introduced by the Arab invaders of 
the eleventh century, and now flourishes in the 
upper basins of the Indus and the Ganges. Bud- 
dhism is mainly practised in Ceylon, while the 
savage races of the hill-regions worship many 
objects of nature, such as plants, serpents, wild 
beasts, and rocks of curious shapes. And we 
must not forget the Parsees, descendants of an- 
cient Persians, who settled in Western India 
centuries ago. They are called fire-worshipers, 
from the fact that they stand before a fire or 
face the sun when praying; but they themselves 
object to the term, as they merely regard the fire 
as an emblem of glory and spiritual life. 

The language spoken by the Hindus is, like 
themselves, derived from the Aryans, the ances- 
tors also of most European nations. The inhab- 
itants of the Deccan, the Dravidians, speak a 
language something like that used by the Mon- 
gols of Central Asia. 


Delhi, near the Jumna, is one of the world's 
ancient historic cities, and was, for hundreds of 
years, the center of Moslem influence in India. 
It will always be remembered in connection with 
the Indian Mutiny, when, full of rebels against 
the British rulers, it was besieged by a small 
British force and finally taken. Though now 
mostly reduced to ruins, it retains much that 
binds it to the past, and it has a history that 
dates back to the days when the Israelites went 
out of Egypt. 

The Delhi of to-day is less than three hundred 
years old, but all around it, covering an area of 
more than forty square miles, are the ruins of 
many ancient cities which once bore its name, 
with their palaces, tombs, and mosques all 
crumbling into dust. Of its twelve gates, one, 
the Kashmir Gate, remains to mark the famous 
exploit of the handful of British and native sol- 
diers, who blew it up in the face of a murderous 
fire. Here you may see the great holes made by the 
cannon-balls, and also the spot where the brave 




General Nicholson fell in leading his troops to 
victory. Of its many beautiful structures, the 
Jumna mosque is the most magnificent of its 
kind in India. The Kutab-lMinar, one of the 
loftiest towers in the world, is supposed to be a 
perfect specimen of its kind. Delhi is, after Cal- 
cutta and Bombay, the chief cotton center of 

Lower down the Jumna stands Agra, an impor- 
tant commercial city with an interesting history. 
Here stands the magnificent tomb known as the 
Taj Mahal, "the wonder of India." This remark- 
able and beautiful building was erected by Shan 
Jehan, an emperor of the seventeenth century, 
in memory of his dead wife, and twenty thou- 
sand workmen were employed over twenty years 
to build it. 

"So perfectly is it planned, that in the early 
morning while dawn is breaking, it seems colored 
a light blue ; rose-tinted beneath the rising sun ; 
dazzling white at noontide ; of a violet color be- 
fore an impending storm ; crimson at sunset, and 
pearly-white under the moonlight." 

Cawnpore, the principal grain-market of the 
Northwest Provinces, recalls sad memories of the 
terrible mutiny. Here may be seen the well into 
which were cast the bodies of the women and 
children, the victims of Nana Sahib's cruel 
treachery. The inscription on the edge runs 
thus: "Sacred to the perpetual memory of a 
great company of Christian people, chiefly 
women and children, who near this spot were 
cruelly murdered by the followers of the rebel 
Nana, and cast, the dying with the dead, into the 
well below, on July 15th, 1857." 

Lucknow, a city of palaces, and long the resi- 
dence of the kings of Gudh, contains the ruins 
of the famous Residency, which, under the gal- 
lant defence of a handful of men and women, 
held out for months against a horde of rebels. 
Twice was it relieved by forces under Havelock, 
Outram, and Colin Campbell ; and in one of its 
outer walls is the hole through which passed the 
shell that killed the noble Sir Henry Lawrence. 
Not a single room remains entire, for the mu- 
tineers, mad with revenge at finding the women 
and children safely withdrawn, completed the de- 
structive work of the siege. Lucknow lies in the 
center of an exceedingly fertile district. In its 
numerous bazaars, the gaily dressea Hindu mer- 
chants ply their various trades, and the streets 
are often a packed mass of buyers and sellers. 
The silversmiths display their various wares — 
teapots, cups, bowls — and many skilful workers 
are employed in drawing gold and silver into fine 
threads for lace and embroidery. 

Lahore, the capital of the Punjab, is a great 
railway center. Before the present fine cathedral 
w'as built, the services were held for many years 
in a gorgeous tomb which contained the remains 
of a native prince. Trichinopoli, a large city in 
the south, was the scene of many fierce struggles 
between the British and French in the seven- 
teenth century ; it is defended by a strong fort- 
ress, built on an elevated rock, on which also 
stands a massive pagoda. 


Besides caste, another interesting feature of 
Hindu social life is the village system. Each 
district of some hundreds, or even of thousands, 
of acres has, for ages, kept its own boundaries, 
preserved its own name, and been peopled by 
the same families. At the head of the villages 
are magistrates, who, with the priests and the 
schoolmasters, are the leading men ; so, too, each 
village possesses its carpenter, smith, poet, mu- 
sician, and dancing-girl, just as some American 
towns have their mayor, town clerk, and other 

Agriculture gives employment to many mil- 
lions of the people of India. On each bank of 
the Ganges and other rivers may be seen care- 
fully cultivated fields of rice, cotton, wheat, 
opium, and indigo. The last-named plant sup- 
plies a valuable dye, which requires very careful 
preparation. It is obtained from the young shoots 
which are picked at night, so as to avoid the 
effects of the sun. Then they are soaked in 
water, which is exposed to the sun for the pur- 
pose of evaporation. Finally, the bluish-black 
liquid is heated in vats, and when the water has 
been driven off in the form of steam, a deposit 
of pure indigo is found to remain. 

The ryot is a small farmer, who cultivates his 
own land, in return for which he pays a land 
tax to the government. From him, the European 
learned the system known as the rotation of 
crops. Salt is another of the chief productions 
of India, and is greatly valued by the natives. 
What the ryot dreads mostly is drought, which 
often brings terrible famine behind it. But in 
recent years steps have been taken to store up 
supplies, and the extension of railways, canals, 
and irrigation works have greatly helped to lessen 
the distress arising out of the failure of the 

The bazaars are always attractive to Euro- 
peans. A shop is often little more than a hole in 
the wall, with occasionally a few shelves ; more 
often than not, the goods are piled up in con- 

By peruiissioii ot the MctropuUtaii Mubguiu ol An, New York. 






fused heaps on the floor. The merchants love to 
bargain, and usually ask a price which is three 
or four times the amount they intend to accept ; 
the customer offers a good deal less than he 
means to give ; and so, after much shouting and 
throwing about of arms and nodding of heads, a 
price is agreed upon. It is not to be wondered 
at, therefore, that an Indian bazaar presents 
scenes of great animation. The goods are paid 
for in rupees, annas, and pie ; twelve pie make 
one anna, and sixteen annas are equal to a ru- 
pee, which, to-day, is worth not very much more 
than our quarter of a dollar. 

The Hindus are remarkably skilful in the man- 
ufacture of artistic goods, and their fame was 
known to the ancient Romans, who decorated 
their houses with the tapestries and muslins 
made in India. So w'onderfully fine is some of 
the inlaid work, that a powerful magnifying-glass 
is often necessary to reveal its beauties, while 
the carvings in wood and metal, with only the 
simplest of tools, are such as to cause the great- 
est admiration. A foreigner must not be sur- 
prised when he has bought one of these articles 
to find a native close at hand, claiming to have 
introduced him to the shopkeeper, from whom he 
demands backsheesh, or money, as his share of 
the profits. 

The Hindus often invite their friends to a 
nautch-party, when their rooms are filled with 
bright ornaments and brilliant lights. To the 
sound of discordant noises from tom-toms, and 
instruments resembling a banjo, the nautch-girl 
dances, first quietly and slowly, then gradually 
increasing to great rapidity. Displays of con- 
juring and juggling are often given, and some of 
the tricks performed are of a most surprising 

Snake-charmmg is another of the Hindu ac- 
complishments, and the method of the charmers 
has been thus described: "The juggler takes in 
his hand a root, regarded popularly as having 
the power of preventing any ill effects from the 
cobra's bite. Drawing the reptile from the basket 
in which it is kept confined, he excites its pas- 
sion by presenting a stick to it ; immediately, the 
creature elevates the fore part of its body, swells 
out its neck, opens its jaws, puts forth its forked 
tongue ; its eyes begin to blaze, and it makes a 
hissing sound. Then a struggle ensues between 
the serpent and its charmer ; the latter, singing 
a low chant, opposes his closed fist — sometimes 
his right, sometimes his left — to the reptile, 
which, fixing its gaze on the threatening hand, 
follows its various movements, and balancing its 
head and body, simulates a dancing-measure." 


As befits their grand and noble surroundings, 
the natives of the slopes and spurs of the lofty 
Himalayas are not so easily awed and governed 
as the patient Hindus of the river-plains. They 
claim descent from the earliest dwellers of the 
country, and in their mountain strongholds, they 
are often a source of worry to the government. 
Brave and fierce, and dwelling in wild rugged 
regions, where it is often necessary to use sheep 
instead of horses as beasts of burden, they are 
frequently successful in resisting attempts to 
govern them. 

Assam lies at the eastern extremity of the 
Himalayas, and receives the first downpour of 
the monsoon as it leaves the Bay of Bengal. Its 
rainfall is said to be the heaviest in the world, 
the rains lasting fully six months in each year. 
Most of the country consists of forest and jungle, 
but the open tracts are especially suitable for the 
culture of the tea-plant, and large quantities of 
tea are annually exported. 

Kashmir (or Cashmere) lies to the north of 
the Punjab, and is the home of the famous Sikhs 
who were England's faithful allies in the terrible 
days of the mutiny. High up in the hills, with 
some of the loftiest peaks of the Himalayas lend- 
ing their protection on either side, is the fertile 
Kashmir valley where, among the wonderful pro- 
fusion of its various flowers, the rose is specially 
cultivated for the famous attar (or otto) of 
roses. Here, too, flourish the goats from whose 
silky hair the much-prized Kashmir shawls are 

To the westward we find a still more hilly 
area, "a lake or sea of mountains, where the 
peaks stand all round like the crests of a wave," 
only rarely covered with grass. Here the Chi- 
tralis dwell and, like their neighbors the 
Afghans, do as little work as they can. They 
get what food they want from their fields, and 
weave their clothes from the wool of their hardy 
mountain sheep. Brave and restless, they long 
defied the British power, but, like other hill- 
tribes, they now understand the good intentions 
of their conquerors, and make splendid soldiers 
under able leaders. 


India, like China, was a civilized country, ruled 
by wise and learned men, while yet the greater 
part of Europe was still inhabited by rough, half- 
savage tribes. But long before any European 
set foot on Hindu soil, that country had become 
the prey of different invaders, who found it an 

hrom stereograph, copyright 1903 by Underwood & Underwood. 


XVII— 8 




easy matter to overcome a people whose land 
was broken up into petty states, usually at war 
among themselves. 

The discovery of the way to India, round the 
Cape of Good Hope, led many European adven- 
turers to visit the rich country of which they 
had heard so much. Until the end of the six- 
teenth century, the Dutch had held the upper 
hand in trading with India, but at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, a group of London 
merchants formed themselves into a trading as- 
sociation under the title of the East India Com- 
pany. At first, the English were hotly opposed 
by both the Dutch and the Portuguese, but an 
important English victory over the Portuguese 
at Surat led the natives to regard the victors 
with great respect. 

The position of the English company continued 
to grow stronger as years went by, but the time 
arrived when the fierce native race of Mahrattas 
rose against the ruling Mogul and restored the 
old Hindu power. Emboldened by their victories, 
they cast their eyes upon the rich factory at 
Surat, packed with valuable stores of merchan- 
dise and money. But the English traders, though 
men of peace, made such a successful defense 
that the Mahrattas withdrew their attack. 

For a hundred years or more, the East India 
Company continued to flourish, and many new 
stations were established. Bombay, which came 
to Charles II. with his queen, was given to the 
company for a yearly payment of ten pounds. 
But troubles with the natives at last made it 
necessary to engage troops for defensive pur- 
poses, while it was found advisable to divide the 
area of trading operations into the three presi- 
dencies of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta, under 
agents or chiefs of factories. 

About fifty years later, in 1746, the French, 
who had long been settled in Pondicherry, began 
a struggle against the English which lasted for 
many years. They took Madras, where, at that 
time, Robert Clive was acting as a clerk in the 
employment of the company, but it was restored 
to the English a few years later. Then, for a 
long period, fierce war raged between the two 
countries in the southeastern part known as the 
Carnatic, each striving to win the native support 
and to gain the supremacy. Robert Clive had 
already shown his fitness to command troops, 
and now was entrusted with the important duty 
of breaking down the combined French and na- 
tive power. Following up his victory at Arcot, 
where he proved himself to be an able general, 
he soon showed the natives of India that the 
French were not invincible. Then, for a short 

time, peace ensued, only to be quickly broken by 
the bitter struggles of the Seven Years' War, 
which lasted from 1756 until 1763. 

Meanwhile, Surajah Dowlah, the native gov- 
ernor of Bengal, came into collision with the 
English, whose small garrison at Calcutta he suc- 
cessfully attacked with a large force, thrusting 
his one hundred and forty-six prisoners into a 
dark dungeon, only eighteen feet square, where, 
after an awful night of agony and terrible strug- 
gle for air, only twenty-three emerged alive from 
the "Black Hole." But punishment was near at 
hand. Clive, who had returned from his visit to 
England, soon recovered possession of Calcutta, 
and at Plassy he inflicted so severe a defeat upon 
Surajah Dowlah that he firmly established Brit- 
ish influence in India and laid the foundations of 
a mighty empire. 

Lord Clive was succeeded by Warren Hastings, 
the first Governor-General of India. While Clive 
was the actual founder of the Indian Empire, 
Warren Hastings was the man whose great abil- 
ity and knowledge of business affairs enabled 
him to put the government of India on a sound 
footing. Like Clive, he began his career as a 
writer, or clerk, in the East India Company's 
service ; again, like Clive, he became a volunteer, 
fighting under that able ofiicer against Surajah 
Dowlah. He soon received promotion and con- 
tinued to display great ability. 

When Hastings became Governor of Bengal, 
he found much dishonesty, even the native offi- 
cials robbing their own countrymen. Dismissing 
these, he appointed European officers to collect 
the taxes, and stopped the wrongdoing of the 
company's servants. In 1773 he was appointed 
Governor-General, and he then devoted himself 
to destroying the influence of both the native 
rulers and their French allies. Meanwhile, he 
was looking after the interests of the ryots, and 
was taking all possible means to increase the 
revenue of the country under his rule. But, like 
most great men, he had made enemies for him- 
self both in India and at home. Soon, rumors 
were flying about that he had been guilty of 
many cruel and unjust acts, and in the end he 
was impeached by the House of Commons. The 
trial lasted seven years, ending with his acquittal. 

Whatever his faults may have been, Hastings 
earned the gratitude of this country by following 
up Clive's policy of stopping the servants of the 
company from trading on their own account and 
receiving presents from the native princes, and 
also by his great skill in putting the finances of 
the country upon a sound basis. 

The East India Company had now extended its 




sway over the greater part of the peninsula, but 
a terrible experience was in store for the Eng- 
lish nation. Many things combined to weaken its 
influence in India, chief among which were a 
disaster to British soldiers in Afghanistan, the 
faith of the natives in a prophecy that within a 
hundred years from the battle of Plassy they 
should shake off the English yoke, and a belief 
among the Indian soldiers that the English were 
interfering with their religion. Some of the na- 
tive troops rebelled and gained possession of 
several towns, in which they committed cruel 
deeds upon English women and children. British 
soldiers suffered great hardships, but led by the 
heroic generals Havelock, Nicholson, and Law- 
rence, they retook the towns, punished the mu- 
tineers, and again won India for England. 

The mutiny proved the deathblow of the East 
India Company, for in 1858 India was brought 
under the direct rule of the British crown. In 
1876, in London, Queen Victoria was proclaimed 
Empress of India, and in the following year the 
proclamation was repeated at Delhi, India's old 


Burma lies east of the Brahmaputra River, and 
is the largest of all the provinces that go to form 
British India. Lower Burma, which mostly con- 
sists of coast-land, extends for about a thousand 
miles along the east of the Bay of Bengal; it 
came into British possession as the result of the 
Burmese wars of 1826 and 1852. Upper Burma, 
with the tributary Shan States, was once a very 
large and powerful empire, but gradually lost its 
power in its conflicts with Great Britain, and in 
1886 its king, Theebaw, was deposed, and his 
country added to the Empire of India. 

Burma is an extremely well-watered country. 
The two greatest rivers are the Irawadi and the 
Salwin, the valleys of which are very fertile, 
and produce enormous quantities of rice. Along 
their banks may also be seen fields of cotton, 
wheat, indigo, and tobacco. The Irawadi, or 
Elephant River, rises in some remote snow- 
capped peak in Tibet, and is to Burma what the 
Nile is to Egypt. The vast floods, which result 
from its overflow, are welcomed by the inhabi- 
tants, who, snug and secure in their little houses, 
built high and dry on strong piles, watch with 
satisfaction the waters that will leave behind a 
rich deposit of soil. 

The presence of long parallel ranges of moun- 
tains between the river-valleys, makes the con- 
struction of good roads a matter of extreme diffi- 

culty ; but the natives are saved any such anxiety 
by the good services of the rivers, which carry 
their goods from place to place. The Irawadi is 
navigable as far as the town of Bhamo, seven 
hundred miles from the sea, where its banks are 
thronged with Chinese merchants. From Bhamo, 
the Irawadi flows on to Mandalay, the former 
capital of Upper Burma. It is built in the form 
of a square, with three stone walls and a stock- 
ade of teak-wood. The inhabitants have pro- 
tected themselves against the flooding of the 
river by building a large embankment. As it 
nears the sea, the Irawadi breaks up into innu- 
merable channels which form an extensive delta. 
On one of these stands Rangoon, the capital ; 
ships line the banks, and take on board the val- 
uable teak logs that have been floated down the 
river; also stores of rice, gums, and spices, and 
barrels of petroleum from the neighboring wells. 

The Salwin, rising in the snowy heights of 
dreary Tibet, is nearly as long as the Irawadi, 
but is not so navigable. At its mouth is Maul- 
main, from which large quantities of teak are 

The forests of Burma are probably not equaled 
in value by any others in the world. The bamboo 
has a wonderful variety of usefulness, but it has 
to give way to the more important teak. The 
wood of this tree is easily worked, does not 
readily split, and is avoided by the destructive 
white ant on account of the aromatic oil it con- 
tains. It is quite as much in demand as the 
British oak for ship-building, and the construc- 
tion of railway carriages. 

The easy transport of the heavy logs of teak 
is due to the great intelligence of the elephants 
which are extensively used for this purpose. 
Each elephant will carry a log that would se- 
verely tax the strength and skill of thirty men, 
and they are so well trained that they will place 
each log in its proper position. When one ele- 
phant sees another engaged upon a log beyond 
his strength, he instantly lends his aid, and the 
two hoist the beam into its required position. 
These elephants are, of course, very valuable, 
but there are some which are treated as if they 
were royal creatures. These are the so-called 
white elephants, which are not really white, but 
have a yellow patch or two on their skins, or a 
few specks on their foreheads, or behind their 
ears. \\'orshiped as gods, these creatures are 
housed in palaces, with special ofllicials of high 
degree to look after them, and grants of rich cot- 
ton estates are made to them. This custom is not 
only practiced in Burma, but also in Siam and 
other parts of Indo-China, and you may read in 



the history of these countries how their inhabi- 
tants have fought for the possession of one of 
these animals at the cost of hundreds of Hves. 

The Burmese belong to the Mongolian or yel- 
low race, from which the Chinese and Japanese 
spring, and their religion is Buddhism, one of the 
features of which is a deep respect for animal 
life. Indeed it is said that the natives will collect 
the fish that are left in the shallow pools after a 
flood, and carefully restore them to their native 

All along the river-banks may be seen the cu- 
riously shaped temples called pagodas, which, 
gilded and painted, reflect the sunlight through 
the trees. The Buddhist priests live in monas- 
teries, to which the Burmese boys are sent to be 
educated. The people themselves are a merry, 
intelligent set, but are inclined to be indolent. 
They rarely become successful in business, but 
generally prove to be good servants. 

Besides its great wealth, derived from its rice- 
fields and splendid forests of teak and bamboo, 
Burma owns several tracts rich in precious 
stones. To the north of Mandalay are cele- 
brated mines from which the finest of rubies have 
been taken, while gold is obtained from the sand 
of the rivers. 


Ceylon, though connected with the mainland 
of India by a chain of low coral reefs and rocky 
islets, known as Adam's Bridge, is quite inde- 
pendent of the government of that country. It 
is a crown colony, and is under the rule of a 
governor, who is assisted by a council of his own 

The island well deserves its name of '"Pearl of 
the Eastern Seas," for nature has endowed it 
with a fertile soil that supplies many foreign ta- 
bles with good things, and yields up mineral 
treasures both for use and ornament. From the 
cinnamon gardens come "soft-blowing spicy 
breezes," and the endless groves of cocoanut 
palms provide both food and drink, and materials 
for houses, and articles of everyday use. Cofifee 
is now in a great measure replaced by the tea- 
plant, and from the cinchona-tree is derived the 
useful medicine known as quinine. 

If any proof were wanted as to the abundance 
of precious stones and metals hidden away in 
the soil, we have only to glance at the dusky 
women and children in their brightly colored gar- 
ments. Children barely able to toddle, old men 
and women, all wear ornaments of gold and sil- 
ver, and on many parts of the body, either as 

earrings, or ringlets dangling from the nose, cir- 
clets round the hair, rings on the fingers, or 
silver plates on the toes. Gems of all sorts, from 
the ruby to the cat's-eye, seem to abound, for no 
sooner does a steamer reach the harbor of Co- 
lombo, than it is swarmed with natives anxious 
to dispose of precious stones of more or less 
value. Ceylon, too, is the home of beautiful 

Point de Galle was formerly the chief port of 
call for the great steamers that plow the Eastern 
seas, but its importance has decreased through 
the rapid growth of the island's capital, Colombo. 
A magnificent breakwater that took ten years to 
complete has made the harbor of Colombo per- 
fectly safe and accessible for all ships, and the 
city now extends for four miles along the coast, 
and two miles inland. 

As you enter the harbor, you may see a large 
number of strange craft darting about. These 
are known as catamarans. The trunk of a tree 
is hollowed out, and covered with short poles and 
canvas. The ends, which are about twenty feet 
apart, are sharpened to a point, and, in order to 
preserve the balance, a couple of arched poles, 
ten or twelve feet long, with a heavy spar at- 
tached, reach out over the water, so that the spar 
floats. If the weather be rough, two or three 
men, or even more, crawl out on the spar and 
sit there, taking no notice whatever of the angry 
waves. The catamaran is usually propelled by 
men who ply their paddles in a kneeling posture; 
sometimes, however, a bamboo mat or cotton sail 
is hoisted on a bamboo mast. Strange as it may 
appear, this frail craft can be safely navigated 
in a sea which would swamp the best-built or- 
dinary boats. 

The streets of Colombo present a striking 
scene at all times. Besides the Cingalese, there 
are other natives called Tamils, who mostly 
dwell in the north. These, like the Cingalese, act 
as servants and laborers to the Parsees and 
Moormen, who are the merchants and shop- 
keepers of the island. Each race has its own 
style of clothing, and mixing everywhere with 
them are to be seen Buddhist priests in yellow 
robes, so draped as to expose the right shoulder. 
Curious vehicles wend their way through the 
streets, from the four-wheeled carriage, with its 
needful awning, to the light wagons, covered 
with dried palm-leaves, and drawn by zebus (or 
bullocks), singly or in pairs. 

From Colombo you may reach the famous 
Adam's Peak by coach. This mountain is not 
the highest in Ceylon, but it is famous for a dent 
on its summit, shaped like a man's foot, only five 



or six times larger. The Mohammedans call it 
the footprint of Adam, though the native Bud- 
dhists ascribe it to Buddha. From this and 
neighboring heights you may see great reservoirs, 
or tanks of M^ater, often ten miles long, built into 
the hills, and from them the water is conveyed in 
a canal over fifty miles in length when the dry 
seasons require it. 

A traveler has described Ceylon as an island of 
villages. Kandy, the old capital, consists of a 
group of two or three villages, nestling among 
some verdant hills in the interior. It can be 
reached by a railway which winds its way along 
the sides of the mountains, and the timid traveler 
might well shudder as he looks down the steep 
overhanging rocks if these were not covered 
with delightful clumps of evergreen trees and 
bushes, interlaced with brightly flowering creepers 
of all kinds. There are numerous Buddhist pa- 
godas, and one of these contains the "sacred 
tooth of Buddha," which is held in great rever- 
ence by the natives, and carried every year in a 
grand procession. It is, however, an inch or two 
in length, and probably belonged to some fierce 
animal of prey. 

Until recent years Ceylon was famous for its 
pearl-fisheries and coffee plantations, but these 
two industries are now dying out. Though many 
of the pearl-fishers will not find it easy to get a 
new occupation, people hitherto engaged in the 
planting of coffee already find their services in 
great request by the tea-planters, who have 
found that the climate and soil of Ceylon are 
admirably suited to the growth of the tea-shrub. 


Of the large peninsula known as Indo-China, 
the central portion consists of the independent 
country of Siam. To the east and southeast lies 
French territory; to the west and southwest are 
Burma and the Straits Settlements; while, on the 
north, Siam is shut in by Burma and Annam. 
Hence, Siam is, in a way, "sandwiched" between 
Great Britain and France, and these two nations 
have agreed to maintain its independence. 

The French own Cochin-China and Tongking, 
and exercise a control over Annam and Cam- 
bodia. The inhabitants belong mostly to the 
Mongol family, and are very devout Buddhists, 
to judge from the large numbers of temples and 
pagodas scattered about the country. As this 
large tract lies between two oceans, and is en- 
tirely within the tropics, the climate is very hot 
and moist. Europeans find it very trying, and 
suffer much from fevers. Cochin-China and 

Cambodia lie in the delta of the Mekong River, 
the fertile soil of which, under the influence of 
the tropical climate, produces immense crops of 
rice, which grain is the chief article of export 
from Saigon. As in Burma and Siam, teak is 
another important production, being brought 
down from the mountain forests of the interior, 
many of which have not yet been explored. 

The rice-fields are always under water. Ter- 
race rises above terrace very gradually, the 
water being turned from the mountain streams 
above in small channels. Early in June you may 
see groups of men and women standing knee- 
deep in the muddy water, transplanting the young 
shoots in rows. These soon spring up into 
straight, bright-green stalks, the blossom appear- 
ing in September. The harvest takes place in 
October, when the stalks are stripped by drawing 
the heads through an iron comb. Sometimes a 
flail of very ancient pattern is used. The grains 
are then laid out on mats to dry in the sun. 

Annam and Tongking are more hilly than the 
southern portion of Indo-China, and though rice 
is extensively produced, the climate is also suit- 
able on the lower slopes for the growth of tea 
and coffee. Hue has been strongly fortified by 
the French, while Hanoi, on the Song-ka, or Red 
River, though a hundred miles from the sea, is a 
very busy port. 

Cambodia was once a very powerful empire, 
and included the greater part of Indo-China. It 
now demands attention on account of the mag- 
nificent ruins of Angkor. Similar ruins are 
found in other parts of this country and also in 
Siam. Lord Curzon describes them as "the most 
remarkable collection of ruins in the world," 
whether from the point of view of the area they 
occupy, or of the impressive dimensions of the 
principal palaces and temples, or of the beautiful 
and artistic sculptures of flowers and images, 
which are among the finest and most delicate in 


The continents of Asia and Australia are con- 
nected by a group of volcanic islands known as 
the East Indies, or Malaysia. This large archi- 
pelago is divided into two portions, one showing 
the same plants and animals as Asia, the other, 
those of the Australian type. There can be no 
doubt that each of these sections was once a 
part of the neighboring mainland. 

The greater part of the area of this archi- 
pelago belongs to Holland, the chief islands being 
Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, 

H.T.&n.D. II. 8. 




Celebes, and the major portion of Borneo. The 
Philippines came into the possession of the 
United States in 1898, after the war with Spain. 
Great Britain owns the island of Labuan, lying 
off the coast of Borneo, while the northwest part 
of that island, which includes the States of Bruni 
and Sarawak, is under British protection. 

The East Indies lie on and about the equator, 
and, as may be expected, the hot, moist climate 
helps a fertile soil to produce a most luxuriant 
vegetation. In fact, this region is said to be the 
most productive in the world, and its value to 
the Dutch is further increased by its mineral 
wealth. Java is the most fertile of the group, 
yielding camphor, tobacco, and tin, though the 
last-named is collected in still greater quantities 
from some small islands near Sumatra. 

Java was the scene in 1883 of one of the most 
terrible explosions ever recorded. In the May 
of that year, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, always 
subject to volcanic eruptions, were disturbed to 
a far greater degree than usual by earthquakes. 
A volcano had broken out on Krakatoa Island, 
lying in Sunda Strait, between Sumatra and 

The eruption continued until August, when 
suddenly the sea opened and swallowed up the 
city of Anjer, with its sixty thousand inhabitants. 
Other towns were similarly destroyed, both di- 
rectly by the explosion and by the tremendous 
ocean-wave, which swamped the coasts of the 
archipelago, and then raced through the oceans 
until it exhausted itself. For months afterward, 
magnificent sunsets could be seen, even in our 
own country, and, for a time, the cause of these 
was a mystery until it was explained by the pres- 
ence of particles of fine dust in the atmosphere, 
which had spread nearly all over the world as 
the result of the explosion. 

Sumatra possesses enormous specimens of ani- 
mal and vegetable life. Here may be found the 
elephant, tapir, and orang-utan ; while it yields a 
flower named Rafflcsia after its discoverer. Sir 
Stamford Raffles, that has buds as big as cab- 
bages, and is itself a yard wide, and sometimes 
weighs over twenty pounds. 

Borneo is the second largest island in the 
world, but, unlike its neighbors, it has no vol- 
canoes. Among its many valuable productions, 
may be reckoned gold and diamonds. It is' cov- 
ered with splendid forests of teak and gutta- 
percha, while the Chinese import trepang, a sort 
of sea-slug, and edible birds'-nests — two delicacies 
much appreciated by them. The interior is in- 
habited by a wild tribe called Dyaks. 

The island of Celebes is more remarkable for 

its peculiar shape than anything else, though a 
good breed of horses is reared there. Macassar- 
oil owes its name to its capital, Macassar. The 
Spice Islands produce all sorts of spices. A fruit 
resembling the apricot has a kernel which we call 
the nutmeg, its covering being known as mace. 
Pepper is the powder of the peppercorn, which 
grows in clusters on the pepper-vine, a creeper 
that climbs up trees or poles like the ivy or hop. 

The Philippines resemble a very big island 
broken to pieces, a few being large and the rest 
very small ones. Luzon and Mindanao are the 
two chief members of the group. Manila, on 
the former, is the capital, and is noted for its 
cigars. In Mindanao, water-buffaloes are used, 
during the rainy season, to tow the ferry-boats 
across the rivers, and they are equally useful on 

The Philippines are well watered with streams 
and lakes, and the islands present an attractive 
picture, with their villages half hidden by groves 
of palms, and smiling gardens of gay blossoms 
and fruits of various tints. As they are wholly 
within the tropics, the islands have, of course, 
a very warm climate. In the more temperate 
months, November to February, the thermometer 
ranges from 75 to 80 degrees above zero. In 
April, May, and June, the hottest months, the 
average temperature is about 82 degrees. 

The islands are rich in vegetable life, including 
as many as five thousand species of tropical 
plants. Here are produced valuable hard woods, 
bamboo, cocoanut-palm, the banyan-tree, and nu- 
merous other species. From the Philippines va- 
rious countries get cinnamon, cloves, pepper, 
nuts, rice, sugar, tobacco, hemp, cocoa, and sweet 
potatoes. The minerals of the islands are said 
to be great in extent and value, but they have 
not yet been largely developed. 

With more than three thousand islands and 
is'ets, the Philippines have an area of nearly 
128,000 square miles. The population, as shown 
by the census taken in 1917, numbered 8,925,812, 
including at least thirty different races or tribes 
— blacks, browns, yellows, whites, and a few 
reds ! Political organization and education under 
direction of the United States government have 
already done much to improve the condition and 
prospects of the inhabitants. 


Russia owns more than one third of Asia. 
Siberia is much larger than the whole of Europe; 
Russian Turkestan lies between the Pamirs — a 
high region in Central Asia — and the Caspian 




Sea ; and Caucasia occupies both slopes and the 
adjoining plains of the Caucasus Mountains, 
while Kamchatka, a large peninsula at the east- 
ern extremity, is traversed in its entire length by 
a range of high volcanoes. 

The name Siberia means "thirsty," and it al- 
ways suggests a vast dreary expanse, peopled 
only by Russian prisoners. But in its great ex- 
tent we find variety in its soil and climate, for 
while the eastern portion is elevated and intensely 
cold, the southwestern district is very fertile, and 
produces immense crops of wheat. Its great rivers 
are only of service in their upper courses. These 
rivers flow northward into the Arctic Ocean, 
which is frozen for the greater part of the year. 
The upper courses are the first to thaw, spreading 
themselves over the fields of ice that mark the 
lower portions, where navigation is almost out of 
the question; but the higher portions, with their 
tributaries, are made good use of for trade pur- 
poses. The Amur, too, which separates Siberia 
from Manchuria, is a very serviceable waterway. 

Strange as it may seem, the northeast of Si- 
beria experiences great extremes of both heat 
and cold. The cold is so intense that mercury 
freezes, and axes have no power against the 
frozen trees ; yet the summer, of only a few 
weeks, brings heat which is so fierce as to make 
the ground almost unbearable to the feet. 

In spite of these drawbacks, the country is rich 
in useful products. Ivory tusks of the extinct 
mammoth are found in large numbers ; the 
wooded country south of the tundras, or treeless 
plains, harbors a large variety of fur-bearing 
animals; the rivers and lakes abound with fish, 
salmon being a common article of food ; and the 
ground is stored with rich deposits of gold, silver 
and copper, which, however, cannot be obtained 
in very large quantities owing to the severity of 
the climate. 


If you were to go from England or France to 
Shanghai in China, by sea, it would probably 
take you about five weeks; but now it is pos- 
sible to travel between Petrograd and Peking in 
one of the Trans-Siberian trains in a little over 
a fortnight. By this route, therefore, your jour- 
ney would be very much shortened. This great 
railway system has a total length of over four 
thousand miles. Few incidents of travel could 
be more interesting than that of the crossing of 
Lake Baikal, pending the completion of the line 
south, the trains being taken bodily on board a 

steamer with its powerful ice-breaking apparatus 
plowing its way across the lake. 

The traveler who joins the train at Petro- 
grad is carried through Russia, past Moscow, and 
on to the Asiatic side of the Urals. Soon he 
reaches Omsk, whence he can go down the river 
Irtish to Tobolsk, the former capital of Asiatic 
Russia. The next town of importance is Tomsk, 
which is reached by a short branch line, and 
which is the seat of a University. Irkutsk is the 
capital of Eastern Siberia, and lies near the 
southwestern shore of Lake Baikal. Beyond this 
lake the line is continued until it reaches the 
Amur, over which it passes into Chinese terri- 
tory. It then crosses Manchuria, reenters Si- 
beria, and reaches the terminus of Vladivostok, 
It also branches ofif to the southeast, and reaches 
Port Arthur and Talien-wan by way of Mukden; 
from Port Arthur a connection is established 
with Peking by way of Niuchwang Junction. 
The total length of bridges in its course amounts 
to rather more than thirty miles, and over one 
hundred thousand acres of forest were cut down 
to provide wood for sleepers and buildings. 


Russian Central Asia has an immense area, but 
it is very barren, and its population only averages 
five persons to the square mile. These dry, bleak 
districts are known as steppes, upon which 
scarcely a tree or a shrub is visible, the whole 
region presenting the aspect of a boundless sea. 
Over one, the great Kirghiz steppe, roam families 
of shepherds, who rear large numbers of horses, 
sheep, and goats. The country is drained by the 
Syr and Amu (or Oxus), which both flow into 
the Sea of Aral. They carry a large quantity of 
mud and sand into the lake, and as the evapora- 
tion is greater than the supply of water, it is 
gradually becoming shallower, and filled with 
sandy islets. 

The inhabitants, who prefer a settled life, dwell 
in the towns and villages, on the fertile oases that 
are dotted over the face of this barren waste. 
Tashkend, the capital, is in the center of a de- 
lightful district, covered with thick clustering 
masses of mulberry-trees. From the silkworms 
which feed on these, and from the cattle of the 
surrounding .steppes, the famous Tashkend silk 
and leather are obtained. 

Merv was once a fine old city with a noted 
slave-market. It now consists of groups of small, 
prosperous settlements spread over the oasis, 
which absorbs the waters of the Afghan river 
Murghab. Samarkand is another "garden in the 



wilderness," and contains a splendid mosque; but 
time is slowly proving that eventually this and 
the other oases will become barren, through the 
gradual drying up of the lakes and rivers. Khiva 
is the capital of a state which Russia acquired in 
1873, though it still keeps its old ruler, or khan. 
The state is remarkably fertile, the whole soil 
being thickly covered with trees and bushes of 
all kinds, and beds of beautiful flowers. Bokhara 
is another important trading center, which is in- 
dependent only in name. 

The Russians are pushing forward -their rail- 
ways here. From Batum, on the Black Sea, the 
line extends across Caucasia to Baku, and passes 
Tiflis, the capital. Steamers connect Baku with 
the opposite shore of the Caspian, whence com- 
mences the line that reaches, on the one hand, to 
the Afghan border near Herat, and on the other, 
passes through Merv, Bokhara, and Kokand, un- 
til it gets near Kashgar, the capital of Chinese 
Turkestan. With a line from Tashkend joined to 
the Trans-Siberian railway, Russia's great ad- 
vantage in having two separate railways to Merv 
— of immense service in case of war with 
Afghanistan or Great Britain — is easily seen. 

Caucasia is the name given to the land lying 
between the Caspian and Black seas, the Caucasus 
Mountains serving as a barrier between Europe 
and Asia. Mount Elburz, once an active volcano, 
is the highest point, though not so interesting as 
Mount Ararat, whose lofty twin peaks overlook 
the three empires of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. 
Heavy crops of wheat and rice are grown. 
Grapes, oranges, and mulberries are cultivated, 
while apples and pears claim to be native fruits. 
The people consist of several races, all noted for 
their courage and personal beauty. 

Tiflis is the capital, and is connected by rail 
with the Caspian and Black seas. Baku is the 
center of the petroleum industry, from which we 
get paraffin, benzine, and paraffin-wax for the 
manufacture of candles. At night are seen scores 
of tall shafts of flame springing upward like 
fountains of light, as the gas that escapes 
through the crevices in the earth is collected in 
iron pipes and lighted. Hence the place is always 
brilliantly illuminated, and the flames are used 
for cooking purposes, and also for heating the 
great furnaces in which the oil is refined. The 
naphtha is collected in barrels and brought to the 


The western half of the plateau of Iran, which 
stretches from the borders of India to the moun- 

tains of Armenia, is known as Persia, the land of 
the Shah. This empire, once the leader of the 
world's nations, has been in a state of decay for 
hundreds of years, and its people now chiefly 
follow the simple pursuits of agriculture and 
weaving. The whole country consists of high 
table-land, which on the north is flanked by the 
Elburz Mountains, while on the south it de- 
scends in a series of terraces to the Persian Gulf. 
Much of the surface is useless desert of sand or 
salt, but some tracts produce splendid crops of 
wheat and fruit and an abundance of flowers, no- 
tably the rose. 

The greatest of Persia's drawbacks is want of 
water. There are intensely cold winters in the 
highlands, little rain falls, and intolerable heat 
exists in summer. Yet much could be done for 
the inhabitants in the way of constructing tanks 
or reservoirs in which to store the waters of the 
melting snows, and many of the now barren plains 
could be made to yield food for a greater popu- 
lation than they now support. 

Besides the Great Salt Desert of Khorassan in 
the northeast, the southeastern portion is an un- 
broken tract of sand. Here the surface is so 
much under the influence of the winds, that roads 
and caravan tracks are completely wiped out by 
the drifting sand. In many parts of the plateau 
a peculiar system of irrigating the soil is adopted 
known as the "karez." It often happens that 
while the eye sees nothing but miles of dry, sandy 
plain, water may be had by digging a hole of 
about twenty feet in depth. Such rivers as the 
country possesses do not reach the sea. 

Teheran, the capital, has numerous palaces, 
handsome gardens, and busy bazaars. The visitor 
is at first struck with the mean and dirty appear- 
ance of the streets, and only changes his opinion 
when he sees the pretty courtyards and flower- 
beds at the backs of the houses. The bazaars 
provide anything and everything, each little shop 
being stocked with articles likely to be required. 
In one may be seen shelves laden with spices ; 
in the next, swords and daggers of the best 
tempered steel ; while others are gay with bright 
displays of gems or beautiful silks. But the most 
prized articles of Persian manufacture are the 
carpets and shawls, and it is very interesting to 
watch the carpets being made. These are mostly 
woven by young boys who sit at the looms, draw- 
ing the wool from reels suspended above them, 
and, with movements of lightning rapidity, giving 
the necessary twists and knots. No machinery is 
used, and the lasting character of the colors is 
said to be due to the use of natural dyes. 

Teheran is one of the principal stations of the 



Indo-European Telegraph. Thence it is carried 
on to Ispahan, the old capital, at one time one of 
the most wonderful cities in the world, with its 
hundreds of mosques, colleges, and public baths. 
The Palace of Forty Pillars contains really only 
twenty pillars, the other twenty being reflected 
from the sheet of water adjoining. From Ispa- 
han, the line proceeds to Shiraz, famous for its 
attar (or otto) of roses, and reaches the port of 
Bushire, whence the messages pass over the cable 
to Karachi, 


Southwestern Asia consists of Asia Minor and 
the peninsula of Arabia, and includes the Levant, 
the lands of Homeric tradition, the fabled Eden, 
birthplace of the human race, the Holy Land, 
and the sacred places of the Mohammedan world. 
Here, too, are the scenes of the travels of Paul, 
the places of the Crusades and the lands of the 
Israel of the Old Testament. Here are the 
martyred cities and villages of long-suffering 

Armenia. Among the modern cities are Smyrna, 
Scutari, Angora, and Jaffa ; among the ancient 
ones are Troy, Ephesus, Sardis, Bagdad, Damas- 
cus, Mecca, and Jerusalem. Here, too, are 
islands that have their place in song and story: 
Cyprus, Rhodes, Patmos, Cios, and Malta. 

Asia Minor is a great plateau containing nu- 
merous forests and salt-water lakes. A great 
part of the interior is desert, its sandy surface 
being covered with a coating of salt, which, 
swept up into pillars by the winds, glide and 
dance about like so many figures, and scorch the 
faces of travelers. But much of the land is 
very fertile, and under better government com- 
merce and agriculture will develop and flourish. 
The plains of the Tigris and Euphrates, once the 
seat of Assyria and Media, mighty kingdoms, 
are in the pathway of destiny and have history 
before as well as behind them. Palestine is a 
narrow tableland, surrounded by deserts, moun- 
tains and the sea. It has been the bridge be- 
tween Europe and Asia in history and the scene 
of a noble history and the home of the Stain- 
less Life. 



C?3 c^Se^S 



Every nation has a government of some kind. 
Some have kings and some have presidents. The 
use of a government is to keep things in order 
so that people do not harm one another and 
every one gets a fair chance to Hve and be happy. 
Because men are not all as good as they should 
be, there must be laws to control society. If 
there are laws there must also be rsome way of 
making people obey them, and this is what a 
government does. 

Some governments have not been good, for 
we know from reading history that there have 
been very bad kings who have broken laws in- 
stead of obeying them. But that is only because 
these kings have been bad men. 

In a country that is ruled by a king, the king's 
son becomes king after him ; or, if he has no 
son, his brother, or next nearest relative suc- 
ceeds him. 

In this countr)'- we have no king, but the people 
choose a President once every four years, and 
the man who receives the most votes of the 
Presidential electors, as explained a little farther 
on, becomes President. At the same time and in 
the same manner the people elect a Vice- 

The people of the United States, then, really 
choose their own rulers, and they also make their 
own laws. Our government is what is known as 
a republic. This is a Latin word meaning "public 
thing or affair." The name shows that the gov- 
ernment is something in which the public, which 
means all the people, have a hand. 

A republic is, therefore, a "government of the 
people, by the people, for the people," as our 
great and good President, Abraham Lincoln, once 
said. But the United States is not merely a re- 
public like the ancient ones of Greece and Rome, 
where the people of some small city governed 
themselves. It is what is known as a federal 
republic. The word "federal" means joined, 
united, working or going together, and it is used 
here because the government of all the United 
States controls the whole country, which is made 
up of forty-eight States, each of which has its 

ow^n government. And all the States work to- 
gether to make the nation. 

Each State of the United States is self-govern- 
ing, and has its government separate from that 
of every other State, and in most things from 
that of the nation. We may understand this if 
we think of a house in which many persons live — 
a large family, for example. Each person has his 
own clothes, books, and other belongings, but 
they all live together, and, if they do right by 
each other, every one does something to keep the 
house going. If they are all grown up, each one 
pays board, but if they are parents and children, 
each little boy or girl does something to help his 
or her father and mother, even if none of them 
do more than to be good and mind as they are 
told to do. In this way all the different per- 
sons in a family may live together happily while 
each one has his own property and business sepa- 
rate from the others. 

Just as the chief man in the nation is called 
the President, so the chief man in each of the 
States is called the governor, and the chief man 
in a city is called the mayor. All the voters of 
all the States may vote to elect the President of 
the United States, and all the voters of each 
separate State or each separate city may vote 
to elect their governor or their mayor. 

The President has no right to interfere with 
the governor of any State unless he does some- 
thing against the whole United States, as, for 
example, trying to make his State free from the 
Union. The President and the United States 
government have control of only a few things 
within the States, such as the mails, the railroads 
running from one State to another, and United 
States lands in any State. These United States 
lands are largely great forests which the govern- 
ment keeps from being cut down, so as to save 
the trees and their wood from being wasted. 

Then, also, the United States government has 
customs officers in different States, especially in 
those along the ocean, on the Great Lakes, or 
on the border between the United States and 
Canada or Mexico. These customs officers col- 





lect duty, or money, demanded by the govern- 
ment as a tax upon certain articles imported or 
brought into the United States from other coun- 
tries. The President of the United States can 
also call on any or all of the State governors to 
send soldiers to fight the nation's enemies in time 
of war. But the President cannot interfere with 
the laws of any of the States. 

The President and Vice-President of the 
United States are chosen, as we have said, by the 
voters of all the States. But the voters in the 
various States do not vote directly for them. 
They vote for men known as Presidential electors, 
as we have also told you. Each party in each 
State chooses a number of men who will be Presi- 
dential electors if their party is successful in 
that State. 

The Constitution provides that each State shall 
choose as many Presidential electors as it has 
persons representing it in Congress — two electors 
to correspond to the two senators from each 
State, and as many more as the State sends mem- 
bers to the House of Representatives. All to- 
gether these electors compose what is called the 
electoral college. "Each party in each State 
chooses its candidates for this body ; each dis- 
trict being represented by its own successful 
candidate, according to the popular vote. The 
successful electoral candidates in each State 
meet at their respective State capitals, on the 
first Monday in January following the general 
election, and vote for the candidates heading 
the party tickets with which each member is 
affiliated. The electoral votes are formally 
counted, in the presence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, on the second 
Wednesday in February, and the President and 
Vice-President declared elected. In case of non- 
election, the matter is placed in the hands of 
Congress, which chooses candidates by two- 
thirds vote." 

The Vice-President is president of the Senate 
while the President of the United States lives 
and retains his office, but succeeds him if he 
dies in office, or if he resigns. In the early days 
of the Republic, the unsuccessful candidate for 
President was usually elected Vice-President, but 
later each party chose its candidate for this 
office, as well as for that of President. 

Now that we have seen how the President is 
elected to rule the country, we must learn how 
he must act, in order to rule it rightly. So we 
must learn how the government is formed. 

The government of the United States is di- 
vided into three parts, or departments. These 
are: first, the legislative, which means the law- 
making, department; second, the executive, or 

managing, department; third, the judiciary, or 
judging, department. The first, or lawmaking, 
department consists of the two houses, as they 
are called, of Congress; the Senate and the 
House of Representatives. The second, or man- 
aging, department consists of the President and 
his nine advisers, who form his cabinet. The 
third, or judging, department consists of the 
justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and of the United States district courts 
in all the States of the Union. The United 
States courts are separate from the State courts, 
just as the national and State governments are 
distinct. They never interfere with one another, 
since each has its own separate authority. 

To show what these three departments must 
do, we may say that Congress makes laws ; the 
President and his cabinet carry them out, or 
enforce them; and the judges of the United 
States courts use them in deciding cases brought 
about by legal disputes. 

Congress, as we have seen, consists of the 
Senate and the House of Representatives. The 
Senate consists of members elected by the legis- 
latures, or lawmaking bodies of the States. 
Each State sends two senators, and each senator 
is elected for a term of six years. 

The House of Representatives consists of 
members elected by the people of the several 
States. Each member of the House is elected 
from a congressional district, which is now 
formed, as nearly as possible, to include 154,325 
inhabitants. The congressional districts are re- 
apportioned, or changed to suit the varying 
population, three years after every census, or 
counting of the people, of the nation. 

Laws made for the nation consist originally of 
bills, which are passed by the votes of most of 
the members of Congress. A bill may be drawn 
up in either house, and when it has been passed 
in that house it is sent to the other to be voted 
on. If it is parsed by both houses, it is sent 
to the President. If the President signs his 
name to the bill it becomes a law. If he does 
not approve it — that is, if he withholds his signa- 
ture — he returns the bill, with his objections, to 
the house that first passed it. This act is the 
President's veto. "Veto" is a Latin word 
meaning "I forbid," and the bill that a Presi- 
dent vetoes fails to become a law unless, after 
the veto, two thirds of both houses vote to pass 
it again. This seldom happens, however, since 
in recent years the President's veto has been 
generally respected. 

Bills are presented to either house by com- 
mittees chosen to deal with special subjects. 
When a new law is proposed in the form of a 

Copyright 1899 by H. H. BlashfieM, troin a Copley Print c«)p> riylu i<j<f ly Curtis 

rul>lisherst Boston. 



XVII— n 




bill, it is referred to the appropriate committee, 
who, if they approve it, submit it to their house, 
which then votes upon it. The President often 
suggests laws that he thinks should be passed, 
and his suggestions may be taken up by Con- 
gress, which draws up and passes such a bill as 
it thinks best. 

The government of the nation under the direc- 
tion of the President is divided into nine execu- 
tive departments, each of which has its chief or 
head. These are known as secretaries. To- 
gether they form the cabinet or body of the 
President's personal and official advisers. The 
nine secretaries forming the President's cabinet, 
and their functions, are as follows : 

The Secretary of State, chief of the Depart- 
ment of State, controls all our relations with 
foreign countries, and is the director of all 
United States ministers and ambassadors who 
represent this country at foreign capitals. He 
also directs all United States consuls in cities 
of foreign countries, who are sent out to protect 
American citizens in these places, and to promote 
the interests of American commerce there. 

The Secretary of the Treasury, chief of the 
Treasury Department, has charge of all money 
in the United States Treasury. He also directs 
the collection of taxes on tobacco, liquors, play- 
ing-cards, and other things subject to the in- 
ternal revenue tax, and controls all the United 
States custom-houses, which collect tariff duty 
on things brought into the United States from 
foreign countries. The mints where money is 
coined are also under him. 

The Secretary of War, chief of the War De- 
partment, is, under the President, the director 
of the United States Army. He has entire 
charge of all the forts belonging to the govern- 
ment, and directs all officers and soldiers of the 
army. The War Department has charge also of 
the Weather Bureau, which issues daily predic- 
tions on the weather. 

The Secretary of the Navy, chief of the Navy 
Department, directs all the officers and sailors of 
the United States Navy, and also of the United 
States Marine Corps. He has in charge the 
building of ships for the navy, and directs their 
sailing at all times. 

The Secretary of the Interior, chief of the 
Department of the Interior, has charge of all the 
United States business in all the States and terri- 
tories, and also of the United States lands and 
forest reserves, and of the irrigation dams and 
systems in the arid regions of the West. His 
department has to do with most of the relations 
between the States and the United States govern- 

The Attorney-General, head of the Depart- 
ment of Justice, is really the chief lawyer for 
the government. He directs the conduct of all 
suits in the United States courts for the govern- 
ment, and looks out for the government's legal 
interests in all parts of the country. 

The Postmaster-General, chief of the Post 
Office Department, directs the carrying of the 
mails all over the country, as well as the mails 
entering and leaving the United States. 

The Secretary of Agriculture, chief of the 
Department of Agriculture, has charge of the 
work of advising and helping the farmers of the 
country to make the most of the soil and crops. 
His department tries new ideas, and issues bulle- 
tins which tell farmers about the various kinds 
of crops that can be raised in this country. 

The Secretary of Commerce and Labor, chief 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor, has 
charge of matters relating to the workers of the 
nation and their relations with their employers. 
His department was founded largely to deal with 
the difficulties known as "strikes," and other 
forms of labor trouble. 

Each one of these secretaries is appointed by 
the President after his election, and may take 
office if the Senate approves the appointment. 
Each secretary is the executive head of his own 
department, where he represents the President. 
He is supposed to do always as the President 

In case of the President's death in office, the 
Vice-President, as we have said, succeeds him. 
If the Vice-President also dies, the Secretary of 
State becomes President. After him in the order 
of succession come the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, the Secretary of War, the Attorney-General, 
the Postmaster-General, the Secretary of the 
Navy, and the Secretary of the Interior. 

There is another branch of the government of 
which we have already spoken — the judiciary, or 
judging, department, consisting of the Supreme 
Court of, the United States and all the other 
United States courts throughout the country. 
The judges hear and decide disputes subject to 
their lawful authority between individuals, com- 
panies, cities, or States, and settle them by show- 
ing how the United States laws apply to them. 
It is sometimes said that while Congress makes 
laws, the judiciary department unmakes them. 
So far as this is true, it is so because the judges 
have often said that a law is contrary to the 
Constitution of the United States, which tells 
what kind of laws may be made and what kinds 
may not be made. If Congress makes laws that 
are against the Constitution, then the judges set 
them aside. 






























glimpsp:s of European 


Let us suppose that we are at some place in 
Europe from which we are to begin a journey- 
to various countries on the Continent. It may 
be that we cannot do better than set out from 
the seaport city of Stavanger, on the southwest- 
ern coast of Norway. Let us then imagine our- 
selves already there. 

From this starting-point we turn north, and are 
soon among the lovely scenery of Norway. The 
cliffs rise from the sea, and are constantly 
broken by narrow passages, sometimes only a 
stone's throw in width, which form the entrances 
to those fiords which are the delight of travelers. 

How can we describe the delightful character 
of this charming land? We notice the sudden 
rising of the cliffs from the deep blue waters, 
the shelving away above the snow line where the 
glaciers rise, the heavy native boats with their 
huge sails, and the fisherman's log hut, which 
all add to the strangeness and beauty o£ the 
.scene. The largest and best known of the fiords 
is Sogne Fiord, north of Bergen, which is one 
hundred miles long, and throws off long inlets 
like the branches of a tree. These curl their 
windings among the highest mountains, produc- 
ing the grandest effects. 

One of the most beautiful and best known is 
the Hardanger Fiord — usually reached by the 
"Narrow Fiord," where the mountains rise ab- 
ruptly from the water. The Hardanger runs 
eighty miles inland, and from one of its inlets 
an immense glacier stretches almost down to the 
surface of the water. Near by is also one of the 
grandest waterfalls in Europe. 

At Drondheim we find a fine cathedral, and a 
great fish-curing industry. Here the sun at mid- 
summer only sinks below the horizon for four 
hours, but in midwinter the night is twenty hours 
long. This long night, however, is not dark even 
when the moon docs not light it up. The gor- 
geous aurora borealis (northern lights) is here 
seen in full splendor. We sail on past the Lofo- 

den Isles, where is the Maelstrom, a whirlpool 
much more famous than dangerous. These 
islands supply enormous quantities of codfish and 
cod-liver oil. 

Farther north is the most northerly town in 
the world — Hammerfest — where we may buy 
shoes and bone spoons from the Lapps, and 
where in summer the sun never sets for seven 
weeks, and in winter never rises for nearly as 
long a time. Hammerfest is not far from North 
Cape, the most northerly point of Europe. 


The inhabitants of this northern land are the 
curious little Lapps. They could not possibly 
exist here if it were not for the reindeer. This 
wonderful animal provides them with clothing 
of fur from its skin, leather -for shoes and har- 
ness, fresh meat, milk, and means of locomotion. 
The Lapp makes thread of its sinews and do- 
mestic utensils of its horns. Well may the Lap- 
lander reckon his wealth by the number of rein- 
deer he possesses. 

Returning south to Stavanger, we join a 
steamer bound for the Baltic, and soon reach 
Christiania, the capital of Norway and a timber 
port. Turning south and following the low coast 
of Sweden, we enter the Kattegat opposite the 
Skaw, the most northerly point of Denmark. 
Exactly on our left is Gottenburg, whose river 
brings down the waters of the great Lake 
Wener. The Kattegat is blocked at its southern 
end by a large number of islands, of which Zea- 
land is the largest. The most used of the chan- 
nels between these islands is the Sound, which 
washes Sweden on the east and Denmark on its 
western shores. We enter the Sound at Elsinore 
and soon cast anchor at Copenhagen, the capital 
of the little kingdom of Denmark. Copenhagen 
is a fine sight from the sea : a noble harbor lies 
in front, and a mass of handsome buildings, with 
lofty spires and towers, behind; while in the 
background rises a range of hills clothed with 




4. A GIRL OK HARDANGER, NORWAY. 5. Pf:.\'>i'\^T WOMEN, Hv^J^n/V^^«yi:.'R. 




We now enter the Baltic Sea, and clinging to 
the Swedish shore, drop anchor at Stockholm, 
the capital of Sweden. This city is sometimes 
called the "Venice of the North.'" It is prettily- 
situated on a number of islands, and looks as if 
it floated on the water. The scenery around is 
rich, with agreeable variety of hill and dale. 

Our voyage ends here, and we return over- 
land to Bergen to take passage for a southern 
voyage. We must carefully remember the chief 
natural features of this great northern penin- 
sula. The mountain range that runs from north 
to south is nearer the Atlantic than the Baltic, 
so that the larger rivers are on the eastern 
slope. The summits of the mountains in Nor- 
way are always covered with snow, from which 
great masses of ice creep down into the valleys, 
sometimes reaching even to the seashore. Here 
they are often broken, and in the end, falling 
into the sea, they form an iceberg, which goes 
floating away toward the warmer parts of the 
ocean, until it melts and disappears. 

On the lower slopes of the mountains are tall, 
dense forests of pines and firs. Rich ores of 
iron also abound. The coasts are thronged with, 
wild ducks, wild geese, and other water- 
fowl, and the sea is filled with excellent fish. 
Many of the Norwegians work in the forests, 
cutting down the tall, straight trees, which they 
send to other lands to be used for masts of ves- 
sels. Great numbers work in the mines, or catch 
fish along the coasts. In summer the cattle and 
sheep are driven away to the mountain pastures, 
where they are taken care of by the children and 
old people. 

In Sweden there is much to remind one of 
Germany ; the languages resemble each ether, but 
Swedish is softer and more agreeable to the ear 
than German. Norse is not at all difficult for an 
English-speaking person to learn, and many of 
the words are almost the same as ours. The 
Danes are a tall, strong, fair-haired race. They 
have become a nation oi hard-working farmers, 
and send large quantities of butter to foreigii 


We soon find ourselves scudding down chan- 
nel, and pass in view of the Channel Islands, 
which belong to England, and provide her mar- 
kets with early potatoes, and her visitors with a 
delightful summer holiday. We are next tossing 
about on the stormy Bay of Biscay, but having 
rounded Cape Finisterre, we reach places where 
nature is more kind. Cape Rocca, the most 
westerly point in Europe, is next left behind. 

and we cast anchor in front of Lisbon, the cap- 
ital of Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus. 

Portugal, like Spain, is famed for its warm, 
fruitful valleys, and the fine wines of its vine- 
yards. The climate of Portugal, however, ow- 
ing to the breezes from the Atlantic, is milder 
in all seasons than that of Spain. The only im- 
portant cities in this country, which is about as 
large as the State of Maine, are Lisbon and 

The port of Lisbon, one of the finest in Europe, 
has a reach of two miles, sheltered from every 
wind that blows, and is easy of access for any 
number of ships. The city stands upon seven 
hills, and its newer streets, built since the earth- 
quake of 1755, are well laid out. The old streets 
were narrow and winding, and projected to such 
an extent that people in the upper rooms could 
really shake hands with their neighbors in the 
houses on the other side. 

Oporto, at the mouth of the Douro, is the 
cleanest and most agreeable city of Portugal. 
The famous red wine, called port, which is pro- 
duced on the banks of the Douro, is shipped from 
this city. 

From Lisbon we sail to Gibraltar, the rock 
fortress guarding the entrance to the Mediter- 
ranean, and held by the British since 1704. On 
the way we pass Cape Trafalgar, and call to 
mind Nelson's great victory and his death. 
From Gibraltar we resolve to see something of 
the southern and most attractive parts of Spain. 
Most of this country is a high, dreary table-land, 
with few cultivated fields, marked from east to 
west by several ranges of mountains, of which 
the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Range), in the 
south, is the highest. Through the deep valleys, 
between these ranges, flow rivers, and here are 
beautiful orchards, vineyards, and gardens. 


Many of the mountains are covered with for- 
ests, which contain some ''aluable trees. Among 
them is the cork-oak, the bark of which is so 
useful in many ways. In the rich valleys at the 
foot of the Sierra Nevada are orange, olive, and 
mulberry groves ; as well as gardens of pine- 
apples, bananas, and beautiful flowers. No frost 
ever withers them, and no winter's cold robs 
them of their leaves, their flowers, or their 

The olive yields a small, dark-green, plum- 
shaped fruit, which is either preserved and ex- 
ported, or pressed for its oil. The leaves of the 
mulberry furnish food for silkworms, whose silk 

H/r.&G.o. 11. a. 




is exported to Lyons, where it is manu- 

Spain is a beautiful and interesting country. 
Think of the brilHant sunshine and deep shadows, 
the tiled roofs of the houses, the idle muleteers, 
and the mules with panniers laden with ripe 
fruits and nuts — all giving the impression of a 
rich, sunny, dreamy land, where the soil brings 
forth abundance without great effort, and the 
people lead an easy life of careless enjoyment, 
more fond of gay laughter and bright music 
than of work. These are the impressions we re- 
ceive as we pass from Seville, famous for its 
oranges and wine; and through Granada, the old 
capital of the Moors. 

It is long ages ago now since the Moors came 
over from ]\Iorocco, and settled down to luxury 
and idleness in this dreamy land. The Moors 
are all gone now, but we still see proofs of their 
conquest, remains of their rich palaces, stately 
columns, round arches, and quaint coloring. 


Of few lands can more wonderful stories be 
told than of Spain. xA.t one time it was one of 
the richest and most flourishing provinces of the 
Roman Empire. Then it was conquered and re- 
conquered by tribes that passed over the Pyre- 
nees from the north, who in their turn were 
subdued by Moors from Africa. For eight cen- 
turies the Moors ruled with a gentle hand, mak- 
ing Cordova the center of the highest art and 
learning in Europe. While our Saxon ancestors 
were living in huts, the Moors reared palaces and 
homes of luxury in the south of Spain. 

Their arms held back their enemies in the 
north, and confined them to the bleaker and 
more unproductive parts of the peninsula. Their 
skill in healing was recognized all over Europe. 
Their buildings are still, even in ruins, admired 
by the traveler; and their patient industry made 
fruitful gardens of a land which to-day is little 
better in many parts than a dusty waste. But 
gradually the northerners became more and more 
united among themselves, and therefore more 
and more able to attack their enemies in the 
south with success. Gradually the Moorish 
kingdom grew smaller. After the capture of 
Cordova, Granada became the capital, and this 
last city which remained under rule was 
captured by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492. 
These monarchs now ruled the whole peninsula 
south of the Pyrenees. They expelled or perse- 
cuted their new subjects so cruelly that their in- 
dustry and skill were completely driven out of 

At the very time that Granada was about to 
surrender, Christopher Columbus waited upon 
the King and Queen to seek help for his pro- 
posed voyage to discover a new world. It is not 
surprising that the monarchs at first refused to 
help the strange dreamer. He left them almost 
in despair. But a messenger from the court 
overtook him and bade him return. He was pro- 
vided with three small vessels, and sailed in 
August, 1492. 

Even in that age of adventure, when Vasco da 
Gama had already hugged his way round the 
coast of Africa until he turned the Cape, in 
"Good Hope" now of reaching India by this new 
way, the voyage of Columbus was looked upon 
as a mad action by many who still believed the 
world was flat. The ignorant sailors who ac- 
companied him were terrified when they found 
the winds steadily blowing them westward, won- 
dering how they were to return home. Day 
after day, week after week, they went sulkily on, 
until at last the mutiny was so general that 
Columbus was compelled to agree to turn his 
ships homeward if land were not discovered 
within a very short time. 

A large reward was promised to him who 
should first see land. The signs of its approach 
increased ; land-birds perched in the rigging, ob- 
jects floating in the sea showed its nearness, and 
all kept a keen lookout. Columbus himself was 
the first to see a moving light in the darkness of 
night. The New World had been reached, and 
the great navigator took possession of it in the 
name of Spain. 

Fresh adventurers now set forth to discover 
and to conquer new lands. Foremost among 
these were Cortes and Pizarro. Cortes led a few 
hundred men against the highly civilized state 
of jMexico. He burned his ships as soon as they 
reached the strange land, so that his men might 
have no hope except in conquering the country. 
The Spaniards knew the land was rich in the 
precious metals. Their gunpowder terrified the 
natives, armed only with bows and arrows; 
while the warriors on horseback were regarded 
with wonder and surprise. In a short time 
Cortes and his companions had conquered Mex- 
ico and added it to the Spanish dominions. 

Pizarro was the conqueror of Peru. There 
had been stories of a land where the very stones 
in the streets were of gold. Pizarro found a 
strong and well-governed empire, but easily over- 
ran it with his European arms against bows and 
arrows, and took possession of fabulous wealth. 
The news of his success soon brought new ad- 
venturers from over the sea. The Inca King 

;,; niy^-Wdu,iitfi^fy-, 

l-rom stereog^raph^. 

:>y L'nderwood & I'^nderwoud. 


upper: exterior. 





ofifered as his ransom to fill a large room with 
gold ornaments as far as he could reach up the 
wall. The faithless Spaniard received the gold, 
but refused to release his captive. 

In these times the Spaniards at home possessed 
writers and painters whom the world will always 
remember. Cervantes wrote his wonderful and 
amusing book called "Don Quixote," and Lope 
de Vega astonished men by the ease with 
which he wrote a multitude of books. Velasquez 
was a great Spanish painter in the time of 
Philip II., who sent the "Invincible Armada" 
against England. 

Although for generations the Spanish galleons 
were constantly coming home from the rich 
mines of Mexico and Peru laden with silver and 
gold, Spain steadily declined. The industrious 
and skilful Moors had been driven out by the 
Inquisition, and the same cruel instrument of 
persecution prevented all freedom of thought and 
action except upon the narrow lines which it 

As the land which once possessed the richest 
and fairest parts of the New World became 
weaker and weaker, she lost gradually one col- 
ony after another, until she had nothing left of 
her former wide dominions, but Cuba and Porto 
Rico in the West, and the Philippines in the 
East. A war with the United States, at the 
very end of the nineteenth century, resulted in 
the loss of these, and to-day Spain, once the 
proud ruler of almost half the known world, the 
mightiest country on the face of the globe, is 
among the lesser powers in the council of the 


From Barcelona we sail direct across the Gulf 
of Lions — so called from its stormy waters — to 
Marseilles, the third city in France, and the 
largest port in the Mediterranean. Near by is 
the great French naval port of Toulon, and along 
the coast eastward, at the foot of the Maritime 
Alps and stretching over the Italian boundary, is 
the lovely Riviera, whose balmy air, unclouded 
sky, and deep-l)lue sea attract crowds of wealthy 
visitors from other lands, especially persons who 
are anxious to escape from the cold of winter 
and spring in their own countries. 

The Gulf of Genoa is named after the city of 
Genoa, which long years ago was one of the 
chief ports of Europe. It is beautifully situated 
on the hill-slope overlooking the sea, and still 
retains many of its fine old buildings. Between 
Genoa and Naples we pass Elba, the island where 

Napoleon spent his first period of banishment. 
As we approach Naples from the sea, we realize 
the meaning of the proverb, "See Naples and 
die." It is built on the seashore, with the broad 
blue bay in front, hills and fresh green valleys 
all around it, both valleys and hills covered with 
vineyards and orange-groves. A short distance 
behind it is the active volcano of Vesuvius, from 
which black clouds of vapor are always rising. 
Its lower slopes are cultivated like the surround- 
ing country, although the people know that at 
any time the volcano may send out a stream of 
lava to burn, or a shower of cinders to bury 
them all, as it buried Pompeii in the year 

70 A.D. 

Leaving this interesting district, we steam 
along the western shores of Italy, and through 
the Strait of Messina, to Brindisi, the nearest 
Italian port to the east. The Adriatic Sea 
stretches far away to the north, but the voyager 
is well repaid for his trouble, when he reaches 
Venice, one of the most interesting cities in 
Europe. Like Stockholm and Amsterdam, it is 
built on piles on numerous low, sandy islets 
which stud the surface of a salt lagoon; and 
although it contains about one hundred and fifty 
thousand people it does not possess a single horse, 
nearly all the traffic being carried on by means 
of gondolas, or barges. The city is crossed by 
the Grand Canal, which is the chief avenue of 
traffic, and the only open space of any size is the 
Piazza of St. Mark. The cathedral of St. Mark 
and the Doge's Palace face the Piazza. The 
Rialto. mentioned by Shakespeare, stands near 
the fish-market, and is the chief bridge of 

We here take passage in a steamer bound for 
Constantinople. As we sail southward, our voy- 
age lies along the coasts of a huge peninsula, 
called the Balkan Peninsula, after the range of 
mountains that runs across it. This peninsula, 
which formerly belonged entirely to Turkey, is 
now divided into a number of independent and 
partly independent states. Rumania, Bulgaria, 
and Servia are on the banks of the Danube. The 
Turkish province lies entirely to the south of the 
Balkans. Greece is at the southern end. 

Having rounded Cape Matapan, we enter the 
port of Athens, the capital of Greece, a city 
which, thousands of years ago, was the home of 
art and poetry. The monuments and buildings 
of Athens are still models for our sculptors and 
architects. The climate is delicious and the soil 
productive. From Athens we sail through the 
midst of numberless isles, and through the 
Dardanelles to Constantinople, on the Bosporus, 





which joins tlie Sea of Marmora to the Black 
Sea, and separates Europe from Asia. 


If you sail to the east of the Mediterranean 
you come to one of the smallest but most inter- 
esting countries of the world. Palestine is only 
about the size of the State of New Hampshire, 
but it was the ancient home of one of the world's 
most remarkable races, and it has been the scene 
of some of the most sacred events of history. 

The city of Jerusalem is connected to-day by 
rail both with Damascus and with Egypt and it 
is only two hours motor ride from Joppa to 
Jerusalem. Still this country, which we think 
of as the home of patriarchs and camels, pre- 
serves many of its ancient customs. 

Not more than one-eighth of the population 
of Palestine to-day is Jewish and in Jerusalem 
there are probably not more than 25,000 Jews. 
Since the re-conquest of the Holy Land by the 
English during the Great War, there are the 
most sanguine hopes among Jews scattered all 
over the world that they may return in great 
numbers to their ancient home to establish again, 
after having been homeless for eighteen cen- 
turies, a Jewish state. 

The Jews to-day are influential everywhere. 
Their intellectual and moral strength commends 
respect. They excel in literature, art, and 
music, but finance is their special domain. Clan- 
nish within .their own race, they are hospitable, 
dignified, and generous. 


There is little to tempt us to extend our voyage 
over the Black Sea. The Crimea, a peninsula 
lying between it and the Sea of Azov, is mem- 
orable in history as the scene of the Crimean 
War, waged in 1853-56. Odessa, a great grain 
port, is the principal port on the Black Sea. 

Returning now from Constantinople to Gib- 
raltar, we make it our business to learn what we 
can about the principal islands on our way. The 
first to call for notice is Candia, or Crete, a large 
island south of Greece, which has recently risen 
against Turkish rule, and obtained self-govern- 
ment under a Greek prince. Midway between 
Sicily and Africa lies Malta, which has been a 
British possession since 1800, and which is one 
of England's most important naval and military 
stations. It is very thickly populated, and the 
soil, which has actually been carried over the 
sea from Sicily, is fertile and well cultivated. 

Valetta, the capital, is one of the strongest fort- 
resses in the world. 

From Malta we sail to Messina, and land upon 
the shores of Sicily — the largest, most important, 
and most fruitful island of the Mediterranean. 
It produces plentifully, and with little effort on 
the part of the farmer, figs, oranges, lemons, 
olives, and grapes. Palermo is the capital. 
The most striking physical feature of Sicily is 
the great volcano in the northeast, Alount 
Etna, which is eleven thousand feet high. Its 
slopes consist of three belts, or zones. A fertile 
belt, as much as eleven miles broad in some 
parts, is succeeded above by a wooded region six 
or seven miles wide, where volcanic cones 
abound. Above this we reach a desert zone, a 
dismal tract full of hollows and chasms, and 
covered most of the year with snow and ice. 

In this lofty region the air is chill and pierc- 
ing; every sign of life ceases; not an insect 
crawls over the cold surface of the ground ; not 
even the eagle soars on high to disturb the awful 
stillness; here only the thunder of the tempest, 
or the still more tremendous explosions of the 
volcano, are heard. In the midst of this gloomy 
region rises the principal cone, with a large 
crater about two miles and a half in circum- 

Northwest of Sicily lie the two large islands 
of Corsica and Sardinia. The former is moun- 
tainous, and only the valleys can be cultivated. 
The island is now owned by France. Sardinia, 
which is about the size of Massachusetts, belongs 
to Italy. It is fertile and rich in minerals. Game 
is plentiful. Off the coast of Spain are the 
Balearic Isles, which we pass on the right, as we 
steam along between the coasts of Spain and 
Africa. We cast anchor again under the great 
rock of Gibraltar, having completed our survey 
of this great inland sea, which covers nearly one 
million square miles. 


The high mountain land of Europe is visited 
everv summer by crowds of people from America 
and from many European countries, and on this 
account it has been called the "playground of 

Suppose that for our visit to Switzerland we 
sail from Gibraltar to the Belgian port of Ostend. 
Here we find ourselves on the western side of 
the great plain, that stretches across Russia and 
all the middle of Europe. Proceeding south 
from Ostend, we observe that the land rises 

From stereoyrai- i. v..^t.) ii^ht 1903 by Underwood & Under wouu. 






gradually. We enter Switzerland at Basel, and 
soon find ourselves at Lucerne, in the very midst 
of the Alps, the highest mountains in Europe, 
which, although not so high as some of the great 
mountain chains of the earth, afford fine scenery 
and exhibit all the features of the loftiest eleva- 

The Alps consist of a great many chains con- 
nected with each other. The principal ones run 
nearly parallel, and in the valleys between them 
we find streams that form the head waters of 
the Rhine, the Rhone, and the Danube. The 
lower slopes are covered with vineyards, or- 
chards, wheat-fields, and meadows, with pleasant 
villages in every valley. Higher up are green 
forests of oak and walnut; then tall, dark pines 
and firs. Above these are clusters of rhododen- 
drons covered with bright flowers, and green 
pastures, with hundreds of cows feeding upon 
them. Here little cottages, called chalets, are 
scattered about for the people who take care of 
the cows. Still higher are the tall, sharp peaks, 
covered with ice and snow, and glistening like 
silver in the sunshine. These are the highest 
mountains in Europe, and they are among the 
grandest in the world. 

Bright streams flow through the pleasant green 
valleys, leaping over rocks and making fine 
waterfalls, some of which are so high that the 
water in falling is turned into fine spray, and 
looks like a shower of silvery dust falling from 
the bright blue sky. Sometimes the streams go 
leaping and dancing into little basin-shaped hol- 
lows, or deep gorges among the mountains. 
These make lovely lakes, such as Lucerne, Con- 
stance and Geneva in Switzerland, and Como in 

High up in the mountains, beyond the forests 
and green pastures, the valleys are no longer gay 
with streams that dance and sparkle and sing; 
but in their stead we see glaciers, or "rivers of 
ice," creeping along so slowly that they seem 
not to move at all. In the lower valleys, where 
the summer is quite warm, the glacier melts 
away as fast as it descends, and the melting ice 
forms a fine stream. 

Up among the snowy peaks terrible avalanches 
sometimes occur. During or after a winter 
storm a mass of ice becomes loosened from the 
rock on which it fell and begins to roll down the 
mountainside. As it moves onward the snow on 
which it rolls clings to it, making it larger and 
heavier every moment, until it becomes an im- 
mense mass of moving snow. Now it rushes 
swiftly along, dashing down the forest trees in 
its path, and never stopping until it reaches 

the valley at the foot of the slope, where it some- 
times buries whole villages. 

The Swiss peasants, who have small farms on 
the mountains, keep cows and goats. As soon as 
the snow disappears, the men with their herds 
go away up to the high mountain pastures. There 
they stay until the snow comes again in the 
autumn, living in little cottages on the pastures, 
and taking care of their cows. In autumn they 
descend again, bringing with them the cheeses 
they have made, which they sell in the towns. 

The peasants have a very merry time when the 
cows ascend to the pastures in the spring, for 
then the whole village has a holiday; and their 
friends go with them part of the way, shouting, 
singing, and making themselves very happy. 


From Lucerne we easily climb to the top of the 
Rigi. This mountain is not very high — in about 
three hours one can get to the top — but is well 
situated, and affords a magnificent view of the 
great heights that encircle it. A railway has 
been made to the summit for the convenience 
of those who wish to avoid reaching it on foot. 

The plan recommended to us is to pass the 
night at one of the excellent hotels at the top. 
Shortly before sunrise we are aroused by the 
sound of a horn, and every visitor hurries to 
the best position to watch one of the finest sights 
that can be seen anywhere in the world — sunrise 
over the Alps ! 

If we are favored with a clear sky, a view of 
grandeur lies before us. Near us is the bold 
peak of Mount Pilatus; at our feet are lakes 
scarcely visible yet in the twilight, while all 
around are the eternal snows on the mountain- 
tops, glittering in the glow of the light of the 
coming sun. 

From Lucerne, too, we pass to Chamonix, 
where we are in French territory, under the 
shadow of Mont Blanc, the highest of the Alps. 
This giant is nearly sixteen thousand feet above 
the level of the sea. As the snow-line is at the 
height of eight thousand feet here, nearly half 
the mountain lies within the region of the never- 
changing snow and ice. It overlooks the coldest 
part of the Alpine chain, and its summit is cov- 
ered with snow. Immense glaciers stretch along 
its slope till they reach the valley of Chamonix, 
so famous among all visitors who love skating. 
The sides of this mountain appear like lofty 
needles, the sharp summits of which seem to 
penetrate the clouds. At its foot is the beautiful, 
cultivated, and fertile valley, with its villages and 



little hamlets, which render the whole scene so 
very pretty. 

The ascent of Mont Blanc is very toilsome and 
dangerous. There are guides who, for a large 
sum of money, go with the climbers to the sum- 
mit. A party about to ascend the mountain 
must provide themselves with ladders, ropes, and 
hatchets, as well as with food for the journey. 
The ladders are used for climbing ice-peaks, and 
for crossing chasms of unknown depth. The 
ropes are used to tie the members of the party 
together in a long line, so that if one falls he 
may be upheld by the others. With the hatchets 
steps are cut on the steep walls of ice. Each 
climber takes an alpenstock— a strong staff, shod 
with iron — to aid him in keeping a firm footing 
on the ice, and each wears a veil to protect his 
eyes from the glare of the snow. 

Toward the summit is an almost upright wall 
of ice, four or five hundred feet high. Should 
the foot slip, down like lightning the climber 
would glide, from one frozen crag to another, to 
be finally dashed to pieces thousands of feet be- 
low. Every footstep here must be cut out with 
the hatchet. When the wind is strong the ascent 
is impossible, for it would blow the climbers off 
the steep slope, so frail is their hold. Should 
some of them grow dizzy and fall, they would be 
likely to drag the whole party swiftly down to 
certain death. 

Reaching the top of this icy wall, the climber 
finds a great dome of ice and snow, and this is 
the topmost h'^ight of Mont Blanc. From it on 
a clear day t^e fair land of France, even be- 
yond Lyons, ''an be seen. The surrounding 
mountains stand in rank and order, like guards 
around their king, and the prospect is very 

This loftiest summit of the Alpine chain is near 
its narrowest part. The two highest peaks, 
Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, are near one an- 
other, although they are separated by a deep 
valley. In the Alps, besides Mont Blanc and 
Monte Rosa, are at least one hundred mountain 
peaks upward of ten thousand feet high, all of 
which are constantly covered with snow. Vast 
glaciers come down from the higher valleys into 
the country below, widening as they descend, 
and often joining with other frozen streams, just 
as the waters of the different valleys combine 
and perform the rest of their downward course 


From Mont Blanc a chain runs southward 

through the whole length of Italy; it is called the 
Apennine Mountains. Just south of Mont Blanc, 
in this line, is Mont Cenis, which was the first 
Alpine mountain to be pierced by a railway tun- 
nel, while to the east is Mont St. Gotthard, 
through which also a railway tunnel has been 

Before leaving Chamonix, however, we visit 
the famous St. Bernard Pass, where for ages the 
monks, aided by their dogs, have from their 
hospice assisted travelers in the difficult journey 
between France and Italy. 

Mont St. Gothard forms a kind of center 
from which the ranges of the Alps commence. 
The range running to the east divides into two 
branches, one of which follows the coast of the 
Adriatic, and the other continues to the eastward 
untiK after being broken by the Danube, it rises 
again in the Carpathians. These branches are 
met at the famous defile or pass called the Iron 
Gate by spurs of the Balkan Mountains. As we 
follow in imagination along these heights, we see 
stretching away before us, ever northward and 
eastward, the great plain of Europe. 

Let us survey the scene around us upon Mon^ 
St. Gotthard. On the Italian side the mountains 
dip steeply into the rich plain of Lombardy. At 
their feet are three of the loveliest lakes in Eu- 
rope — Como, Maggiore, and Garda, which lie 
much lower than the Swiss lakes on the northern 
slope. A great feature of Como's beauty is the 
multitude of pretty houses and gardens that clus- 
ter upon its shores and on its mountainsides. 
They look so snug and so home-like ! And at 
eventide, when everything seems to slumber, and 
the music of the vesper bells comes stealing over 
the water, one almost believes that nowhere else 
could be found such a paradise of comfort and 

The waters of these lakes and the surrounding 
mountains rush down into the river Po, which 
runs through the middle of the plain, making the 
soil extremely fertile. This river falls into the 
Adriatic, and brings down so much mud that the 
land is constantly being pushed out farther into 
the sea. On the opposite slope of St. Gotthard 
two great rivers take their rise — the Rhipe and 
the Rhone. As we intend later to come down the 
Rhine, w^e turn our attention now to the other 

The Rhone Glacier, whose melting ice gives 
rise to the river, is a beautiful fan-shaped cluster 
of ice between five and six thousand feet above 
the sea. 

The Rhone soon enters Lake Geneva, bringing 
with it a deposit of mud, which has partly filled 


From a Painting by Souza Pinto 




the upper lake. Near the eastern end of this 
lovely lake stands the old castle of Chillon, ren- 
dered forever famous by Byron's poem. Leaving 
the lake, a clear and rapid stream at Geneva — 
the city where so many watches are made — the 
Rhone immediately enters France. At Lyons, fa- 
mous for the manufacture of silk goods, it re- 
ceives its largest tributary, passing through one 
of the finest regions of Europe, one continued 
vineyard, sheltered by mountains cultivated clear 
up to their summits. Mountains capped with 
snow appear at intervals through openings in the 
chains, which form the sides of the river valley. 
The Rhone enters the Mediterranean, a little 
west of Marseilles, by four principal mouths en- 
closing a delta; but only the eastern channels are 
safe for ships. 


Almost immediately upon entering Holland, the 
.Rhine divides and includes nearly all that coun- 
try in its delta, which is shared by the Maas or 
Meuse, a large river that has already passed 
through Belgium and part of France. Their 
combined delta is the largest in Europe. 

We are now in a country unlike every other 
in many particulars, but especially in this, that it 
is actually below the level of the sea. To keep 
the sea from breaking in, Holland is, as you 
know, protected by huge dikes, or embankments, 
which have been constructed with great patience 
and skill, and are carefully watched to prevent 
disaster from a flood like that which occurred 
many hundred years ago, when the sea burst 
in and formed the great opening of the Zuyder 
Zee. Canals run all through the country, and in 
summer the people move about in little boats, in- 
stead of traveling on roads in carriages, as in 
other lands. In winter the canals are frozen 
over, and then they are covered with skaters. 
The farmers' wives skate to market, with their 
baskets of butter on their heads; the men in the 
city skate to their places of business; and the 
children skate to school. 

The country is almost entirely farm and pas- 
ture land. The Dutch are clean, patient, and in- 
dustrious. They have reclaimed their land from 
the sea, and have fought and suffered for their 
freedom and their religion, Dutch patriots having 
resisted the Spanish tyranny with much perse- 
verance and success. 

Rotterdam, the principal port of Holland, is on 
the chief mouth of the Rhine, and like Amster- 
dam, the capital, it is crossed in every direction 
by "street-canals." The ships which bring goods 
to the merchants sail to the very doors of their 

shops, and tall masts rise in the middle of the 
city, presenting a very pretty appearance. 

The Schelde, or Scheldt, which also empties 
into the Rhine delta, flows through the thickly 
populated and industrious little kingdom of Bel- 
gium, and has the inland port of Antwerp upon 
its banks. This quaint old city has a large trade, 
and forms the outlet for the manufactures of 
Belgium. These manufactures are carried on 
chiefly at Ghent, which is engaged in the cotton 
manufacture, and Liege, famous for manufac- 
tures of iron and steel, which it owes to its situa- 
tion in the midst of a district abounding in coal 
and iron ore. Brussels, the capital, is a handsome 
and interesting city. From Brussels we visit 
Waterloo, where Napoleon was defeated in 1815. 

Great quantities of timber are disposed of in 
these lower reaches of the Rhine; it has been 
floated down the stream and its tributaries in 
rafts from the high forest lands in the south. 
The pine-stems are loosely bound together with 
willow bands, so that the raft, in its descent, can 
shape itself to the windings of the stream. The 
rafts may be seen curving in and out in a very 
curious fashion, while raftsmen in front and 
steersmen behind skilfully guide them on their 
way. Many of the rushing streams that feed the 
Rhine also supply the water-power to work the 


Two physical types have been noticed in 
France. In the north, there are people of tall 
stature, light hair, light eyes, and oval-shaped 
head. These are generally taken to represent 
the purely Celtic Gaul unmixed with the pre- 
existing inhabitants, though possibly they owe 
these characteristics to the Teutonic and Scan- 
dinavian elements that have been mentioned. 
South of the Loire the average stature is lower, 
the head rounder, and the eyes and hair dark. 
This phenomenon is explained to be due to the 
persistence of the Iberian type. It must be 
admitted, however, that the highly civilized races 
of western Europe have undergone so many 
racial transformations that it is impossible to 
analyze them with minute precision. 

Mentally the French are characterized by the 
vivacity and quickness which are the typical 
traits of the Celtic intellect. They share with 
the inhabitants of southern Europe generally the 
habit of temperance in diet, which is due in a 
large measure to the lighter strain undergone by 
the system than it is subjected to in the more 
bracing climate of the north. 

It is from the bourgeoisie — the great middle 


President of the French Republic 



class — and the peasantry that we get the most 
typical l'>enchnian. In the various poHtical 
catastrophes that have befallen France the aris- 
tocracy have practically disappeared as a social 
force. The possession of a title is of little as- 
sistance to its owner in obtaining State em- 
ployment, and the few remaining representatives 
of noble families, for the most part impoverished 
and retired, exercise hardly any influence on the 
character of the country at large. 

The bourgeois, however — a name which covers 
professional men, merchants, tradesmen, and 
public functionaries — is the central figure in 
French life, at all events in the towns. French- 
men of this class are by no means wanting in 
alert intelligence and the power of forming in- 
dependent and shrewd judgments. They are, 
however, terribly afflicted with a desire for uni- 
formity, at any rate in outward conduct. Their 
lives are regulated entirely with a view to ob- 
serving Ics convenances, which means that they 
are more conventional and subservient to the 
opinions of their neighbors than even the corre- 
sponding classes in our own country. Thrift 
is one of their most important characteristics. 
They have a horror of debt, and it is almost 
second nature to a Frenchman to economize and 
live within his means, however small. This trait 
in their character sometimes appears ridiculous, 
but it has done much to restore France to the 
great position among nations which she came 
near to losing altogether after the Franco-Prus- 
sian War. Ostentation in dress or style of living 
is rarely seen. On the other hand, the French 
are generous in setting before strangers the best 
they have to offer. Consequently the tempting 
variety of the dishes and the simplicity with 
which they are served, combined with the good 
taste and absence of stiffness shown by his hosts, 
procure for the guest in a typical French house 
far more enjoyment than he would experience in 
a more showy mansion. 

We are rather apt to suppose that the fre- 
quency with which the French have changed 
their forms of government is due to fickleness 
and levity of disposition. This, however, is not 
altogether true. The ordinary Frenchman 
troubles himself very little about politics, and 
makes the best of whatever regime he may hap- 
pen to be living under for the moment. He is 
far too much concerned in the care of his small 
fortune to wish for social upheavals. Politics 
he leaves to the professional politician. 

Until 1882 France was badly off in the matter 
of education, and this accounts to some extent 
for the lack of depth and knowledge displayed 

in the easy rattle of French conversation. Now, 
however, education is general and compulsory. 
Primary instruction is given in the communal 
schools found everywhere throughout France, 
while secondary education is provided in lycees 
or colleges. Higher education of the kind 
afforded by English universities is to be obtained 
in the "academies," of which there are sixteen. 
Technical training is also supplied, and the whole 
system of education is under the direction of a 
Minister of Instruction. 

The lycee is eminently a republican institu- 
tion. Boys of all grades meet on a footing of 
equality. They wear a plain, dark uniform, and 
their life is conducted on semi-military principles. 
Although the teaching is of excellent quality, 
there is none of the training in manners which is 
found in English public schools. The State does 
not aim at turning out gentlemen, and recognizes 
no class distinctions. Lycees and compulsory 
service in the army supply the country with a 
monotonous type of citizen and establish a cut- 
and-dried pattern to which everybody and every- 
thing must conform. The college, on the other 
hand, is slightly more aristocratic in its meth- 
ods. More attention is paid to manners, and the 
pupils are more strictly looked after than in the 
lycees. The relations between the sexes are 
regulated with less freedom among the French 
than in most civilized countries. Girls and boys 
do not come much in contact with each other. 
Until she is married, the young girl is kept in 
strict seclusion. Marriages are arranged by the 
parents of the young couple, and are generally 
business transactions. When a young man wishes 
to marry, his parents look out for a suitable wife 
among their friends, and arrange the matter of 
the lady's dowry for him. Every girl is expected 
to bring something into the common stock of 
married life. 

The French peasant must next occupy our at- 
tention. France is the largest wheat-producing 
country in Europe, and the land is held by a 
vast number of small proprietors, each farming 
a minute portion. This arises from the system 
of portage force. At the death of a proprietor 
his property is divided among his children, so 
that it is seldom possible to find large holdings 
anywhere. Even if a man by saving and dili- 
gence add to his small estate, the inexorable laws 
of nature — and the Republic — soon reduce it to 
tiny proportions. The French peasant is indus- 
trious and frugal. He is, as a rule, intensely 
ignorant of every thing that goes on outside his 
little sphere of life, which is of the narrowest 
and most conventional type imaginable. Such 























intelligence as he lias — and he is not without 
considerable native shrewdness — he concen- 
trates entirely on his life-long struggle to win a 
scanty subsistence from the soil. His ownership 
of his little plot gives him a sturdy independence 
which saves him from the degradation in which 
the agricultural classes of other countries are so 
often sunk. His dwelling is of the poorest de- 
scription — an unplastered hut of at most two 
rooms, bare and frequently far from clean. Meat 
he seldom tastes. Life is chiefly supported on 
a soup made of vegetables and scraps of bacon, 
and on bread and milk. 

The blue blouse is the universal dress of the 
French lower classes, even in towns, where the 
postman goes his rounds usually dressed almost 
exactly like the peasant in the fields. Educa- 
tion is doing much to raise the intellectual level 
of the peasants, and before very long the nar- 
rowness of their outlook may be expected to dis- 


The collection of states and provinces that we 
used to know as Russia is a great domain lying 
to the east of the Baltic Sea, Germany, and 
Austria. Altogether, it occupies more than half 
the area of Europe. The traveler who journeys 
across Russia from north to south finds first a 
frozen country, much like the northern parts of 
North America. South of this cold, dreary re- 
gion stretches an immense forest belt, inhabited 
by bears, wolves, deer, and numerous other an- 
imals, from many of which fine furs are obtained. 
In all this vast region not a single city, not a vil- 
lage, and hardly a farm, can be seen. 

Farther south, in the center of Russia, are 
smaller forests, with cultivated land, villages, and 
rich cities. Railroads are not common, as they 
are in our own country. In winter travelers 
wrap themselves in warm fur cloaks, and with 
swift horses and large sledges they glide smoothly 
and pleasantly over the sparkling snow. But the 
forests are dangerous ; great numbers of wolves 
sometimes following a sledge for miles. 

In the western part of Russia, near the Baltic 
Sea, is the city of Petrograd, the capital 
Here, the summers are hot, but very short, and 
the winters are long and very cold. The ground 
is covered with deep snow ; the river and the 
Gulf of Finland are frozen. The people, wrapped 
in furs, amuse themselves in sledging and sliding 
down hill. As the land about the city is flat, 
"ice-hills" are built on purpose for this sport. 
There hardly seems any springtime in Russia ; 
for almost as soon as the snow and ice have dis- 

appeared, the fields and trees are clothed in the 
tints of summer. 

Perhaps no city in Europe is so full of palaces 
and other fine buildings as Petrograd. The resi- 
dence that used to be occupied by the czar, and 
which is called the Winter Palace, is one of the 
largest and grandest in the world. 

The river Neva, on which Petrograd stands, 
drains Lake Ladoga, the largest in Europe, and 
brings dovm a vast quantity of water to the 


The river Volga is one of the principal physi- 
cal features of Russia. It is the longest Euro- 
pean river, and falls into the largest inland sea 
in the world — the Caspian Sea. 

Moscow, the former capital of the Russian 
Empire, and almost in the center of the country, 
is one of the most curious cities in the world. It 
is round, and covers a wide space of ground. In 
the central part of the city is the Kremlin, con- 
taining the palace of the Czars, with cathedrals 
and squares built at different times and in various 
styles. The city is at once beautiful and rich, 
magnificent and mean. 

Nijni-Novgorod, on the Volga, is noted for 
its great fair held annually, where tea, cotton, 
furs, and skins, together with cheap German 
goods, change hands. Splendid steamers descend 
the Volga from this point, and here visitors gen- 
erally embark for the voyage down the mighty 
river. The Volga abounds with fine fish ; in all 
its long course there is not a single cataract, but 
nearer the sea it divides into a great number of 
arms, and empties into the Caspian by seventy 

The third city of Russia is Warsaw, once the 
capital of the kingdom of Poland, while Odessa, 
the great wheat port of the Black Sea, holds the 
fourth place. Archangel, the northern port on 
the White Sea, was once the only Russian sea- 
port ; but since then the country has extended to 
the Baltic and Black seas. Riga is the chief 
Russian port in the Baltic. 

In the southwest of Russia the low plains, 
called steppes, are about sixty feet above the 
level of the Black Sea. Throughout the southern 
part of the steppes there is either a thin soil or 
no soil at all. This barren ground gives place 
farther inland to a very rich, black soil, which 
yields heavy crops of wheat, without manure or 
farming, except of the simplest kind. These parts 
of the steppes supply large quantities of grain; 

(JuurUsy qf Leslie's Weekly 


Twenty-eighth President of the United States 



and they have lately been opened by railways, 
and steamboats on the great rivers, to the gain 
of Europe generally. 

Russia in Europe is so vast that, vv^ere one of 
the dwellers of the extreme north of that coun- 
try ordered to a warm climate, he might find his 
way to Sebastopol, farther south than Venice, 
without crossing an arm of the sea or ever leav- 
ing Russian soil, and when he reached the end 
of his journey he would find himself among the 
camels and orange-groves of the Crimea. 

In the center of the country we find the true 
Russians ; but from this part, whatever direction 
we take, we shall get first to a mixed and after- 
ward to a foreign population. Thus, northward 
we get among the Finns ; westward, we get 
among the Poles ; eastward and southward, 
among the Tartars. 


Until modern times, Russia was not reckoned 
among the European Powers. A little while be- 
fore the landing of the Pilgrims in New England 
it extended itself to the White Sea, and opened 
the port of Archangel, having previously been 
an entirely inland country. Long after this, Fin- 
land and the spot where St. Petersburg now 
stands belonged to Sweden, while the Crimea and 
parts bordering on the Black Sea were a portion 
of the Turkish Empire. 

But the Russians, having commenced to extend 
their country, have continued to do so ever since. 
Unlike the British people, whose growth has scat- 
tered them all over the globe, the Russians have 
aimed at a continuous empire, and have added 
country after country in the course of the last 
four hundred years, until the Czar now rules 
from the Baltic to the Pacific, and from the 
Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea. 

The real founder of the greatness of Russia 
was the Emperor Peter, commonly called Peter 
the Great. He was born in 1672, and after 
reigning for some years with his half-brother 
Ivan, in 1696 he became sole ruler of his country. 
In order to learn more of the power and civiliza- 
tion of other countries, he determined to see for 
himself, and left Russia as a private person. He 
worked for some time in Holland as a common 
shipwright, and lived alone in a small hut. While 
he thus labored, he knew what was going on at 
home, and wrote his orders regularly to his offi- 
cers in Russia. He next visited London, where 
William III. received him and gave him the op- 
portunity of learning all he could of trade, manu- 
factures, and arts, as they were in England in 

those days. We can fancy the interest with 
which this lover of the sea would watch the busy 
shipping of the Thames and study the warships 
then in course of building at Chatham. 

On leaving England, Peter proceeded to Vi- 
enna, where news reached him of a rebellion 
which called him home. This he soon crushed, 
and he severely punished the rebels. In 1700 he 
went to war with Sweden, and though defeated 
at first, he was finally victorious. Next the Sul- 
tan of Turkey declared war against him, and 
Peter narrowly escaped capture. By both these 
wars he added to the Russian Empire, and soon 
began to carry out his great scheme for building 
a new capital which should have the advantage 
of being near the sea. The site he chose, though 
admirable in other respects, was marshy. But 
Peter was not to be easily turned from any 
scheme, once he had made up his mind. 

Large wooden piles were driven into the soft 
soil, until a firm foundation was made by the 
aid of earth, and other materials, brought from 
a distance. No one driving through St. Peters- 
burg to-day, with its numerous palaces of marble 
and granite, could believe that it had ever been 
possible to build such palaces on a swamp. The 
city was called St. Petersburg after its founder, 
and it was made the capital instead of Moscow. 

Peter not only extended the limits of his em- 
pire both in Europe and Asia, but helped his peo- 
ple by his encouragement of trade, navigation, 
and manufactures. By the spread of education 
he brought about an immense change in the man- 
ners and customs of the people. His strong will 
stamped out opposition while he lived, and his 
influence was felt long after his death. Yet in 
many things he acted with almost savage bru- 
tality, and he appears somtimes to have delighted 
in scenes of cruelty. He died in 1725. 

The mass of the Russian people are backward 
in education, and the lower classes have long 
been little better than slaves. 

Russia remained an oligarchy until the 20th 
century. The Czar Nicholas was weak but well- 
meaning, and tried to advance his people and to 
keep peace with other countries. He was sus- 
pected of treachery, however, during the Great 
War and was forced to abdicate and at length 
was executed. Russia passed through the throes 
of a succession of revolutions, broke up into 
separate states, and underwent a season of ter- 
rible famine and suffering. The Russians, how- 
ever, are a strong race and when the people 
generally are better educated and become capa- 
ble of self-control, they will, it is believed, re- 
sume a large place in human history. 

H.T.&G.D. 11. 10. 




Italy is so interesting to the traveler that, al- 
though we have learned something of it in our 
trips along the sunny coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean, and from its connection in the north with 
the Alpine system of mountains, rivers, and 
lakes, we will now revisit that fascinating coun- 
try and see it more in detail. 

Being nearly surrounded by the Mediterranean, 
Italy is one of the hottest countries of Europe. 
The sky is almost always blue and clear, and the 
country, with its purple mountains and green 
valleys, its vineyards and meadows, is always 
pleasant. The sun is so very bright that most 
crops grow better by being somewhat shaded. 
For this reason the fields are planted with rows 
of trees — mulberries, olives, and others. At the 
foot of these trees the grape-vines are planted. 
They climb the trees and cover their branches; 
shoots of the vine go from one tree to another, 
hanging between them in graceful loops. Be- 
tween the rows of trees fine crops of wheat and 
Indian corn are grown. 

The southern region, especially the island of 
Sicily, is the garden of Italy, although the plain 
of Lombardy, around the River Po, is one of the 
most productive spots in Europe. The south, 
however, is afflicted by a hot, choking wind, called 
the sirocco, which blows across from Africa. 

Italy is a land full of ancient cities. Naples, 
the largest, we have visited already. Rome, the 
capital, is by far the most ancient and most in- 
teresting. The student of bygone days goes there 
to stand in the Forum, where the ancient Ro- 
mans held their meetings and dispensed justice; 
to visit the Colosseum, a huge theater, like a 
great circus, where the old Romans delighted to 
witness many cruel sports; to pass under the Arch 
of Titus, which keeps in mind the destruction of 

The student of art goes to Rome, that he may 
study the works in painting and statuary of the 
greatest artists that ever lived. Thousands of 
religious pilgrims turn their steps to Rome, the 
great center of the Roman Catholic religion,- to 
worship in St. Peter's and look upon the Vatican, 
the huge palace of the Pope. These great build- 
ings contain several chapels, a famous library, 
and a gallery filled with beautiful pictures. 

Florence is a beautiful city, and was the first 
capital of the modern kingdom of Italy. Pisa is 
visited for its famous Leaning Tower Milan is 
noted for its stately cathedral, built entirely of 
marble. Upon the whole, this is one of the finest 
and most pleasing cities of Europe, standing, as 

it does, in a sea of green leaves, as Venice lies 
in a sea of green waters. Turin, on the River 
Po, shows a striking difference from most Italian 
cities, as it is new and regular, instead of old and 
in ruins. All round the town fine trees shelter us 
from the rays of the sun, and the views of the 
Alps are magnificent. Of V^enice and Brindisi 
we have learned something already, in our jour- 
ney down the Mediterranean Sea. 


The very name of Italy sends our thoughts 
wandering back over a long and glorious his- 
tory. More than five hundred years before the 
days of Christ, Rome was a powerful city, and 
her brave people spread their conquests all over 
the world then known. The Romans carried 
order and good government wherever they went, 
and were as great in the power to rule as the 
Greeks had been skilful in all that was beautiful 
and artistic. 

After the Romans became rich and mighty, 
they became the prey of the wild nations from 
the forests of the north, who conquered them and 
overthrew the Roman Empire. But Rome, the 
"Eternal City," again became the mistress of 
Europe in another sense. Her bishop, the Pope, 
as the head of the Christian Church of the West, 
ruled kings and emperors far and near. 

All through the Middle Ages and down to i860, 
Italy was divided into a great number of states 
and independent cities. These were almost al- 
ways at war with one another. Naples, or the 
''Two Sicilies," was the largest kingdom. The 
Papal States, or States of the Church, stretched 
across the middle of the peninsula. In the north, 
Florence, Genoa, Milan, Venice, and other cities 
were independent. Sardinia included a part of 
what is now the southeast corner of France. 
These independent cities of the north were great 
rival trading centers. Their trade and commerce 
made them rich, and their wealth was spent in 
the cultivation of learning and of art. Florence 
was a great center of culture and learning, and 
the home of the great family of the INIedici — 
among whom were Lorenzo the Magnificent, and 
Pope Leo X., two of the greatest personages of 
their time. 

Venice, after a long rivalry with Genoa and 
Pisa — a rivalry that caused many wars, in which 
she was sometimes beaten — became mistress of 
the sea. All the rich commerce of the East passed 
through this city. We have already described her 
splendid position, standing actually in the sea, to 
which the city was annually wedded with great 
ceremony. Her dukes, or doges, were among the 
















most powerful rulers in Europe, and the wealth 
of her merchants was the envy of kings. Her 
decline dates from the discovery of the Cape of 
Good Hope, which opened up a new way to India 
and finally ruined the trade of Venice. 

These cities of northern Italy led the way, 
among European cities, in art, poetry, and learn- 
ing. Dante was one of the greatest poets that 
ever lived. Michael Angelo would be remem- 
bered as a great painter if he had not been one 
of the greatest sculptors the world has ever 
known. He helped to adorn St. Peter's, the great 
cathedral of Rome, at the time of Pope Leo X., 
but his greatest work is a statue of Moses. 

About the middle of the last century, a great 
movement commenced for the uniting of the 
Italian states into one kingdom. The south was 
badly ruled by Ferdinand II., while the north- 
erners longed to drive out the Austrians, who 
ruled Venice and its territory. Although Victor 
Emmanuel, the King of Sardinia, was the head 
of the movement, Garibaldi was its hero, and it 
was he who really brought into existence the 
kingdom of Italy. Garibaldi was an Italian pa- 
triot who had been already exiled from his native 
land, when, with only a thousand volunteers, he 
landed in Sicily in May, i860. The story of his 
adventure is wonderful. In about two months he 
had driven the hated Neapolitans out of Sicily, 
and in August he crossed over to the mainland. 
From the sea-coast to Naples his progress was a 
great march of triumph. He entered Naples 
without any troops, and at once established a new 
and popular government. 

Victor Emmanuel, who had already been 
helped by the French to drive the Austrians out 
of the north, joined Garibaldi in Naples, and the 
united armies soon finished the war in this part. 
A few weeks before, a rebellion had broken out 
in the Papal States, and Victor Emmanuel was 
proclaimed King of Italy, which he now ruled 
from the Alps to the sea, with the exception of 
Rome, which was still under the government of 
the Pope, supported by a body of French soldiers. 
When France entered upon the war with Ger- 
many, in 1870, she recalled all her troops sta- 
tioned in Rome. The Italian troops took posses- 
sion of Rome, and the ancient city became the 
capital of a united empire under Victor Em- 

Garibaldi's great work was done; and when 
he died, in 1882, all Italy was cast into mourning. 
No name is more honored in Italy than that of 
the great deliverer of his country. Other men, 
like Mazzini, may have given him the grand 
ideas, but Garibaldi was the soldier who worked 

them out on the field of battle. And to-day one 
of the most striking monuments in Rome is that 
erected to his honor. It stands on one of the 
seven hills overlooking the grand old city, and 
occupies perhaps the proudest place of any monu- 
ment in the world. 

Italy has made great progress of late years in 
many directions. In no country in Europe is 
the traveler more warmly welcomed; in no other 
country is there so much to interest and instruct 
him ; and nowhere is it more easy to be 
pleasantly idle than in Italy, a perfect dreamland 
of the past, a land of song, and story, and merry 
laughter. And now to see the land of an earlier 
and not less glorious people ! 


Greece, which lies in Southeastern Europe, en- 
circled by the waters of the Mediterranean, is 
the ancient home of art and learning. Three 
thousand years ago Athens was the center of a 
famous kingdom, and of a people whose love of 
beauty and knowledge still commands our respect 
and admiration. 

The Grecian love of knowledge and art showed 
itself in a thousand different ways. Men were 
admired for their learning, or for their skill in 
the arts, or their strength, or their cleverness in 
manly games. The women were beautiful and 
stately, though perhaps they had not the sweet- 
ness and gentleness we admire most now. The 
Greeks made everything beautiful. They would 
not have names or words that were not beautiful, 
and they loved beautiful names so much that they 
renamed many places which had not names of 
poetical sound. 

Though ancient Greece has gone, we have 
many grand old ruins. We may also see the 
Greek Catholic Church, which is the national 
church of all the Russias, as well as the church 
of the Greeks. But we have really a modern 
kingdom, that has only regained and held its 
place among the nations, by the help of Euro- 
pean Powers. 

The Greeks are often spoken of as a nation of 
sailors and traders, but in these days, though 
they make such splendid seamen, they are no 
longer so remarkable for their love of a roving 
life on the sea. Piraeus, where, let us suppose, 
we are landing, is still as fine a harbor as ever. 
We are near Athens now, and, leaving our 
steamer, we take train for a little journey of 
seven miles to the ancient and beautiful city. 

Athens is interesting to us because in days long 
past it was the home of some of the cleverest 

FrDm stereograph, copyright by Underwood & Underwood. 







men who ever lived. But it is also interesting 
because we may still see picturesque ruins of 
splendid temples. For countless ages there has 
been a city on this spot, and we may still stand 
in the shadow of the height called the Acropolis, 
and mark on its summit the stately columns of 
the Parthenon, the temple of the goddess Athene. 

Greece, however, is not concerned wholly with 
the dead past. She is a living nation, full of 
fresh life and new hopes. We see vineyards 
everywhere we go. Among the many islands of 
Greece there is Corinth now, which gave its 
name to currants. Patras is the flourishing sea- 
port that sends abroad large supplies of currants, 
figs, and olive-oil. 

Visitors do well to come to Greece at Christ- 
mas time, or early in the year. The climate then 
is wonderfully beautiful, the sky blue, and the 
sun warm. Let us get up early one morning, 
during our short visit, and see Athens in the rich 
red glow of the rising sun. It is a scene of the 
greatest grandeur and beauty, such as only poets 
can- express. But before the summer comes we 
must prepare to depart, for the dust and heat, 
and the glare of the sun on all those new white 
marble buildings, would spoil our delightful 
memories of a charming country. We will re- 
gretfully say farewell. 

Now a word about some little nations that 
were our allies in the Great War. 


To the ethnologist the Rumanians are perhaps 
the most interesting of the Balkan peoples. The 
kingdom of Rumania, comprising the united 
provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, was rec- 
ognized as an independent principality in 1878, 
and was promoted to the dignity of a kingdom in 
, 1881. The population is estimated at over 5,800,- 
000, but it must be remembered that this does not 
include more than half of the Rumanian people ; 
quite as many of the race are to be found in 
adjoining territories. 

Physically the Rumanians are characterized by 
dark skin, black hair, and black eyes. It may or 
may not be the case that they have been influ- 
enced in this respect by an infusion of gypsy 
blood, (iypsies are to be found in great num- 
bers in Rumania. The Rumanians are well built 
and muscular, and are altogether a fine race. 

In the cities French manners prevail. The 
people arc mostly agriculturists, and in the coun- 
try they are primitive, lazy, and inclined to be 
suspicious of strangers, though hospitable. The 
artistic sense is well developed, and some of the 

designs of their textile fabrics and household 
utensils seem to date from Roman times. 

The men generally wear a long blouse of 
coarse, white linen, drawn in at the waist by a 
number of cords passed round the body or by a 
wide belt. The trousers are made of the same 
material as the blouse. Some wear boots, but 
sandals are most usually worn, the cords used 
to keep them on their feet being wound some 
distance up the leg. Hats of common felt or 
cheap cloth are commonly worn, but a high 
cylindrical hat of sheep-skin is the national 
head-dress. In winter the coarse linen blouse 
is replaced by a garment of sheep-skin ; and when 
wrapped in this, the Rumanian is impervious to 
snow or frost. The women usually wear a ker- 
chief folded over the head and fastened under 
the chin. The upper part of the body is clothed 
in a loose-fitting jacket or bodice, sometimes 
white, but often of some showy material. The 
lower limbs are covered with a skirt which is 
generally of a darker material than the jacket, 
though sometimes bright and showy in color. 
This is the every-day dress of the Rumanian 
peasant. The Sunday and holiday dress is natu- 
rally more elaborate in color. 

The Rumanian peasant is frugal in his diet, 
which consists principally of milk, eggs, maize, 
porridge, and pig's flesh. Drunkenness is com- 
mon, however. 

The dwellings in some of the rural districts are 
still of a rude type, consisting in great measure 
of pits dug in the earth and then covered with 
more or less art. A large hole is dug deep in 
the ground. Often it is lined with clay. From 
the surface of the ground, or from a wall raised 
a foot or two above the soil round the edge of 
the pit, a roof is formed of branches and twigs. 
In the center of this a hole is left for the smoke. 
Sometimes a simple doorway at one end gives 
entrance, and the occupants descend to the floor 
either by steps or on an inclined plane, while 
at the end opposite the door a window is often 
inserted. There are two rooms, in which the 
entire family live ; and as animals share the ac- 
commodation, dirt and disease are widespread. 
Marsh fever is especially prevalent. Yet there 
are some who maintain that these dwellings are 
not unhealthy. They were originally constructed 
in this way in order to escape the notice of the 
marauding bands which from time to time over- 
ran the Danubian territories. They were for- 
merly surrounded by trees, which have been cut 
df)wn for firewood. The spirit of conservatism 
causes many peasants, otherwise well to do, to 
prefer these underground dwellings to the 


I'roiii tlic painting by Charles Rarniic 

Rashi-ltazonk is tlic nanic given to a species of volunteir nimmtcii troops 

employed by the Turks. In time of peace they do police duty. 



modern cottages found in the villages of the 
higher lands. 

The Rumanian women, like the women in sev- 
eral other continental countries, do most of the 
work that is done in the fields, and are said to be 
more industrious than the men. They are even 
called on to do the work of navvies, and toil 
with the men in making roads, digging out rail- 
way-cuttings, and in heavy labor generally. Men 
may be seen working in the fields with square- 
bladed spades, while the women use an imple- 
ment with a heart-shaped blade and a handle as 
long as a broomstick. 

Of the amusements of the Rumanians, the 
most striking is the hora, or national dance. 
The following description has been given by an 
eye-witness. After the dancers had gone one or 
two paces in pairs, moving in a circle, the men 
separated from the women. The latter then 
moved singly round the men, as if they were 
seeking some object dear to them. The men 
then drew together, and moved their feet like 
marching soldiers; next, using their long sticks, 
they made irregular springs and uttered loud 
cries, as though engaged in battle. The women 
wandered about like shadows. At last the men 
with joyful gestures rushed toward them, as 
though they had found them after great danger, 
led them back into the circle, and danced with 
joy and animation. 

This dance is said to be illustrative of the con- 
quered condition of the people. M. de Richard 
describes it as a complete poem. "Who knows," 
he continues, "of what long-forgotten incursion 
of the barbarians it is preserved as a reminis- 


The Serbians are physically a stalwart race. 
They are hospitable, energetic, and brave. 
Though proud, quick-tempered, and apt to fight 
on comparatively slight occasion, they are fond 
of social intercourse, and cling to old customs 
and old beliefs. 

Their dwellings are of the poorest kind, con- 
sisting merely of mud-huts, which are usually 
small, low, and without anything in the way of 
ornament. The Serbian farmer could afford a 
more pretentious house if he chose. Centuries 
of oppression under Turkish rule drove the peo- 
ple to conceal whatever wealth they possessed ; 
and this habit, now become a second nature, ac- 
counts for tlie lack of ostentation in the Serbian 
manner of living. 

The Serbians are thoroughly democratic in 
their institutions; each family owns the ground 
it tills, so that in the country day-laborers are 
scarce. Few will consent to become household 
servants, and cooks and men-servants come 
mostly from Croatia or Hungary. When a 
farmer is unable, with the help of his family, to 
gather in all the produce of his land, he applies 
to his neighbors, who will readily come to his 
assistance, but would be insulted by the offer 
of money. They act on the principle of service 
for service, and expect in a similar emergency 
to receive help in their turn. All Serbians are 
proud, and are equal under the king. There is 
no aristocracy, and the middle class, merchants, 
shopkeepers, and others, are few. The Serbian 
who works in the field does not recognize a su- 
perior in the better-dressed and better-educated 

There is no pauperism in the country. The 
old and sick are maintained by their neighbors 
in the rural districts, and in the towns by the 
commune or the workmen's associations. 

Education is compulsory and free, and is mak- 
ing rapid strides. There are schools in every 
village. Not only do children of all classes re- 
ceive free education, but very poor children ob- 
tain a small allowance from the Government to 
support them during the time they must study 
in the secondary and higher schools. When 
they can do so, poor students eke out this allow- 
ance by doing work of some kind in the houses 
of their richer fellow-students. In this way low 
birth and poverty are no barrier to the attain- 
ment of the highest administrative and official 

The Serbians are an eminently pious race. 
The fasts of the Church are rigidly observed, 
and the peasant never fails in the morning to 
invoke a blessing on the coming day. Every 
family in Serbia has its patron saint. The care 
of this patron saint is committed to the sons, 
and not to the daughters, who concern them- 
selves with the saints allotted to their future 
husbands. The feast of the patron saint is an 
ancient custom, going back to the times when 
the patriarchal family lived together under the 
same roof. It is practised everywhere even at 
the present day, the busy towns not excepted, 
and it lasts several days. The house is deco- 
rated with branches and flowers, and the nearest 
relations meet at a banquet presided over by the 
head of the family. A loaf made of the finest 
wheaten flour is set in the center of the table. 
A cross is hollowed out in the middle of the loaf, 
and in the center is fixed a candlestick with three 



branches, all of which are lighted in honor of 
the Trinity. A prayer is said, in which the 
blessing of God is invoked upon the whole 
family. Dessert follows with toasts and songs, 
and the party give themselves up to merry- 

Finally, you will want to read a few words 
about that martyr of the nations, who gave her 
life for honor and liberty, Belgium. 


The little kingdom of Belgium has an area of 
11,373 square miles, being about one-eighth of 
the size of Great Britain. It makes up for its 
small dimensions by being the most densely 
populated country in Europe. There is no such 
thing as a Belgian race of people, though there 
is a Belgian nation. In the days of Julius 
Ciesar the country was inhabited by the Belgse, 
and formed part of what was afterward known 
as Gallia Belgica. The Belgae appear to have 
differed in dialect, institutions, and laws from the 
Celts of the other parts of Gaul. They are de- 
scribed by ancient writers as "fair" Celts. 

At the present day the population of Belgium 
is partly of Celtic and partly of Teutonic origin. 
The Flemings are still as clearly Teutonic as 
they were a thousand years ago, while Celtic 
characteristics are as unmistakably apparent in 
the Walloons, who are descended from the 
ancient Belgae. Both sections are members of 
the same Church, and have other interests in 
common. Yet, though subject to one king and 
governed by the same code of laws, they have 
not become so thoroughly blended as to produce 
a distinct national type. 

The men are of medium height, muscular, and 
of upright bearing. The Walloons in the 
southern provinces are nearly as brisk in deport- 
ment and as polished in manners as their French 
neighbors. The Flemings, who inhabit the west- 
ern and northern provinces, are endowed with 
greater vivacity than the Dutch, whose land 
borders theirs and who belong to the same race. 

French is the official language of the country. 
About 45 per cent, of the inhabitants speak 
Flemish, 41 per cent. French, while 11 per cent, 
speak both French and Flemish. 

There is nothing in the prevalent costume of 
the Belgians to distinguish it from that which 
may be seen in the streets of London or Paris. 

Apart from the capital, however, their cities still 
maintain characteristics which do not change 
with the caprice of fashion. The observer is 
forcibly convinced that they grew into existence 
in the romantic past, when the conditions of life 
were unlike those that prevailed in the 19th 
century. What were held to be the most promi- 
nent characteristics of six historic Belgian cities 
were mentioned in monkish verses composed 
many centuries ago. Those characteristics are 
said to remain to some extent at the present 
time. The Latin lines, translated, proclaim : 
Brussels rejoices in noble men; Antwerp in 
money; Ghent in hatters; Bruges in pretty girls; 
Lovain in learned men ; and Malines in fools. 
Hatters were said to be characteristic of Ghent 
because of the frequency with which the king 
found it necessary to humiliate some of the ever- 
turbulent citizens, by condemning them to tra- 
verse the streets under guard, with manacles on 
their wrists and heavy iron chains on their 
necks. The reason for distinguishing the people 
of Malines as "mostly fools" is the story that 
once, when they saw the moon shining through 
the cathedral tower, they thought the cherished 
building was on fire, sounded the alarm, roused 
up the watch, and did all they could to extinguish 
the conflagration by means of pumps, hose, and 
buckets of water. The Flemings, in what they 
considered an improved version of the poem, 
called the luxurious inhabitants of Brussels 
"chicken-eaters"; the citizens of Ghent "hat- 
bearers" ; the people of Lovain "cow-shooters," 
because they once fired upon a herd of cows, 
mistaking them for the enemy ; and the citizens 
of IMalines "moon-extinguishers," with reference 
to their action in saving their cathedral from 
supposed fire. 

The history of the Belgians is thickly studded 
with episodes, each of which illustrates the bold, 
generous, freedom-loving spirit by which they 
were animated. The people are reasonably 
proud of their past. The bravery, intelligence, 
and energy by which they won distinction when 
the sword was the arbiter of fortune are strong 
as ever in the Belgians, but are now exercised 
under conditions widely different from those of 
the past. Once industrious, busy, and prosperous, 
their strong Allies will help them win back not 
only their soil but some reparation for their 
injuries and some recompense for their self- 
forgetful devotion. 




The land surface of the earth is divided into six 
great divisions called continents. The continents 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa constitute the Old 
World. The two Americas, North and South, 
are generally called the New World, because 
they were only discovered by Columbus some 
four hundred years ago. The sixth continent is 
Australia, the "Great Southern Land," at the 

Though Europe is, with the exception of Aus- 
tralia, the smallest in size, it is in many respects 
the most important of the continents. Its chief 
inhabitants are highly civilized, and, it being 
mostly within the temperate zone, the people are 
not prevented from following their employment at 
all seasons of the year. The soil of Europe, 
though productive, calls forth the best energies 
of the people to make it yield the largest supplies. 
The coast-line is much indented, so that most 
parts are within easy reach of the sea, and trade 
is thereby greatly encouraged. The skill and in- 
dustry of Europeans are well known, and some 
of the peoples of Europe hold and rule over 
immense tracts of land, not only in Asia and 
Africa, but also in America and Australia. 

Asia is the largest of the continents. Its vast 
extent gives it immense variety of climate and 
productions, and there are great differences in its 
various races of inhabitants. Asia has been called 
the "cradle of the human race"; the Garden of 
Eden was supposed to have been situated in the 
once beautiful country lying between the rivers 
Euphrates and Tigris. Now Asia is sometimes 
called the "continent of ruined nations," for here 
flourished the great empires of Babylonia, 
Assyria, and Persia, but of the once mighty cities 
Babylon and Nineveh little remains but a heap 
of stones; Jerusalem is in the hands of the Turks; 
Persia has long been little more than a name, and 
only lately has shown signs of renewal; India, 
conquered, forms the "brightest jewel in the 
British crown" ; while China, the oldest and most 
populous of the nations, has only been prevented 
from falling to pieces by the interested watchful- 
ness of other countries. 

From Asia have come the great religions of the 
world, including Christianity. Most of the Euro- 
pean peoples claim descent from one ancient 
tribe, which is believed to have had its original 
home on some elevated region in Central Asia. 
This people spoke a language known as the 
Aryan, from which have sprung most of the great 
tongues of modern times. 

Africa is a large and compact continent, dis-' 
tinguished from the others by an unbroken coast- 
line, with very few openings and inland seas. 
Within its borders are great deserts, and the want 
of navigable rivers has proved a great hindrance 
to its development. Though Africa contains 
Egypt, once numbered among the foremost na- 
tions of old, it quite deserved till lately to be 
called "the dark continent." It is now being 
gradually opened up by civilized nations. 

America, in two parts joined by a narrow 
isthmus, and known as North and South America, 
stretches from the north pole almost to the Ant- 
arctic Ocean in the south, comprises all the land 
surface between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
and occupies what is known as the western 
hemisphere. The two parts are both very roughly 
triangular, the base in each case being at the 
north, and the apex at the south ; but while South 
America possesses no true peninsulas. North 
America has many. 

Australia, which is a British possession, may 
be regarded either as the smallest of the con- 
tinents, or as the largest island in the world. 
Like Africa, it is compact in shape, poor in rivers, 
and partly occupied by deserts. Like America, it 
is comparatively a newly discovered land, upon 
which Europeans have settled, before whom the 
native races have nearly died out. Its animals 
and vegetation are different from those of other 
parts of the globe; in fact, so many of its pro- 
ductions present features which are not merely 
strange, but quite different to our experience, 
that Australia has been playfully called "Topsy- 

The continents, vast though they are, do not 
occupy more than one quarter of the earth's sur- 




face. The remaining three quarters are covered 
by oceans, the name given to those huge expanses 
of salt water which separate the continents from 
each other. The Arctic and Antarctic oceans 
wash the north and south poles respectively. 
What lies on their farther shores we cannot say, 
for the foot of man has not yet trodden all the 
polar lands. 

The Arctic Ocean is nearly circular in form, 
and round its southern waters are grouped the 
northern shores of Europe, Asia, and North 
America. The Antarctic Ocean, unlike the Arc- 
tic, is quite open. Somewhere round the south 
pole probably lies a great unknown continent, but 
no land is found where the Antarctic Ocean 
merges into the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian 

Of the latter three, the most important, though 
not the largest, is the Atlantic. It receives more 
rivers, and penetrates by inland seas, bays, and 
gulfs more into the fertile regions of the earth 
than any other ocean. As it lies between America 
and the western shores of Europe and Africa, all 
intercourse between the United States and the 
busiest European nations is carried on by its 

If you were to sail to Asia from the western 
shores of our own country you would have to 
cross the Pacific Ocean. This vast stretch of 
water is twice as large as the Atlantic, and its 
waves also break on the shores of Australia in 
the far south. 

The warm deep waters of the Indian Ocean 
surround the shores of the British Indian Em- 
pire. Its eastern part touches the Pacific, while 
its western waves wash the eastern side of 
Africa. The two main arms are the Red Sea and 
the Persian Gulf. At the head of the Red Sea 
the Suez Canal, opened in 1869, joins the Indian 
and Atlantic oceans. 

All these great waters have two motions, tides 
and currents. Of tides the main cause is the 
moon, which draws the ocean with such force as 
to heap its waters up on that side of the earth 
which is the nearest to it. This, as the earth 
turns, causes a rise and fall of the water, or high 
and low tide, about twice in every twenty-four 
hours. Ocean currents are rivers in the sea, the 
beds and banks of which consist of other sea- 
water. The chief causes which set them moving 
are the differences of temperature in different 
parts of the ocean, the action of winds, and the 
turning of the earth on its axis. 

The Atlantic Ocean has many currents. Two 
of the chief are the arctic and the antarctic drift- 
currents, both called after the oceans out of 

which they flow toward the equator. The ant- 
arctic, which is intensely cold, flows toward the 
Cape of Good Hope; the arctic meets the Gulf 
Stream off the coast of Newfoundland. The 
Gulf Stream is the outflow of water which, 
heated in the Gulf of Mexico in the hot torrid 
zone, flows northerly along the coast of the 
United States, past Newfoundland, then turns 
and spreads eastward, probably helping to give 
Great Britain, France, and Scandinavia warmer 
winters than they would have without it. As it 
goes northward, it widens, becomes shallower, 
and steadily loses heat. 

The most important current in the Pacific 
Ocean is the great equatorial current, with its two 
parts, north and south. In this ocean we also find 
a cold Peruvian current and a Japanese current. 
The Indian Ocean also contains an equatorial cur- 
rent, a branch of which forms what is called the 
Mozambique current. 

Land and ocean have this point of resemblance 
— the depths in the ocean correspond, it is be- 
lieved, very nearly with the greatest mountain 
heights on dry land. You must not, however, 
expect to find the lands of the earth dotted over 
the ocean at equal distances from each other.' 
On the contrary, the world may be divided into 
a land hemisphere and a water hemisphere. Of 
the former, London would be the center; of the 
latter. New Zealand. 


Europe lies in the middle of all the land in the 
world, being really a peninsula joined to Asia. 
It possesses a number of peninsulas, most of 
which point southward. Asia is five times the 
size of Europe, and Africa is three times as 
large. Between Africa and Europe is the Medit- 
erranean Sea, the largest inland sea in the world. 
Europe is a continent with inland seas, which is 
an advantage to a trading people. Even the 
mountains of Europe are no hindrance to inter- 
course. They lie chiefly in the south, their main 
lines running east and west from the Caucasus to 
the Pyrenees. The Alps are the grandest 
mountain-system in Europe, many of the lofty 
peaks therein being covered with perpetual snow. 
The great plain of Europe, stretching from the 
Pyrenees to the Urals, and covering two thirds of 
the entire surface of the continent, is sometimes 
called Low Europe. It attains its greatest breadth 
in Russia. 

Europe has many noble rivers. There are 
three river-systems, named according to the des- 
tination of their waters, the arctic, the Atlantic, 



and the Caspian ; the two greatest waterways are 
the Danube and the Rhine; the former is a great 
highway to the east for South Germany, Austria, 
Hungary, and the younger nations of its lower 
valley; the latter has long been one of the busiest 
and best highways for the commerce of Western 

Europe has no great contrasts of heat and 
cold, all extremes being reduced by the sea-air 
which reaches to every part. The vegetation is 
abundant; all the forest trees, fruits, and useful 
grains which grow in the temperate zones being 
found in plenty, except in the most northern re- 
gions, where are found a few dwarf trees, some 
mosses and berries, a little barley and oats, but 
no fruit of any kind. Wild animals are steadily 
dying out, except perhaps the wolves in Russia. 
Among the other larger beasts, the wild boar and 
the brown bear are found in the German forests, 
in the Alps, and in the Pyrenees. The polar bear 
roams on the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Europe 
is rich in coal and the useful metals. 

The people of Europe belong almost entirely to 
two races, the Caucasian and the Mongolian. The 
latter is represented by the Magyars of Hungary, 
the Turks, and the Finns. Of the Caucasian race 
there are four varieties : the Teutonic, or German 
family, to which belong the English, Dutch, and 
Scandinavians; the Celtic, among whom are the 
Irish, the Welsh, and the Highlanders of Scot- 
land ; the Romanic, or nations of the South ; and 
the Slavonic peoples between the Adriatic and 
the Black Sea. 

The languages of Europe belong to the Indo- 
European or Aryan family, with the exception of 
the Turkish and its kindred tongues. The re- 
ligion of most of the people is Christian, but the 
Turks are Mohammedans, and Jews are to be 
found in all European countries. 

Taking into consideration its size, no continent 
has more islands than Europe. The British Isles 
are the most important in the world. The six 
Great Powers of Europe are Great Britain, Ger- 
many, Russia, France, Austria, and Italy. 


Asia, which contains one fourth of all the land 
of the globe, is a continent of table-lands. Ele- 
vated tracts surrounded by lofty ranges stretch 
over the continent, while in other parts there are 
plains and depressions below the sea-level. The 
central knot from which the great ranges extend 
is the Pamir plateau, often called the "roof of the 

The Himalayas, stretching 1500 miles, and con- 
taining among their giant peaks Mount Everest, 
XVTI— 11 

with an altitude of 29,000 feet, are the most im- 
portant range. To the north are the Kuen-Lun 
and Tian-Shan mountains, enclosing the dreary 
wastes of Tibet and the barren desert of Gobi. 
To the south, but running off in the opposite di- 
rections, are the Hindu Kush and Suliman moun- 
tains. Westward across Afghanistan and Persia 
extends the Iranian plateau, meeting the eastern 
extremity of the table-land of Asia Minor. Far 
away in the opposite direction to the north are 
the Altai and other ranges, and beyond these lies 
the great Siberian plain. 

The three great rivers flowing through to the 
north, the Obi, Yenesei, and Lena, are ice-bound 
nearly all the year. The Amur, another great 
river, flows eastward into the Sea of Okhotsk, 
and separates Manchuria from Siberia. The 
Hoang-ho and the Yang-tse-Kiang, flowing in 
the same direction, make the Chinese lowlands 
the most fertile in the world. The basins of the 
Mekong, Salwin, and Irawadi, though in some 
parts marshy and unhealthy, are highly produc- 

The three great Indian rivers, the Indus, Brah- 
maputra and Ganges, draw their waters from the 
snowy springs of the Himalayas. The Tigris and 
Euphrates, twin rivers that become united a hun- 
dred miles before reaching the Persian Gulf, rise 
in the mountains of Armenia, and enclose the ex- 
tensive area known as Mesopotamia. Some of 
the rivers of the interior, as in Turkestan, never 
reach the sea, but get lost in great marshes, 
which are slowly drying up. 

The Caspian Sea, the Sea of Aral, and the 
Dead Sea are all inland salt seas. Baikal is the 
largest of the fresh-water lakes of Asia, and has 
considerable traffic across it. A belt of land, 
which is almost rainless and waterless, includes 
the interior of Arabia, the Syrian desert, Mesopo- 
tamia, and the Persian desert; while in the dis- 
tant north, in Mongolia, is the desert of Gobi, 
already mentioned. 

Every variety of climate is to be found in so 
wide a region. The great plain of the north is 
open to the icy breezes of the Arctic Ocean; the 
great central plateau possesses what is known as 
a continental climate, in which extremes of heat 
and cold are strongly marked ; while the southern 
and eastern portions are under the influence of a 
tropical sun, and the heavy rains which come 
with the wind called the monsoon. 

The people of Asia mostly belong to one of two 
great races. To the Caucasian or white race be- 
long the Hindus, Arabs, Jews, and Persians. To 
the Mongolian or yellow race belong the Mongols, 
or Tartars, the Tibetans, Chinese, and Japanese. 



There is a third race, the Malay or brown race, 
inhabiting the East India Islands. 

Nine hundred millions of people — more than 
half of the human race — live in Asia. China is 
the most densely populated country, while India 
and Japan are not far behind. In religion the 
majority are Buddhists, or followers of a great 
teacher named Buddha, who lived five hundred 
years before Christ. Many Mohammedans are 
found in India and Arabia. A large number of 
Hindus are Brahmans, a sacred caste, so named 
from Brahma, who, according to their belief, 
created the world. 


Africa has been entirely surrounded by water 
since the construction of that useful artificial 
waterway, the Suez Canal, which shortens the 
journey from the Western world to the countries 
of the East. Around the coast of this very com- 
pact continent but few islands are to be found; 
of these Madagascar is by far the largest. 

The mountains of Africa are distributed in 
scattered groups, the most noteworthy of which 
is the Atlas range in the northwest. The Red 
Sea coast is flanked by a series of rugged heights, 
and on the west are to be found the Kong and 
the Kamerun Mountains. On the eastern side, 
the Lokinga Mountains form a watershed be- 
tween the sources of the Congo and the Zambesi, 
while the lofty snow-clad peaks of Kenia and 
Kilimanjaro may be noted in the group anciently 
known as the Mountains of the Moon. The 
Drakensberg and Nieuwveld ranges run across 
the southern extremity of the continent. 

The great feature of the surface of Africa is 
the immense desert known as the Sahara, which 
occupies a quarter of the whole area of the con- 
tinent. The arid character of this vast expanse 
is sometimes relieved, particularly in the eastern 
half, by the presence of green patches known as 
oases, which owe their fertilitv to unfailing wells. 
To the south of the Sahara, lies a belt of pastoral 
country called the Soudan. 

In the southern portion of the continent is a 
series of table-lands, flanked by ranges of moun- 
tains running round the coast. In the vast hol- 
lows of this elevated region numerous rivers feed 
great lakes. From the heights issue three of the 
largest rivers, the Nile, the Congo, and the Zam- 
besi; and other rivers which never reach the 
sea, one losing its waters in the sands of the 
Kalahari Desert, and another emptying into Lake 

In recent years there has been almost a scram- 
ble among European nations for slices of African 

territory. All of them, bent on expanding their 
trade, have acquired "colonies'' and "spheres of 
influence." The French claim influence over the 
greater part of the Niger basin, the southern 
regions of the Sahara, and the Western Soudan, 
but their chief possession is Algeria in the north; 
they also administer territory in the northwest of 
the Congo basin, and hold Madagascar by mili- 
tary occupation. The Congo Free State is prac- 
tically under Belgian influence. The Portuguese, 
the pioneers of modern African exploration, re- 
tain only remnants of what they once held; these 
are districts lying south of the Congo basin, and 
a strip of territory extending along the Mozam- 
bique Channel. Germany is established in parts 
of Guinea, and on both the eastern and western 
shores of South Africa. The Spaniards content 
themselves with the "protection" of small districts 
in the northwest, and Italy claims a bit of Somali- 
land in the extreme east. 

Foremost as an African power stands Great 
Britain. It controls Egypt and the upper reaches 
of the Nile, including Uganda and the lake called 
Victoria Nyanza ; it also governs nearly all South 
Africa south of the Zambesi, and holds smaller 
points of vantage in various other parts of the 


The continent of America occupies what is 
known as the western hemisphere, and practically 
comprises all the land surface of the world lying 
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. This 
vast continent stretches from the north pole very 
nearly to the antarctic circle in the south. It is, 
however, divided by a central sea into two well- 
defined parts, which are joined only by a narrow 
isthmus on the western shores of this sea. It is 
usual, therefore, to regard it as two continents, 
which are termed respectively North and South 

These two continents are somewhat similar in 
shape, both being roughly triangular, the base in 
each being at the north and the apex at the south. 
Both have a long range of volcanic mountains 
stretching from north to south down their west- 
ern coasts ; both have a lower range of moun- 
tains on their eastern sides. The great rivers 
too are very similar in their direction; the St. 
Lawrence, in North America, and the Amazon, 
in South America, draining the central plains in 
an easterly direction; while the Mississippi in 
North America, and the Plata in the southern 
.continent, have both a southerly course. 

The two Americas exhibit, however, certaL 
points of contrast. In North America, the great 




range of the Rocky Mountains runs at a consid- 
erable distance from the coast, and consequently, 
there are several rivers of considerable size flow- 
ing into the Pacific Ocean. In South America, 
on the other hand, the Andes, throughout their 
entire course, lie close to the western coast, and 
in consequence, there are no rivers on their west- 
ern slopes ;. all the rivers of the southern con- 
tinent fall into the Atlantic Ocean. An almost 
continuous chain of lakes stretches through the 
northern continent from the mouth of the Mac- 
kenzie river to the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 
and there is no part of the world that contains 
lakes so numerous and so large as those of North 
America. In South America there is almost an 
entire absence of lakes. 

The natives of America, when first seen by Co- 
lumbus, painted their olive or deep-brown faces 
with a red earth ; hence he described them as red 
Indians, a name which soon spread to the whole 
of the native people of America, North and 
South. They had straight black hair, deep- 
sunken black eyes, high cheek-bones, and coarse 
features. They stained their faces in stripes and 
spots of red and blue and yellow, and wore 
eagles' feathers about their clothing. Their chief 
occupation, in North America, was hunting the 
bison, or buffalo, and they rarely lived long in 
one place. Their house, or wigwam, was a tent 
made of buffalo-skins stretched on a framework 
of light poles. A fire was made in the center, 
and the smoke found its way out through a hole 
in the roof. A few skins served them for bed- 
ding, and they had wooden vessels for household 

When they found that the white man meant to 
settle in their land, they made fierce war against 
him. But they were gradually driven westward, 
and their numbers were rapidly diminished by 
wars and famine. Compared with their former 
numbers they are now few, and they have lost 
all their natural wildness and vigor. 

The large numbers of negroes in our own 
country and other parts of America are to be 
traced to the slave-trade, which has now ceased 
to exist. These negroes are especially useful on 
the cotton, coffee, and sugar plantations. They 
are also employed as domestic servants, and make 
excellent porters in large cities. Much has been 
done in recent years to educate the negroes in 
the United States where they were formerly 
held in .slavery, and they are making progress in 
many ways. 

Of the animals found in North America, the 
bison, commonly called buffalo, is perhaps the 
best known. Till within recent years, it roamed 

over the prairies in great numbers, sometimes in 
herds of as many as ten thousand. Three species 
of bear are found — the polar, the grizzly, and the 
black. The grizzly bear is the most dreaded of 
the wild animals of America. It frequently 
grows to a length of nine feet, and its head is 
very large. It has long, sharp claws, and its fur 
is dark brown, but mixed with gray, which gives 
it the grizzly appearance from which it derives 
its name. It is powerful enough to carry away 
the carcass of a buffalo. 

The caribou, or reindeer, is found wild in the 
northern parts of North America, and is hunted 
for the sake of its flesh and hide. In certain re- 
spects it differs from other species of the deer 
tribe. It has a peculiarity in the hoof which aids 
it in running swiftly over the snow-covered 
ground, and both the male and female caribou 
possess antlers. 

Among the other animals found are beavers, 
seals, racoons, otters, sables, squirrels, and hares, 
all of which are hunted or trapped for their furs. 
In various parts of North and South America 
the puma is common ; and the lynx is at home in 
northern forests. The only American animal of 
the pouch-bearing kind is the opossum. Many 
kinds of birds are natives of North and South 
America — so many kinds that we think it best not 
to try to name even the more common species, but 
to advise you to learn about them both in books 
of natural history and by observation in your 
own neighborhood, if you live in the country or 
near some large park. 


Australia is the name given to the great island- 
continent of the south, and it means the "South- 
land." When we think of Tasmania, New 
Zealand, New Guinea, and the numerous islands 
in connection with it, we use the term "Aus- 
tralasia," or the "Southland of Asia." But none 
of these islands is closely related to Australia 
with the exception of Tasmania, which now 
forms one of the six states of the Common- 

The continent of Australia is about the size of 
the United States and more than three fourths 
as large as the whole of pAirope. It is very com- 
pact, being in shape a great irregular oval, with 
an almost unbroken coast-line. There are really 
only two large openings, the Gulf of Carpentaria 
in the north and Spencer Gulf in the south. This 
sameness is also to be observed in the other 
physical features of the continent. The moun- 
tains never rise to a very great height, the loftiest 



peak, Mount Kosciuszko, in the Australian Alps, 
being about 7300 feet high. They do not, like 
those of Asia and America, form a sort of back- 
bone. The Great Dividing Range, the only im- 
portant mountain-system, runs along the east 
coast from north to south under various names. 
The western mountains, the chief being the 
Darling Range, are also more or less parallel 
v^'ith the coast. 

The mountains running coastwise, as in Africa, 
it might be supposed that the interior of Aus- 
tralia is a lofty table-land; it may be more cor- 
rectly described, however, as a vast plateau, for 
its elevation is low. West of the Blue Mountains, 
a succession of terraces descends rapidly to a 
level of about 600 feet above the sea. Here and 
there a peak of moderate height rises from the 
plain and breaks the monotony of the land. A 
large part of the interior, particularly in the 
west, consists of sandy and stony deserts, cov- 
ered with spinifex, a prickly grass, on which the 
cattle and sheep feed in times of drought, as it 
is always green. The line of the horizon on these 
vast plains is as unbroken as it is over the sea ; and 
they are so flat that the detached ranges and soli- 
tary mountains which rise out of them appear 
like islands surrounded by an unbroken ocean. 

As the dividing ranges are so near the eastern 
and western coasts of Australia, no very long 
rivers are found running directly east and west, 
and there is nothing remarkable about the 
streams, except that some of them, notwithstand- 
ing their short courses, enter the sea by noble 
bays. They are of little use commercially, as they 
often flow through deep, narrow ravines. 

Immediately to the west of the Blue Mountains, 
and in the very highest terraces and table-lands, 
a host of full and powerful mountain streams 
combine to form a large river, the Lachlan. Con- 
siderably farther south, the Murrumbidgee and 
the Murray rise in the Australian Alps. These 
rivers all unite, and are afterward joined by the 
Darling and other streams ; but the mouth by 
which they enter the sea is so small that it was 
overlooked by the early explorers of the coast. 
Lake Alexandrina, into which these united 
streams flow, on their way to Encounter Bay, is 
too shallow in places to float even a boat. Many 
of the rivers of the interior are mountain tor- 
rents at one time and dry and dusty chasms at 
another. When the mountains are well supplied 
with water, the beds of the streams are fully 
charged, and then they foam and thunder along 
their upper courses till they reach the flats. Here 
they expand and spread to the right and left in 
marshes. In dry seasons, on the contrary, these 

rivers dwindle into trifling brooks, even in the 
mountains, while, in the plains, their wide and 
shallow beds present no more than a succession 
of pools. 

As might be inferred from the level nature of 
the country, lakes are numerous in Australia; but 
none of them are very large, and few appear to 
be permanent. Lakes Eyre, Gairdner, and Tor- 
rens are really salt marshes. Lake Torrens has 
been followed, at times, in one continuous narrow 
sheet for 400 miles, and has been afterward 
found broken up into a multitude of pools. 

The greater part of Australia is situated in the 
south temperate zone, and the climate of this por- 
tion is similar to that of Southern Europe, ex- 
cept that it is drier, notwithstanding the abun- 
dance of rain which falls on the eastern coast. 
Of course, the seasons occur at opposite times of 
the year to ours. Thus, their spring months are 
September, October, and November. Their 
Christmas falls in the first month of their sum- 
mer, and their winter takes place when we enjoy 
our summer weather. 

The curse of the Australian climate is drought. 
It occasionally happens that no rain falls in some 
stations for twelve months at a stretch. Then 
the mortality among the sheep and cattle is 
frightful, the water-holes being nearly all dried 
up and filled with their dead bodies. Happily 
such cases as these do not often occur, and when 
they do they are confined to limited areas. The 
dews are very copious, and fall heaviest during 
the summer heat and long-continued droughts to 
some extent relieving the dryness. Great care 
is now taken of the water : it is stored up in huge 
tanks, or artificial lakes, and irrigation colonies 
have been established. 


About 1200 miles of the Pacific Ocean ebb and 
flow between Australia and New Zealand, the 
"Britain of the South." 

This archipelago somewhat resembles the Brit- 
ish Isles, for it consists of two main islands, with 
a number of smaller islets scattered round them, 
and it occupies a somewhat similar position 
in the southern hemisphere to that filled by the 
British Isles in the northern. In area, climate 
and productions the two groups are also much 

The two principal islands of New Zealand, 
called from their position North Island and South 
Island, are separated from each other by a nar- 
row channel, known as Cook Strait. They were 
explored by Captain Cook, and from his time 



the coasts were occasionally visited by whaling 
ships; but no settlement appears to have been 
made until about 1815, when a missionary station 
was set up in North Island. For some time the 
islands were governed from New South Wales, 
but in 1841 they were made a separate colony. 

Like many of the South Sea Islands, New 
Zealand is of volcanic origin. A chain of lofty 
mountains, called the Southern Alps, occupies the 
center of South Island through its whole length, 
and a similar range extends through more than 
half the length of North Island. On both sides 
these mountains slope gradually toward the sea, 
leaving a large extent of shelving forest, plain, 
and marsh-land. There are also some detached 
outlying mountains of great height. A few of 
the mountains are barren or clothed with ferns, 
but by far the greater number are covered, up to 
the range of perpetual snow, by magnificent 
timber-trees. There are some active volcanoes; 
and in North Island are various cavities which 
appear to be extinct craters. Near these are nu- 
merous hot springs, some of which are used by 
the natives for cooking, for the water in them 

Mount Egmont, an extinct volcano in the south- 
west part of North Island, and near the northern 
entrance to Cook Strait, is about 8000 feet high. 
In 1886 a terrible volcanic eruption broke out in 
what is known as the Hot Lake District of North 
Island. Soon after midnight on June loth, loud 
explosions were heard and heavy earthquakes 
felt. These were followed by an outbreak of 
Mount Tarawera. Ashes, dust, and red hot 
stones were hurled by the mountain to an im- 
mense height, and some of the ashes traveled 
nearly fifty miles. Soon afterward, an outburst 
took place at Lake Rotomahana, the water of the 
lake and its clay bed, with the material of the 
Pink and White Terraces, being suddenly blown 
into the air as a vast mud-cloud, which in its 
descent covered the country around to various 
depths, burying two native villages and thrusting 
a third bodily into Lake Tarawera, by which it 
was completely swallowed up. Although the 
eruption only lasted a few hours, it changed the 
entire aspect of the land for miles. 

The whole country is very well watered, for a 
great number of streams, affording an unlimited 
command of water-power, descend from the cen- 
tral chain on each side. The Waikato and others 
are of considerable size and length. There are 
also numerous lakes, the largest of which, Taupo, 
in North Island, is of unknown depth. 

The climate of New Zealand is very temperate. 
The country is free from the oppressive heat 

which prevails at midday in parts of Australia, 
and it is not subject to the severe droughts that 
afflict the island continent. 

As most of the native plants are evergreen, 
the country always presents a verdant appear- 
ance; and the soil, which in most of the valleys 
is a deep loam, or fertile vegetable mold, is well 
adapted to the growth of nearly all the useful 
plants of Europe. Grain of all kinds, fruits, and 
vegetables grow well ; and potatoes, introduced 
by Captain Cook, now form the chief food of the 
natives. The trees, chiefly of the pine family, 
sometimes attain a very large size. 

It is remarkable that when New Zealand was 
first discovered it had no native mammals. 
Horses, cattle, sheep, and other useful animals 
have all been imported. Even the dog and the 
rat were introduced by Europeans. A good many 
parrots, wild ducks, and pigeons inhabit the for- 
ests; and poultry, which have been introduced, 
thrive well. Indeed, if we except their prisoners 
of war — for the primitive inhabitants were can- 
nibals — almost the only animal food eaten by the 
people prior to the settlement of the English, was 
the fish which abounded round the coasts. 

The soil and climate are suited for the raising 
of cattle, sheep, and other useful animals. Pigs 
were introduced by Captain Cook, and owing to 
the great abundance of fern-roots, their favorite 
food, they multiplied greatly. The natives al- 
lowed them to run wild, and used to catch them 
by means of dogs. 

The most singular of all birds is the apteryx of 
New Zealand ; it has neither wings nor tail. 
Upon its very long and slender beak it sometimes 
leans in walking, using it as an old man would 
use a cane. It is a bird of night, feeding on 
worms, and procuring its prey on the ground by 
smell rather than by sight. But this curious 
creature is becoming quite rare, and is now pre- 
served under government regulations. 

The natives of New Zealand, who are called 
Maories, are believed to have arrived in North 
Island as immigrants, in the fifteenth century. 
They are a fine race; the men, in general, are 
tall, many reaching a height of six feet. They 
are strong, active, almost all well shaped. The 
women are often handsome. 

The Maories resemble European gypsies in 
their color, which varies from a dark chestnut to 
the light tinge of an Italian. Their eyes, though 
deeply sunk, are full of vivacity ; and the teeth, 
which are white, cv'cn, and regular, last to old 
age. When first discovered, the natives made 
mats and other articles of great beauty out of the 
New Zealand hemp fiber. They also built canoes, 



and carved them with skill. They make excellent 

These people have quite a collection of poems 
in their own language ; and they are very fond of 
music. There is not a tree, a weed, a fish, or a 
bird in North Island for which the Maories have 
not a name. When Captain Cook visited New 
Zealand they numbered about 90,000, nine tenths 
of whom dwelt in North Island. At present there 
are about 40.000 residing in the reserves granted 
them by the colonists. 

If we except the Maories, over 90 per cent, of 
the present population of New Zealand are 
British-born subjects; but the people altogether 
only number (1912) a little over 1,000,000, so 
there is plenty of room for many more immi- 
grants in the "Britain of the South." 

New Zealand is mainly a sheep-raising country, 
and wool and frozen mutton are the chief ex- 
ports. The wool is of good quality, and the 
fleeces arc heavier than those of Australia. 
Dairy-farming is also an important industry, 
cheese and butter being sent to the English mar- 
kets. The production of wheat, oats, and fruit, 
and the mining of gold, silver, and coal give em- 
ployment to a large number of people. Timber 
is very plentiful and has become an important 
article of export. The kauri pine is well known 
as a valuable timber-tree. When a tree of this 
species is cut down, a kind of resin, which 
hardens in the air, oozes from the stump ; this is 
collected, and becomes an article of commerce. 
One of the chief products of the country is hemp 
obtained from the leaves — not the stem — of a 
native plant found in the marshes. 


Leaving New Zealand, a voyage to the north 
of about 850 miles brings us to the port of Le- 
vuka, the capital of the Fiji Islands, the residence 
of the white population, and principal commercial 
town. The Fijis consist of a group of islands 
about 220 in number, many of which are unin- 
habited. They were first seen by Tasman in 
1643, and were annexed to the British Empire 
in 1874. 

The island of Ovalau, although by no means 
the largest of the group, is the most important, 
and its climate is healthy. Levuka has a good 
and well-sheltered harbor, and the situation for a 
commercial port could not be better selected. The 
town lies in a quiet and peaceful valley, sur- 
rounded by dense groves of cocoanut and bread- 
fruit trees, with a stream of water running down 
to the beach. In the background volcanic peaks 

H.T.&Q.D. II. u. 

rise many hundred feet above the level of the 
sea, and are covered with beautiful bright foliage 
and plantations, which make up a most pictur- 
esque view. 

Cotton, coffee, sugar-cane, arrowroot, nutmegs, 
and bananas may be seen here growing in per- 
fection; and the tea-plant is also being cultivated 
with success. The fruits are delicious. Oranges, 
melons, citrons, and many others grow plenti- 

The country is very mountainous, and has some 
splendid scenery. The walk by the shore is highly 
picturesque. On one hand is the Pacific Ocean, 
its surf rolling in with angry fury upon the silver 
sands ; on the other, the densely crowded woods, 
with their heavy foliage and groves of banana, 
cocoanut, and other trees, where the deep silence 
is only broken by the notes of the birds of gor- 
geous plumage, whose songs add to the charm of 
the scene. 

The islanders are physically a fine race. They 
have a great taste for war, which, before these 
islands fell into the hands of England, appeared 
to be their chief study, and was considered the 
most honorable occupation. The victorious party 
generally sacrificed some of their captives to 
their gods, and the remainder furnished food for 
one of their horrible cannibal feasts*. The old 
people were not permitted to live beyond a cer- 
tain age. When their allotted time arrived they 
were either buried alive or strangled by their own 
children. This was looked upon as a duty, not 
only by the children, but by the victims them- 
selves, the idea being that they would retain, after 
death, the same condition of bodily health as at 
the time of their decease. 

Disease and bodily infirmity were much 
dreaded, and voluntary death considered far more 
desirable. Deformed children and persons crip- 
pled by accident w^ere usually killed. When a 
chief died it was the custom to follow up the 
event by the sacrifice of all his wives and slaves. 
Both sexes covered their bodies with red and 
black pigments. These horrible and superstitious 
practices have died out since the islands have 
come under civilized rule. 

The southern part of New Guinea, the large 
island to the north of Australia, also belongs to 
Great Britain, the remainder of it being divided 
between Holland and Germany. Its surface is 
covered with palms and timber of great size. 
The woods abound with hogs, which the natives 
kill with spears and arrows, in the use of which 
they are very expert. Cocoanuts, bread-fruit, 
pineapples, and the plantain grow wild in the 





The Papuans, as the natives of New Guinea 
are called, continue for the most part in their 
original state of barbarism, being nearly devoid 
of clothing, and living on the products of the 
chase and the wild fruits of the forest. Their 
huts are often raised on posts ; a wide common 
hall fills the center of the building; the cabins on 
each side are occupied by several families, and 
miserably furnished with a mat or two, a fire- 
place, and an earthen pot. Cooking goes on in 
each cabin, and as there is no chimney, the smoke 
issues from every part of the roof. At a dis- 
tance, the whole building seems to be on fire. 

The remaining islands of the vast Pacific may 
be briefly noted. Between New Guinea and Fiji 
are two groups — the Solomon Islands, belonging 
partly to Great Britain, and partly to Germany, 
and the New Hebrides, under the joint protection 

of Great Britain and France. New Caledonia 
lies farther south ; it belongs to France, and is 
used as a convict station. Another French group 
embraces the Society Islands, the largest of 
which is Tahiti, the "garden of the Pacific." 
The Tonga and the Cook Islands are British ; the 
natives are intelligent and civilized. The Samoan 
Islands are divided between the United States 
and Germany. To the United States also belong 
the Hawaiian Islands, where the famous Captain 
Cook was murdered. There are some very active 
volcanoes in these islands. 

The capital of Hawaii is Honolulu, a pleasant 
town with many fine streets and public buildings. 
Its busy harbor is always full of steamers trading 
with the three continents of America, Asia, and 
Australia. Honolulu has all the improvements of 
a modern city. 




Two young American boys were traveling 
through England on their bicycles in the summer 
of 1914. Coming up to London out of the tran- 
quil Shakespeare country they found that they 
had saved enough money by their economy so as 
to afford to add the trip through Holland to 
their journey, which they had expected to close 
with a hasty visit to Paris and departure from 
Havre. Two days after their tickets to Rotter- 
dam were secured the boat stopped running as 
suddenly as — this. The European War had 
started. It was four years before one of them 
ever reached Paris. He did so as a young offi- 
cer in the American Expeditionary Forces. This 
incident from two personal lives illustrates how 
suddenly the greatest event in history broke 
upon the attention of men. 

To-day those who are wiser than we point out 
that we ought to have foreseen the event before 
it happened. In 1914 it seems as if the whole 
world intended peace. But we had forgotten 
about Germany. 


Germany is the youngest of the great nations. 
She was made into a nation out of separate 
tribes as the result of the war with France which 
was provoked by the folly of Napoleon the Little. 
Not only had the Franco-Prussian war made her 
an empire but it had tremendously increased her 
territory, and the indemnity of three billion dol- 
lars that she demanded from -France had helped 
to make her rich. Germany had become one of 
the busiest, best organized, and most prosperous 
nations in the world. 

As Germany grew great she also became 
proud. Her success caused her to believe in the 
superiority of German efficiency. She began to 

*This article is based on the "Study of the 
Great War," by Samuel B. Harding, issued by 
the Committee on Public Information. 

think that her way of doing things, to which she 
gave the name "Kultur," was the best under the 
heaven. She began to think it a good thing if 
the rest of the world could grow to admire this 
"Kultur" and be governed by it. One of her poets 
wrote a line which became a favorite throughout 
the empire : "German Kultur shall bring heal- 
ing to the nations." 

Germany was becoming both the factory and 
the school-house of the world. 'Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland 
were being drawn within the circle of Berlin in- 
fluence. The same was even true of Austria, 
Italy, and to a great extent of Russia. It would 
seem that if Germany would only remain kind 
and fair and make it clear that her business re- 
lations were not an excuse for political schemes 
her empire would have advanced from glory to 
glory. One historian predicts that by 1940, 
through peaceful growth, Germany would have 
reached a position of such wealth and influence 
that all the lesser nations of northern Europe 
would have been drawn into her federal sys- 


But this was not enough. There was a class 
in Germany, the military nobility, whom we now 
know as the Junkers, who maintained the bar- 
barous idea that the only way to extend dominion 
was by the sword. They wanted to try the same 
fiery, bloody way that had been tried by Assyria, 
Persia, Rome, Arabia, Spain, and by Napoleon. 
They believed that war is the noblest profession ; 
that the people should carry bayonets and not 
ballots, and that their army was unconquerable. 

They were fond of quoting the motto of their 
founder, Frederick the Great, who used to say, 
"I take first ; I shall always find pedants enough 
to explain afterwards." They remembered that 
Bismarck used to say : "When Prussian power 
is in question I know no law." They read 






hJ — 

hH to 

u .5 





I— ( 











eagerly the writings of their strange philosopher, 
Nietzsche, who declared that "Life is essentially 
appropriation, injury, conquest." One of their 
young peoples' magazines taught the boys of 
Germany that "War is the noblest and holiest 
expression of human activity; war is beautiful; 
it is the heaven of young Germany." The young 
crown prince won the enthusiasm of this party 
when he sounded forth their view by writing: 
"It is only by relying on our good German sword 
that we can hope to conquer that place in the 
sun which rightly belongs to us." 


For a number of years, as we now see clearly, 
Germany was getting ready for war. She began 
to lay down a tremendous navy in 1898, which 
she feverishly increased as soon as Great Britain 
became weakened by the Boer War. She had 
developed the enforced military training of her 
young men to such a point that it alarmed the 
rest of Europe and turned that continent into an 
armed camp. During the three years before the 
war broke, she nearly doubled her standing army, 
prepared enormous stocks of munitions, levied 
an exceptional war tax and built railways lead- 
ing to the Belgium, French, and Russian fron- 
tiers, which could have no other purpose than a 
military one. 

She worked out a plan to throw a broad belt 
of German military power across the center of 
Europe into the heart of Asia — a belt of which 
Austria, Serbia, and Turkey were to be forced 
to become a part. The pathway of this belt was 
the Bagdad railway. 

She had made up her mind that Great Britain 
was decrepit and that France was weak. She 
thought she could conquer England and force 
France to become a nation of workingmen, 
thrifty for her sake. A common toast among 
young German officers at dinner was, "Dcr Tag" 
— a toast to the day when war with Great Britain 
should come. 

Of course, all the discontent in the world was 
not in Germany. There was the old hate be- 
tween France and Germany because Alsace-Lor- 
raine had been snatched away. There was the 
longer hate between Great Britain and Germany, 
caused partly by rivalry in business and much 
more because the Germans were jealous of the 
British colonial empire, and because a great mili- 
tary nation could not be friendly with a great 
liberal one. Then there was the desire of Italy 
to reclaim its lands held by Austria ; the per- 
petual squabble about the Balkan question; the 

problem of disposing of the Turkish empire in 
Europe, and the fever of Russia, Germany, and 
Austria to control the Dardanelles. 


Still, in 1914 the surface looked peaceful. The 
diplomats of Europe had been talking at The 
Hague about a league for universal peace. Eng- 
land had been making concessions to Germany in 
the matter of the Bagdad railway which exceeded 
all expectations, and war seemed so extravagant, 
so monstrous, so foolish that almost nobody this 
side of the water believed it possible that any 
wise modern nation would ever turn to arms 

We now know that the conflict was planned 
for a particular time. Germany, as we have 
seen, had increased her army enormously. The 
year before the war she tripled the special war 
fund for mobilizing her soldiers. She had just 
finished the Kiel Canal connecting the Baltic 
and North seas. She had stirred up revolt in 
the British Empire in South Africa and British 
India. She felt that these troubles, labor difficul- 
ties, and the unrest of Ireland would make Eng- 
land almost helpless. She knew that England 
had a very small standing army. 

It looked at the time as if the assassination of 
the crown prince of Austria in the Austrian 
province of Bosnia by some Serbian revolution- 
ists was the torch that started the flame. Bosnia 
had been illegally annexed to Austria from 
Serbia six years before. The Italian minister of 
foreign affairs nearly a year before had been 
told by Austria that she intended to attack Serbia 
very soon. We cannot of course prove that the 
assassination was actually planned either by 
Austria or Germany, but we do know that war 
was intended. The French ambassador at Ber- 
lin had written a letter the previous winter in 
which he stated that, "William the Second has 
come to think that war with France is inevit- 
able." "A struggle is close at hand for the 
German people," stated a resolution of the Pan- 
German League, the spring before the war broke 

When Austria called Serbia to account for the 
assassination Serbia made the most fair and 
humble acknowledgments. She accepted all of 
the Austrian demands but two, and suggested 
that these, which were insulting, should be re- 
ferred to The Hague Tribunal. Professor Hans 
Delbriick, a noted professor and statesman of 
Germany, himself acknowledged that "Austria 
demanded conditions which would have placed 
Serbia under her permanent control." 




I— I 


























H .2 







War was declared by Austria against Serbia 
July 28, 1914. But already, in I\Iay, the German 
war department had made tremendous purchases 
of beds and hospital supplies. In June, all owners 
of factories were told to open the mobilization 
envelopes that were already in their possession. 
In May and June the reservists were recalled 
from South America. In May, exceptionally 
grand manoeuvres were ordered which assembled 
in Cologne, Baden, and Alsace-Lorraine in the 
month of August. In June spec"al coaling ar- 
rangements had been made for German naval 
vessels. The German ambassador at Constanti- 
nople told Henry Morganthau that a conference 
had been held in Berlin on the 5th of July which 
was presided over by the kaiser at which the 
leading military men and business men of Ger- 
many were present, when the date of the war 
was fixed. Each was asked if he were ready. 
All said, yes, except the financiers, who in- 
sisted that they must have two weeks in which 
to sell foreign securities and arrange their loans. 

This was Germany's plan. She would 
strengthen her ally Austria and so increase her 
own power. She would humiliate Russia, the 
great Slavic nation that had agreed to protect 
the smaller Slavic country, Serbia. With the 
cooperation of Austria and Turkey and the full 
conquest of Serbia, she would break open the 
route from Berlin to Bagdad. She would fall 
upon France suddenly, before she was prepared ; 
frighten Great Britain into remaining neutral, 
and then turn and crush Russia. 


We need not go into detail as to the strenuous 
efforts that were made by the diplomats of the 
European countries to ward off the conflict. 
England led in efforts for peace. A proposal 
was made for an informal conference of all 
the nations concerned, which was accepted by 
Russia, France, and Italy, but declined by Ger- 
many without consulting Austria. The czar pro- 
posed in a personal telegram to the kaiser to give 
over the Austria-Serbian problem to The Hague 
Tribunal and although his army was mobilized 
(because (iermany had already mobilized hers), 
agreed to make no movement until the great 
powers had had time to study the question. Per- 
ha])S the most striking testimony against Ger- 
many is that of Prince I.ichnowsky, the (ierman 
ambassador to Great Britain, who declared that, 

"It would have been easy to find an acceptable 
solution for the two relatively small points left 
in dispute, and, given good will, everything 
could have been settled in one or two sittings."' 
On July 28, Austria .declared war against 
Serbia. On July 31, Germany made impossible 
demands upon Russia and France which were 
practically declarations of war. Already Ger- ' 
man bands of soldiers had repeatedly crossed the 
French frontier. 


In order to overwhelm France by surprise, 
Germany determined to use Belgium as her 
pathway. Belgium had been made an independ- 
ent and perpetually neutral state by the action 
of all the great powers of Europe in 1839. Ger- 
many herself had confirmed this treaty in 1870 
and the German minister of war had reassured 
Belgium only three years before, in the German 
Reichstag, that her neutrality would be observed. 
Germany now demanded permission to pass 
through Belgium on the way to France. Should 
Belgium oppose the German troops, said she, 
she would be "considered an enemy." Then 
came one of the heroic moments of history. The 
very next day Belgium refused such permission. 
"The Belgian government, if they were to ac- 
cept the proposal submitted to them, would sac- 
rifice the honor of the nation and betray their 
duty toward Europe." 

The only plea was necessity. Said the Ger- 
man Chancellor, "We are now in a state of 
necessity, and necessity knows no law. If this is 
a breach of international law, the wrong — I 
speak openly — the wrong we commit we will try 
to make good as soon as our military aims have 
been attained." 

When Great Britain, as Belgium's protector, 
demanded that this outrage should not proceed, 
the Chancellor told the British Ambassador that 
it did not seem to him necessary that Great 
Britain should cease to be neutral, "just for a 
word — neutrality, a word which in war-time has 
so often been disregarded — just for a scrap of 

But this was not Great Britain's idea of honor. 
She would not desert Belgium, and she would 
not permit France to undergo unaided this un- 
provoked attack. 

"We shall never sheathe the sword which we 
have not lightly drawn,'' said her Prime Min- 
ister, "until Belgium recovers in full measure 
all and more than all that she has sacrificed. 




until France is adequately secured against the 
menace of aggression, until the rights of the 
smaller nationalities of Europe are placed upon 
an unassailable foundation, and until the military 
domination of Prussia is wholly and finally de- 


A bully expects to win by frightening his op- 
ponent. This was the method that Germany 
used when invading peaceful Belgium. Houses 
and whole villages were burned. Homes were 
looted and wanton destruction of property was 
ordered by German officers. Citizens were mur- 
dered, women abused, and children brutally 
slain. Thousands of persons were killed, often 
with mutilation and torture. These outrages all 
occurred during the first three months and they 
were so similar that there is abundant evidence 
to show that they were planned and ordered in 
advance by German commanders. 

"Over all this area." reported our minister to 
Belgium to our Secretary of State, "a rich agri- 
cultural region dotted with innumerable towns, 
villages, and hamlets, a land of contented peace 
and plenty, during all that month of August 
there were inflicted on the civilian population 
by the hordes that over-ran it deeds of such 
ruthless cruelty and unspeakable outrage that 
one must search history in vain for others like 
them committed on such a prodigious scale. 
Towns were sacked and burned, homes were 
pillaged ; in many places portions of the popula- 
tion, men, women, and children, were massed in 
public squares and mowed down by mitrailleuses, 
and there were countless individual instances of 
an amazing and shameless brutality." 


A German soldier fell off his bicycle and his 
gun went ofif; he declared he had been shot at, 
and all the inhabitants of the village were burned 
to death in their homes. Feeble old Belgian 
priests were forced to walk in front of the 
marching German armies as screens, so that if 
the Belgians fired they might kill the priests 
first. Babies were stabbed with bayonets. Bel- 
gians were carried off into Germany and forced 
to work for the German armies. There is a 
picture by a Dutch artist of a poor old Belgian 
making a shell; the dreadful expression in his 
face tells us he is thinking, "Perhaps this will 
kill my son." German seamen from a submarine 

got into the lifeboat of a ship sunk far from 
land, emptied the fresh-water casks, filled them 
with salt-water, and even threw overboard the 
crew's little packages, done up in bandanna 
handkerchiefs, of little personal belongings 
which the poor fellows wanted to save. The 
crew of another ship which was torpedoed were 
put on the deck of the submarine, which then 
dived and left them to drown. Whole books 
have been written about these horrors, against 
all law and humanity, and yet half of them have 
not been recorded. 

Although by international law a country may 
not be robbed even when it is an enemy, yet the 
Germans took away from Belgium coal, minerals 
and metals, wood and wool, and cotton and 
leather, machinery and tools, transport materials, 
and harvests. They also laid excessive taxes 
and fines upon the people. They robbed Bel- 
gium of more than a billion dollars, or many 
times as much as all the world has contributed 
since then to keep the Belgian people from 
starving to death. 

They forcibly carried away tens of thousands 
of Belgian people, the men to serve practically 
as slaves in Germany, and the women reduced 
frequently to worse than slavery. "This deed," 
says our own minister. Brand Whitlock, who was 
in Belgium from the beginning, "was coldly 
planned, studiously matured, and deliberately 
and systematically executed, a deed so cruel that 
German soldiers are said to have wept in its 
execution, and so monstrous that even German 
soldiers are now said to be ashamed." 

As the Germans pressed on into eastern France 
they over-ran great stretches of French terri- 
tory in the same way. A Berlin newspaper says : 
"No village or farm was left standing: no road 
was left passable ; no railway track was left in 
being. Where once were woods there are gaunt 
rows of stumps ; the wells have been blown up, 
cables and pipe-lines destroyed ; in front of our 
new position runs like a gigantic river an empire 
of death." 

Both in Belgium and France there was the 
wanton destruction of some of the most beau- 
tiful and historic works of art. The library of 
Louvain, the cathedrals of Rheims, Soissons, 
Ypres, and Arras ; the castle of Coucy, the town 
halls of Ypres and other Belgian cities. 


The same thing was done in Poland. The 
object was to bring about a famine so as to 
compel the male population to emigrate to Ger- 
many. "One-third of the generation, the young- 


































est,"' the Poles in America telegraphed to the 
English prime minister, "have practically ceased 
to exist." 

In Belgium and France civilians, including 
women and children, were used as a screen by 
German officers. "The soldiers came on in a 
mass," states a British soldier who witnessed 
one of these scenes, "with women and children 
massed in front of them. They seemed to be 
pushing them on and I saw them shoot down 
women and children who refused to march." 

Often they killed the wounded and prisoners. 
"After to-day"— ran an order given August 26, 
1914, by General Stenger of the 58th German 
brigade — "no more prisoners will be taken. All 
prisoners are to be killed. Wounded, with or 
without arms, are to be killed." Fourteen years 
before when the German troops embarked for 
the Boxer war in China, the kaiser addressing 
them said : "Just as the Huns a thousand years 
ago under the leadership of Attila, gained a 
reputation on which they still live in historic 
tradition, so may the name of Germany become 
known in such a manner in China that no China- 
man will ever again dare to look askance at a 
German," No wonder that we have learned 
throughout this war to call the Germans "Huns." 

Before the war was a year old the English 
had much cause to complain of the inhuman 
treatment of their prisoners in German prison 
camps. Not long after it became almost a rule 
that the Red Cross instead of being a protection 
to the wounded or to the hospitals was made a 
target for German frightfulness. Submarines 
also went out deliberately hunting down hos- 
pital ships. 

The whole theory was that terror was the way 
to shorten the war, and the Germans justified it 
as being really humane. 


In view of what has been related it seems fit- 
ting to quote the "hope" of a German major- 
general : 

Major-General von Disfurth (retired), in an 
article contributed to the Hamburg Nachrichtcn, 
wrote as follows: 

"Germany stands the supreme arbiter of her 
own methods. It is of no consequence whatever 
if all the monuments ever created, all the pic- 
tures ever painted, all the buildings ever erected 
by the great architects of the world be destroyed, 
if by their destruction we promoted Germany's 
victory. War is war. The ugliest stone placed 
to mark the burial of a German grenadier is a 

more glorious monument than all the cathedrals 
of Europe put together. They call us 'bar- 
barians.' What of it? We scorn them and their 

"P'or my part, I hope that in this war we have 
merited the title, 'barbarians.' Let neutral peo- 
ples and our enemies cease their empty chatter, 
which may well be compared to the twitter of 
birds. Let them cease to talk of the Cathedral 
of Rheims, and of all the churches and all the 
castles in France which have shared its fate. 
Our troops must achieve victory. What else 



This war witnessed many innovations due to 
the progress of science and invention. Wher- 
ever armies came to a standstill in front of each 
other, they began to "dig in." They made vast 
and complicated systems of deep and narrow 
trenches that connected with each other ; elabo- 
rate wire entanglements often charged with 
electricity, tall craters occupied by "snipers," and 
45"s, "pill-boxes," of steel and concrete to hold 
heavy guns. Hand grenades were used in hand- 
to-hand combat; steel helmets came back from 
the Middle Ages ; the new word "camouflage" 
became familiar as describing the ingenious art 
of concealment. 

The Germans surprised the world with great 
guns that could bombard towns 22 miles away, 
and finally developed a "wonder gun" that 
reached Paris from a distance of 72 miles. The 
French on the other hand excelled with their 
"75's," a quick-fire cannon with calibre of 75 
millimeters — 3 inches. The British borrowed 
from America huge caterpillar motors, armored, 
and armed with machine guns or rapid fire can- 
non, which they called "tanks." Six modern in- 
ventions have been conspicuous in the present 
war: the aeroplane, the submarine, the automo- 
bile, the wireless telegraph, the "tanks," the 
Zeppelin balloon. Of these the first two are 
American inventions ; the automobile mainly 
French (partly German) ; the wireless telegraph 
is Italian ; the "tanks" English. The only one of 
the six which has conspicuously failed is the 
Zeppelin ; it is a German invention. The Ger- 
mans also introduced two things which any one 
could have invented if he had been hard-hearted 
enough ; liquid fire and poison gas. 


In the air, on the earth, and in the sea, the 

Germans utilized cruel and illegal methods of 





















warfare: The Zeppelins, enormous balloons, they 
used for dropping bombs on undefended British 
and French towns. On the land the Germans 
utilized poison gas and liquid fire, which caused 
the most terrible torture and death. On their 
retreat in France they poisoned the wells, and in 
Serbia they disseminated terrible disease germs. 

But the violation of international law which 
caused the deepest indignation and finally 
aroused America to the real spirit of the Hun 
was the submarine warfare. The submarine has 
been regarded as a legitimate weapon against 
war-ships and even against merchant ships under 
careful restrictions, but Germany soon began, 
without warning and when possible without 
leaving a trace, the ruthless destruction of in- 
nocent men, women, and children. In turn the 
Falaba, the dishing, the Gid flight, and finally 
on May 7, 1915, the Lusitania with its eleven 
hundred passengers, were sent to the bottom by 
German torpedoes. 

In the meantime the Turks who had allied 
themselves with the Germans, as if in imitation 
of their "Christian" allies, attempted to exter- 
minate the Armenian nation. It is thought that 
a million lives were lost by torture, by massacre, 
and by being driven helplessly into the desert. 

All this was done to establish an empire like 
that of ancient Rome. Through terror of the 
greatest armed force of the modern world, Ger- 
many expected to win her will. 


The war could not be confined to the three or 
four nations that began it. 

First Montenegro joined her old ally, Serbia ; 
then Japan declared war because of her alliance 
with Great Britain. Italy declared war with 
Austria in order to win back lands which Aus- 
tria had forced away from her. Bulgaria broke 
away from her fellow-nations of the Balkans, 
tempted by Germany, and attacked Serbia. Por- 
tugal got in because of her long-standing alliance 
with Great Britain. Rumania encouraged by 
allied successes early in 1916, and, pressed on by 
Russia, attacked Austria. Greece deposed her 
king and joined the Allies. Siam and China, in 
the Far East, and a dozen of the South and Cen- 
tral American countries either declared war 
against Germany or broke off diplomatic rela- 
tions. The United States was one of the last to 
take sides. 

Not only in countries where the inhabitants 
were enslaved and forced to work for the Cen- 

tral Powers but in the free countries, the cooper- 
ation of all the people became a notable factor 
in the war. Literally the whole nation, every- 
where, was mobilized. The population was put 
on rations to conserve food, women went into 
the industries to replace the men — changing the 
old proverb, "Men must fight, and women must 
weep," to "Men must fight, and women must 
work" — boys and girls went to work on the 
farms and in the war plants, and the whole 
power of the commonwealth was put at the ser- 
vice of the State. This was true in America 
from the beginning. The United States cheer- 
fully adopted conscription when it entered the 
conflict, everybody subscribed for the war loans 
and charities and the sacrifices of the people in 
the use of food and grain saved the allied coun- 
tries from starvation. 


America intended to remain neutral. George 
Washington had warned us to beware of "en- 
tangling alliances" with the Old World. Monroe 
in his famous Doctrine had taught us that the 
peoples of Europe might go about their own 
business in any way they chose, if they would 
permit us who live in the two Americas to do the 
same. We could not believe all that we heard 
about the atrocities and tried to imagine that we 
were learning only one side of the story. Amer- 
ica was the home of millions of citizens who had 
come from the warring countries of both sides. 
Most of us felt with our President that by keep- 
ing free from the conflict we could more effec- 
tively aid in restoring peace at its close. 

Gradually American sentiment was alienated 
from Germany and Austria. We could not but 
condemn the unjustified invasion of Belgium, nor 
fail to admire her plucky resistance. Germany's 
monstrous crime in sinking the Lusitania caused 
a wave of horror and wrath to sweep the entire 
nation. Although we had some controversy with 
Great Britain because she put food for Germany 
on the contraband list, we began to feel that 
Germany could not excuse her attacks upon help- 
less merchant vessels on the ground that she was 
merely retaliating against the British policy. Re- 
taliation is not endurable when it is exercised 
without any reference to the rights and lives of 
neutrals. If Great Britain did violently extend 
the rules of international law for her purposes, 
"there is a very marked difference between a 
prize court and a torpedo." We began to learn 
that America was full of German spies, that 

Copyright by Committee on Public Information 

These machines were brought back from "No Man's Land" by American troops after a raid 




Germany was financing a propaganda through 
paid writers and lecturers to deceive us, and 
that, even under the personal direction of the 
embassies of Germany and Austria, plots were 
being fomented against the national safety. The 
culmination of this treachery came when we 
learned that the German foreign minister had 
actually offered New Mexico, Texas, and Ari- 
zona to Mexico if she would attack the United 

On the last day of January, 1917, the German 
government suddenly notified the United States 
that, beginning the next day, sea traffic would 
be stopped with every available weapon and 
without further notice. She made the insulting 
proposal that one American ship a week would 
be permitted to sail for a designated English 
harbor, provided it was painted with a striped 
uniform of humiliation. The President promptly 
dismissed the German ambassador and on April 
6 Congress issued a declaration of a state of 
war with Germany. In asking for this declara- 
tion President Wilson uttered these historic 
words: "The world must be made safe for de- 
mocracy. We desire no conquest, no dominion. 
We seek ro indemnities for ourselves; no mate- 
rial compensation for the sacrifice we shall freely 
make. We are one of the champions of the 
rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when 
those rights have been made as secure as the 
faith and the freedom of nations can make them." 



Our reasons for fighting Germany were briefly 
these : The German government had drowned 
our citizens, sunk our ships, destroyed our prop- 
erty, insulted our flag, and deprived us of the 
freedom of the sea, which is the public highway 
of humanity. 

Germany had run amuck among the nations 
as an international desperado, robbing and mur- 
dering everywhere. Mercy and justice through 
all the world were at stake. 

Germany's love and desire for war proved 
that country to be the greatest menace on earth 
to the peace and happiness of other peoples. 

Germany had already announced through its 
kaiser that, after she had dominated the Old 
World, she expected to attack America. 

The conflict had become a war between demo- 
cratic nations on the one hand and autocratic 
nations on the other, and it was plain that the 
world could not hope to endure, as Lincoln used 

to say, "half slave and half free." "We fight," 
said our Secretary of the Interior, Franklin K. 
Lane, "we fight with the world for an honest 
world in which nations keep their word, for a 
world in which nations do not live by swagger 
or by threat, for a world in which men think of 
the ways in which they can conquer the com- 
mon cruelties of nature instead of inventing 
more horrible cruelties to inflict upon the spirit 
and body of man, for a world in which the man 
is held more precious than the machine, the sys- 
tem, or the State." 

Let us now trace the general progress of the 
Great War year by year. 


Germany's general plan of action, as we have 
said, was first to crush France, then Russia, 
then Great Britain. She had this purpose 
worked out by a time-table. The distance from 
the German frontier to the banks of the Oise on 
the French frontier was six days' march, but 
through the splendid effort of Belgium this ad- 
vance lasted sixteen days. The ten days delay 
at the cost of Belgium's sacrifice saved the 

The Germans advanced in five armies through 
Belgium and Luxemburg. 

The French under General Joffre hastily 
mobilized and warily defended themselves pend- 
ing the arrival of the British. The joint armies 
made a slow and dogged withdrawal to the River 
Marne while a new French army was being 

The Germans actually arrived within 20 miles 
of Paris. General Gallieni, the defender of the 
capital, rallied a force, with taxi-cabs, busses, 
and every possible means of transportation, and 
held them fast. The Germans were forced to 
swerve to the east away from Paris. 

A month later that battle-line was 180 miles 
long. The French and British forced the Ger- 
mans to retreat from the River Marne to the 
River Aisne and "that battle" — said a great mili- 
tary critic — "decided that Europe should still be 
European and not Prussian." At the Marne 
France saved herself and Europe. Both sides 
now entrenched themselves from Switzerland to 
the North Sea and this battle-line remained prac- 
tically stationary, with some slight swaying 
backward and forward, for the next three years. 

The parts of France held by the Germans in- 
cluded 90 per cent, of her iron ore, 80 per cent, 
of her iron and steel manufactories, and 50 per 
cent, of her coal resources. The German con- 












































1— ( 













quest of the Belgium coast furnished bases for 
her submarine warfare. 

On the eastern front, Russia invaded East 
Prussia and was driven back by General Hinden- 
burg, who henceforth became the idol of Ger- 
many. Russia, however, successfully pressed 
into Galicia in the east of Austria and threat- 
ened Hungary. Serbia, through Russia's aid, 
drove the Austrian invaders from her territory. 

In the meantime German ships were swept 
from all the oceans and most of the German 
colonies were captured. Turkey joined the 
Teutonic lines. 

At the end of the year the Germans were held 
on the western front and checked on the eastern 
and Germany and Austria were as yet cut off 
from their ally, Turkey. The Central Powers, 
on the other hand, were making tremendous 
preparations with artillery and munitions which 
during the next year were destined to change 
events sadly for the Allies. 


The preponderance of the Teutonic artillery 
during this year made it impossible for the Allies 
to progress on the western front. The Russians 
were driven from Russian Poland and Austrian 
Galicia. Hungary was saved from invasion and 
Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and thus 
linked Turkey to Austria and Germany, and 
Serbia was entirely over-run. 

During this year the Germans first used poison 
gas. Their Zeppelins raided England, with little 
military effect, though they killed or wounded 
over 3.300 helpless men, women, and children. 
In May they sunk the Lusitania with a loss of 
1,198 lives, of whom 124 were Americans. 

"The Teutons were no longer hemmed in; 
they had raised the siege." 


The German crown prince lost half a million 
men in a determined endeavor to capture the 
fortress of Verdun. "Verdun was the grave 
of German claim to military invincibility." It 
was General Retain who directed the heroic re- 
sistance and gave France the motto, "They shall 
not pass." 

In the battle of the Somme, the Allies made 
some progress, but failed to break through the 
German lines. The Russians successfully ad- 
vanced through Galicia and Armenia. The 
Italians, who had now joined the Allies, made a 
move northward which brought them within 

thirteen miles of Trieste. In the battle of Jut- 
land the British battle-cruiser fleet engaged the 
German high-seas fleet until darkness enabled 
the Germans to escape the oncoming British 
dreadnaughts. Rumania, encouraged by the 
allied successes, entered the war. She made an 
unsupported advance and was almost immedi- 
ately crushed. The British made an excursion 
into Mesopotamia which was overwhelmed by 
the Turks and forced to surrender. 


The Germans began unrestrained submarine 
warfare early in the year. Over 14,000 non- 
combatant English were done to death by this 
means. They relied upon this weapon to starve 
Great Britain out, but the result was to bring 
in America. The United States was unable to 
bring her full weight to bear during this year. 
Nevertheless, a quarter of a million troops were 
in France under General Pershing. China and 
Brazil and Greece, Siam, Cuba, and Panama, 
followed the United States in declaring war on 

The Allies made small gains on the western 

The British captured Bagdad and advanced 
from Egypt up into Palestine, Jerusalem sur- 
rendered in December. 

The controlling and unexpected event of the 
year was the revolution in Russia. There was a 
well-founded suspicion that the czar was plan- 
ning a separate peace with Germany, and he was 
forced to abdicate in March. The moderate 
Socialists and Radicals seized power under Alex- 
ander Kerensky and the military arm of Russia 
was paralyzed by giving committees of private 
soldiers power over their own officers. In No- 
vember the extreme Pacifist Socialists, the Bol- 
sheviki, overthrew Kerensky and began to nego- 
tiate a separate peace with Germany. When 
the Russian revolution permitted the withdrawal 
of Austrian troops to the Italian front, the rein- 
forced Austro-German army made a counter- 
drive which undid the work of two years and 
enabled them to begin a disheartening invasion 
of northeastern Italy. 


Nearly thirty nations had now broken off re- 
lations with Germany. 

Russia divided into separate countries and 
provinces with civil war, political chaos, terrible 
suffering and crime existing everywhere. The 

Copyright by Conuiuttcc in Public 1 nformation 





Bolsheviki signed a treaty of peace with the 
Central Powers and the so-called republic of 
Ukrainia in southern Russia made the same ar- 
rangement. Although the Germans were dis- 
appointed in securing food and supplies from 
this conquered empire, yet at least a million 
troops were relieved and transferred to the 
western front. 

Italy broke the strength of the Austrian ad- 
vance and the Allies made progress on the east- 
ern front. The Central Powers made four 
spring drives against the Allies, constituting all 
together "the greatest and most momentous bat- 
tle in the history of the world." They again 
reached a spot only 39 miles from Paris. The 
Allies, however, had achieved unity through the 
appointment to the supreme command of Gen- 
eral Ferdinand Foch, the greatest strategist in 
France. America, by a stupendous miracle of 
achievement, had before the end of the year, sent 
an army of over two million men across the seas. 
At the fourth anniversary of the opening of the 
war, the fourth drive was checked, the tide was 
turned and the world of liberty-loving men began 
to breathe more freely. 


During these four years, various peace -pro- 
posals were put forth by neutrals. The prin- 
ciples for an enduring peace that have been 

stated by President Wilson won the approval of 
the Allies. The Germans, whenever their cause 
wavered, sought peace, but nevertheless made 
no tangible proposals. Their aim was to get the 
Allies together around a council table, to divide 
them and get them to quarreling, and then to 
make a compromise. Although they had not 
succeeded in defeating either France or Great 
Britain, if they could maintain the western front, 
they hoped at their leisure to annex all that had 
been western Russia and to over-run the Far 
East. In February, 1918, the kaiser said: "We 
desire to live in friendship with neighboring 
peoples, but the victory of German arms must 
first be recognized." And in March he boasted : 
"The prize of victory must not and will not fail 
us ; no soft peace, but one corresponding with 
German interests." 

It became plain that Germany could learn 
nothing except through defeat. So long as war 
was profitable she would continue to wage it. 
Even our peace-loving President became con- 
vinced of this and said : "Our present and im- 
mediate task is to win the war and nothing shall 
turn us aside .from it until it is accomplished. 
We shall regard the war as won only when 
the German people say to us, through properly 
accredited representatives, that they are ready to 
agree to a settlement based on justice and the 
reparation of the wrongs their rulers have 



^ w 

CO u 

O =^ 

U g 





In the days of King Henry the Seventh, men 
were beginning to love learning, and they wanted 
to know more about the world in which they lived. 
One clever man, named Columbus, sent his 
brother to ask King Henry if he would give him 
some ships, and money, so that he might go to 
look for new lands beyond the seas. 

"I am sure that there must be lands of which 
we know nothing," he said, "and if you will give 
me what I ask, you shall have the glory of be- 
ing king over the new country when I find it." 

But Henry could not make up his mind to 
help Columbus. So the man went off to the 
King of Spain, and told him just what he had 
said to the King of England. The Spanish King 
listened, and thought he would like to help Co- 
lumbus. He gave him three small ships, and 
filled them with Spanish sailors. Columbus then 
set out to find the New World. 

For two long months he and his men sailed 
over the ocean, but they saw no land. The great 
sea was all round them ; the sailors grew tired 
of it, and began to wish they had never left 
Spain. Then, just as they were feeling very 
unhappy, and looking over the blue sea, one 
of them cried out that he saw the branch of a 
tree floating by. "It is covered with green 
leaves," he said, "and it mu^t have come from 
some land which is not very far off."' 

For a short time the sailors were more cheer- 
ful again. Day by day they went on, but there 
were no more signs of land. The men were sad, 
and Columbus called them all round him, for he 
knew that they were now angry. "If we do not 
see the new land to-morrow," he said, "we will 
sail straight back for home." The sailors were 
glad to hear this, and shouted, "Very well, for 
we are tired of seeing nothing but sea and sky 
for so long a time." 

That night they stood upon the deck and 
looked out again, as they had so often done. 
Then they saw a line of light, which seemed to 
be shining on the edge of the sea. When morn- 

ing came, they found that right in front of 
them was a beautiful island, on which palm- 
trees were growing, and flowers came down to 
the water's edge. 

"Put out the boats," said Columbus, "and let 
us go on shore." No sooner had his feet touched 
the ground than he knelt down and thanked 
God, who had brought them safely to so fair a 

The sailors gathered great bunches of flowers 
and fruit, and felt quite happy now. They had 
reached a part of the New World, and they for- 
got how often they had nearly given up the hope 
of seeing it. 

What Columbus had found was one of a num- 
ber of islands, which we now call the West In- 
dies. He put up a Spanish flag, and said that 
the new lands belonged to Spain. But when the 
King of England heard of this, he also sent men 
to sail across the seas ; and so it was that an 
English ship was the first to reach the shores 
of North America. 


The English were glad to have Henry the 
Seventh for their King, because he put an end 
to the long Wars of the Roses. Henry himself 
had always worn a red rose as his badge, but 
his Queen belonged to the party of the white 
rose, and on their wedding day, they both wore 
red and white roses tied together. 

Still there were some people who wanted to 
take the crown from Plenry. One of these was 
a young man, named Perkin Warbeck. He was 
good-looking, had nice manners, and went about 
like a prince. He said that he was one of the 
two little princes who, men thought, had been 
killed in the Tower by their cruel uncle King 
Richard HI. 

He told a strange story of how he had been 
able to get away, when his brother was killed. 
Many believed him, and were willing to fight for 
a young man that was so clever. For many 
years he gave a great deal of trouble to the 

















King. Henry sent troops against him, but when 
beaten in one place, he went to another. 

At last he found his way to Cornwall, where 
many people did not like Henry. Here seven 
thousand men came to help him, and they were 
ready to fight against the King's soldiers. But 
Perkin was not a brave man. When it was dark, 
he left his troops and fled to a house in the 
New Forest. In those days there were some 
churches and houses inside which a man was 
quite safe, even if he had done wrong. 

The King sent him word that he would par- 
don him if he came out. This Perkin did, and 
for some months he lived in the palace of King 
Henry, who treated him kindly. 

Though still well watched, Perkin ran away 
one day. When he was taken again, the King 
sent him to the Tower, and after being kept 
there for about a year, he was put to death. 


The next King, Henry the Eighth, had a friend 
whose name was Thomas Wolsey, who was the 
son of a butcher. By. his good manners and in 
other ways he so pleased King Henry that he 
was made Archbishop of York. 

Wolsey was a great man, but he was too fond 
of show. He wore fine clothes of silk and gold, 
kept many horses and men-servants, and had 
beautiful houses to live in. He went about al- 
most as grandly as the King himself. When he 
rode out, large silver staffs were carried before 
him; his mule was covered with red velvet, and 
the saddle and trappings shone with gold. 

He once went with Henry to see the King of 
France. The two Kings and their men met in a 
field, which was so grandly covered that it was 
called the "Field of the Cloth of Gold." 

A few years later King Henry had a quarrel 
with the Pope, and he asked Wolsey to help him. 
Wolsey tried to please the King, but he failed 
to get the Pope to do what Henry wanted. In 
the end, Henry became so angry that he sent 
Wolsey to York and told him to stay there. 
Wolsey felt this very much. In London he had 
been the King's great favorite, and now the 
King would not even look at him. He still 
wanted to be friendly with King Henry, but it 
was of no use. At last, he was told to go back 
to London, to be tried as one who had done 
wrong against the King. 

Wolsey was not well when the King's com- 
mand reached him, but he dared not wait. He 
set out on his journey, with his horses, his men, 
and his mules. In those days it took a long time 

to go from York to London, and when Wolsey 
was on the way his illness grew worse. 

He turned aside to rest for a few days at an 
abbey. When the kindly abbot and the monks 
came out to welcome him, he felt so weak that 
he said, "I have come to lay my bones among 
you." The monks came round him, for he had 
many friends among them. They tried to cheer 
him, and said, "You will soon be better." 

But Wolsey knew that he was going to die. 
"Ah !" he said, with a sigh, "If I had only 
served my God, as well as I have served my 
King, he would not have left me alone in my 
old age." 


The King who came after Henry the Eighth 
was his son, Edward the Sixth, who was only a 
boy. Because he was so young, other men had 
to look after the country. One of these was a 
great duke, whose son had married Lady Jane 
Grey, the King's cousin. The young King was 
often sick, and the duke got him to say that Lady 
Jane Grey should be queen after him. The weak 
King got Archbishop Cranmer to sign the paper 
giving the crown to Lady Jane. This same 
great man, Cranmer, was afterward sent to the 
Tower for treason. 

When Edward died, the duke went to see her. 
She was sitting in a beautiful room, with walls 
of oak, and windows of stained glass, full of 
pictures. On her desk was a large book, which 
she was reading. She loved her quiet home, her 
books and flowers. She was very happy, and 
did not wish to live in the King's palace. 

But the duke was a man who liked his own 
way, and he told Lady Jane that she must take 
the crown, and be a great queen. 

"I have no right to the crown," she said, "and 
it can never be mine while Edward's two sisters, 
Mary and Elizabeth, live." 

But at last she gave way, and for ten days 
she was called queen. She was wise and clever, 
and might have made a good queen too. But 
the people were not pleased to have her. They 
did not like the duke, nor did they care for Jane's 
husband ; so they said, "We will have the Prin- 
cess Mary as our queen." 

At that time Mary rode boldly through the 
streets, and showed herself to the people, who 
shouted, "God save Queen Mary !'' 

Lady Jane was glad to give up the crown, 
and go back to her own quiet home again. Not 
long after, she and her husband were sent to 
the Tower of London, and they were both put 
to death. 



















In the beautiful gardens of Hatfield a young 
lady sat under the shade of a tree. She was 
reading, while the birds sang sweetly in the 
branches over her head. Her life was very quiet 
and happy in this pleasant place. She was rather 
a clever young lady too, fond of music, and able 
to play well on the lute. She could also speak 
French and Italian quite as well as English. 

This was the Princess Eizabeth, one of the 
daughters of Henry the Eighth, and she knew 
that some day she might be queen of England. 

As she sat under the trees, there was suddenly 
a stir in the garden. Elizabeth raised her eyes 
and saw a number of men coming toward her. 
They were some of the great lords of the coun- 
try. They bowed very low, as they came near 
her. One of them knelt, and told her that her 
sister Mary was dead, and that she was now 
the Queen. 

"Lady," he said, "your sister, our late Queen, 
is dead, and the people wait for your coming." 

When she heard this, Elizabeth fell on her 
knees upon the fresh grass and asked God to help 
her to be a wise and good queen. 

The people knew that Elizabeth was clever, 
and that she worked hard. They were glad to 
have such a lady to rule over them, and when she 
left her country house for London, they raised 
up great shouts of joy. 


At this time, there was a Queen in Scotland, 
who is always called Mary Queen of Scots. 
Elizabeth was not at all friendly to her. 
When Mary was a little girl, she was taken to 
live in France, and there she was very happy. 
She liked the gay French people, and they were 
fond of the bright and merry girl, who was al- 
ways ready for fun. 

She was very beautiful, and moved about 
prettily ; and the French were glad when she 
married their prince and became Queen of 
France. But the King died when he was still 
young; and Mary now had to go back to Scot- 
land, of which she was also Queen. She took 
with her many friends, whom the Scots did not 

After a time she married one of her own 
great lords. She lived in the fine palace of Holy- 
rood, where we can still see the rooms that used 
to be hers, and even the bed in which she slept. 
But Mary was not happy in those days. The 
Scots did not care for her ways, and they were 
soon ready to quarrel with her. After some time 
they made her sign a paper, saying that she 

would give up the crown to her son James, who 
was a very small child. 

The Scots now shut up the Queen in a castle; 
as it was built on an island, and so had water 
all round it, they thought she would be quite 
safe there. Mary had still a great many friends, 
who loved her well, and these tried hard to get 
her away. But she would never have got out 
with no one to help her. She had a young friend 
inside the castle, a page who waited on her, and 
who liked her so well, that he was ready to do 
anything she wished. 

The castle gates were locked every night, and 
the keys were laid by the keeper's side when he 
sat at supper in the big hall. The boy who was 
Mary's friend had to look after these keys. 

One night, when the keeper sat down to sup- 
per, the boy came in with a dish which seemed 
so hot that a cloth had to be put round it lest 
he should burn his fingers. When he took away 
the cloth, he carried the key of the gate with it, 
and took it to Queen Mary, who was waiting. 

The Queen went softly down the stairs, and 
the boy hurried on to open the gate. When 
Mary and her ladies had passed out, he locked 
it again from the outside. The keeper and his 
men were now shut in, instead of the Queen. 
The boy helped the ladies into the keeper's own 
boat, and rowed them quickly to the shore. 
"They cannot follow us, lady," he said, as he 
rowed. "I left them too safely shut in for that; 
and besides, we have the boat." 

But, even as he spoke, a shot came over the 
water. Lights shone in the castle, and loud cries 
rang from the towers, which made the ladies 
shake with fear. But it was dark, and the boat 
could not be seen from the castle. The boy 
rowed the ladies safely to the shore, and friends 
soon came to meet them. They had horses ready, 
and they rode away at once. Mary felt that she 
was now free — she did not know that worse 
troubles were yet to come. 

The Scots would not have her for their queen, 
and so she went to England. She hoped that 
Elizabeth, who was her cousin, would help her. 
But the English put Mary in prison and kept her 
there for nineteen long years. 

Many times her friends tried to get her free. 
Some of them even wanted to make her queen, 
instead of Elizabeth. This made the English 
very angry with Mary, and at last they put her 
to death. 


The King of Spain saw what a great Queen 
Elizabeth had become. He wished to marry 
her, but she would have nothing to do with him. 











XVTI— 13 




"If I cannot have the lady, 1 will have her 
kingdom," he said, and that was really what he 
wanted. He was also very angry, because of 
the death of Mary Queen of Scots. So he sent 
the Armada, a great fleet of one hundred and 
thirty big ships, full of Spanish sailors and cap- 
tains, with their guns and powder, to fight 
against England. 

Some of the people in that country were 
afraid when they heard that the Spaniards were 
coming. They thought that the Spanish King 
was a wicked man, and they did not know what 
he might do. But Elizabeth was brave, and 
there were many fine captains in her ships. She 
felt sure that they would never let the Spaniards 
win. The Queen's ships might be small, but 
they were good, and there were many of them. 
Drake and the other English sailors were used 
to the sea, and they could fight well. 

One evening, when Drake and some of the 
English captains were playing a game of bowls 
on the smooth grass at Plymouth, a man came 
running toward them. "The Spaniards are 
coming ! " he cried. " You can see their sails 
now, and they will soon be upon us." Still 
Drake went on with his game. "Let us finish 
this," he said quietly. "There will be time 
enough for the Spaniards when we have done." 

The news went quickly up and down the coun- 
try. On every hill big fires were lighted, by 
which all the people knew that the Armada was 
indeed quite close to their shores. 

The Spanish ships sailed in the shape of a 
half-moon, and the English ships looked very 
small by their side. No wonder that some peo- 
ple shook their heads, and said, "It is a bad day 
for England." But the small English ships were, 
after all, going to win the day. They sailed 
much faster than the big Spanish vessels. They 
ran up and fired their shots into them, and then 
got away. Over and over again they did this, 
and thus they drove the Armada before them, 
until some of the Spanish ships went on shore 
and were wrecked. 

When night came on, the English had another 
way to surprise the enemy. They took eight old 
ships, and filled them with things that would 
burn quickly. They set fire to these vessels and 
when they were blazing sent them among the 
ships of the Armada. What a stir they made ! 
The Spanish captains were so frightened that 
they pulled up their anchors and went out to 
sea in a hurry. They were afraid that their 
ships would catch fire. When they made haste 
to go away, the English ships went after them, 
and did as much mischief as they could, until 
they had no more powder or shot left. 

But now a great storm arose. The winds ble\> 
the ships about, and the waves tossed them up 
and down. Some of the big Spanish vessels 
were blown on to the rocks, and so they were 
wrecked. Only fifty of these fine ships 
sailed back to Spain, to tell the King of that 
country the story of the Armada. "I sent my 
ships against men, not seas," said the King, when 
he heard what his captains said. 

The people of England shouted for joy, when 
they heard the news, and the Queen went to St. 
Paul's to give thanks to God. "This great vic- 
tory," said Elizabeth, "was won by the help of 
God." So she had some beautiful gold medals 
made, on which were the words : "The Lord 
sent his wind, and they were scattered." 


In all the pictures of Elizabeth which we have, 
she is painted as having a great ruff round her 
head, which seems to stand up stiffly. She was 
very fond of wearing fine dresses, and it is said 
that she had more than one thousand in her great 
cedar-wood chests. She also liked fun, and 
could laugh at a joke just as much as any one 
else. But she could be very angry too, and 
sometimes she scolded her lords as if they were 
little boys. 

This great Queen, who kept every one in or- 
der, was pleased to have nice-looking people 
round her, and she liked those best who had good 
manners. One of the great men who pleased 
her was Walter Raleigh. He had been in many 
lands, where he had seen strange things, and 
Elizabeth liked to hear his stories. 

One day, when the Queen went for a walk, 
with all her lords and ladies round her, they 
came to a place in the road where the mud was 
both thick and deep. Elizabeth did not care to 
step across it, lest she should soil her pretty 
shoes. She stood for a moment thinking what 
she should do. Just then Walter Raleigh came 
up, and he saw the mud. At once he took off his 
fine cloak of rich velvet and threw it down to 
cover the mud. Now the Queen could pass over 
without having a spot upon her shoes ! 

When Elizabeth saw what he had done, she 
was pleased. She crossed with dry feet, and a 
bright smile rose to her face. The Queen did 
not forget such nice manners. She made Walter 
Raleigh one of her chief men, and she became 
very fond of him. 


One of the men for whom Queen Elizabeth 
had great liking was Sir Philip Sidney. She 



called him the jewel of her country. Besides 
being a brave soldier, he was a poet, and could 
write beautiful verses. Sidney was also good- 
looking; but best of all, he had a kind heart. 
He was always ready to give to those in need 
of help. 

A very good story is told of him. In those 
days the Spaniards were fighting the Dutch in 
the country called Holland, and Sir Philip went 
with a band of soldiers to help the Dutch. The 
Spaniards fought hard, and the fight was a long 
one. Before it ended, a bullet hit Sir Philip on 
the leg, and hurt him so much that he lay on 
the ground unable to move. The pain made his 
throat very dry, and he asked for water to drink. 
Some one ran and brought a cupful, and held it 
to his lips. Near by another soldier was lying. 
He too had been hurt very badly, and was dying. 
When he saw the clear cold water held to the 
lips of Sidney, he could not help looking at it. 
Sir Philip saw the look. He passed the cup, at 
once, to the poor soldier. "Drink it friend," he 
said, "you need it more than I do." 

He had always been kind, and even when he 
was in the greatest pain himself, he could think 
of others in their trouble. 

Sir Philip only lived for a few days after 
this ; he died from the wound which he had re- 
ceived on the battle-field. Such a noble man 
can never be forgotten, 


Under Queen Elizabeth England became a very 
great country. Her sailors were found on every 
sea, and her soldiers were known for their cour- 
age. In her days the greatest of English poets 
lived and wrote, and you must never forget that 
his name was Shakespeare. He helped the peo- 
ple to live more happily, and to have pleasure 
in other things besides fighting. 

In those days there were no big cities, such 
as we have now. But there were many smaller 
ones, with pretty houses of brick and stone. 
There were plenty of trees, and gardens full 
of flowers. The streets were narrow, and hang- 
ing out in front of every shop was a sign, by 
which it was known. The houses had chimneys, 
and coal was being used for fires in many places. 

Glass windows were seen in nearly every 
dwelling, and at night candles gave light. The 
richer people had plates of pewter, or of silver, 
while the poorer used tin. Feather beds and 
pillows were used instead of the wooden ones of 
early days. Many rich people had carpets on 
their floors; but rushes were still spread by those 
who were not so well ofif. 

Potatoes were much liked for food; they had 
just been brought over from America, and were 
first planted in the British Isles by Sir Walter 
Raleigh. People dined at eleven o'clock in the 
morning, and many dishes which we should 
think rather strange were served. Among other 
things, boars' heads and young swans v, ere eaten. 
On great days peacocks might be served, with 
their beautiful tails spread finely out over the 
dish, and reaching almost to the ground. 

Men and women were fond of fine clothes, 
made of silk or velvet. They also wore big ruffs, 
or collars, which stood up round their heads, and 
were made stiff by wire. Some friend of the 
Queen gave her a pair of silk stockings, which 
pleased her very much ; and she never wore any 
other kind of stocking after this. 

Games of all kinds were played. In every 
town or village there was a green piece of grass, 
on which the children, and even the older people, 
went out to play. May-poles were put up, and 
the young ones danced round them merrily. At 
Christmas-time, when it was too cold for out- 
door sports, the yule-log burned on every hearth. 
The large log was brought in amid the sound of 
music, and there was much feasting. 

People went to bed early, and they also rose 
early. Most of the men spent the day working 
in the fields, or in shops. Even great lords were 
proud to be farmers, and on some days they could 
be seen riding to market, which was often many 
miles away, to sell their game, grain, butter, and 

Ladies sat at home with their maidens round 
them, busily making coats, blankets, and other 
things which might be wanted for the family. 
They spent many hours at their work. Some- 
times they made beautiful curtains, or hangings. 
Some of these can still be seen in many of the 
big castles, where they are carefully kept. 

In some of the towns frames were set up for 
weaving wool and linen into cloth. Men and 
women found work in this way, and many of 
them became very rich. 

Altogether, the England of Elizabeth's time 
must have been rather a pleasant land to live 
in. The Queen loved her people, and did her 
best to make their life peaceful and happy. 


Everybody in England knows that the fifth of 
November is called "Guy Fawkes Day." The 
noise of the fireworks let off on that day brings 
to mind a very terrible thing done many years 

On the death of Elizabeth, James the First be- 



came King of England. There were a good 
many men who did not like him, because he 
would not do what they wanted. James was 
the son of that beautiful lady Mary Queen of 
Scots, and some people thought that he would 
be a good friend to the Roman CathoHcs, as 
his mother had been. 

When it was found that James did not mean 
to help them, Robert Catesby and others made 
up their minds to punish him. They knew that 
the King would be going one day, with all his 
lords, to the Houses of Parliament. They took 
thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, and hid them 
in tlie cellars, just under the place where the 
King would sit. A man named Guy Fawkes was 
paid to set light to the barrels. In this way 
they meant to blow up the King, the lords, and 
all who were in the place. But their plan failed 
because James heard of it in time. 

One of those who knew all about it had a 
friend who was with the King. He was very 
sorry that his friend was in such danger; so he 
wrote and asked him to stay away, lest he 
should be killed. This friend at once took the 
letter to the King, who soon saw what it meant. 
He sent men to look through the cellars, and 
they found Guy Fawkes with his lantern, and 
the barrels of gunpowder to which he was to set 

Fawkes was taken before the King, who asked 
him by whom he had been paid to do such a 
thing. At first he would not answer, but at last 
he gave the names. As soon as the others heard 
that their plan was known they fled from Lon- 
don. They hoped that their friends in the coun- 
try would help them. The King sent troops 
against them. Catesby died fighting to the end. 
Others were taken and were put to death with 
Guy b'awkes. 


King James tiik Firt lr\d a son named Charles. 
He was a tall man, ai.d had a nice face and long 
black curly hair. At his father's death he be- 
came King as Charles the First. In his days 
there seemed to be nothing but trouble. Charles 
was too fond of his own way, and he did things 
which made his people very angry with him. 
At last many of them went to war against him. 
Charles also had a large number of friends who 
were willing to fight for him. In the war many 
brave Englishmen fell on both sides. 

The friends of Charles were called Cavaliers. 
They could ride well on horses, wore fine clothes, 
and kei)t their hair very long, just as the King 
himself did. Those who fought against Charles 

were called Roundheads, because they wore their 
hair very short. Some of them were also known 
as Ironsides, because they were so brave in 
battle. The leader of these was Oliver Crom- 

Charles was beaten in the war, and he was put 
to death. Before the end came, some oi his chil- 
dren were allowed to see him. He felt it very 
hard to say "Good-by" to them. Charles was not 
a great king, but he was a kind man. He loved 
his children very much, and he was good to 
all his friends. 

His eldest son was Prince Charles. He had 
to leave the country, and he did not become king 
for eleven years after the death of his father. 
All this time there was no king in England. 
Oliver Cromwell now looked after the country. 
He was called Lord Protector, and he tried to do 
his best for the people. But the friends of 
Prince Charles did not like Cromwell, and they 
never rested till the jjrince was brought to Lon- 
don, ar.d crowned King in the place of his 


Prince Cii.-vrles lived for some time in a coun- 
try called Holland. Soon after the death of his 
father, his friends, who wished to fight for him, 
asked him to come over to England and lead 
them. But Cromwell was a great soldier, and 
the friends of the prince were beaten in two 
great battles. While Cromwell lived Charles 
had no chance of being king. 

Some very strange things happened to the 
prince at this time. After the last battle, he 
very nearly fell into the hands of Cromwell's 
men. One day Charles was in a wood, looking 
for a place in which he could hide from the 
soldiers, who were hurrying after him. He 
climbed into the branches of an oak-tree, and 
there he hid until the men had gone away. The 
people of the place afterward called this tree 
the Royal Cak. 

At another time Charles had to dress as a 
man-servant, and ride in front of a lady. They 
looked just like a mistress and a servant going 
to market, and so no one took notice of them. 
The prince was glad to get away from England 
once more. 

Some years later Cromwell died, and the peo- 
ple then wanted Charles to be king. The next" 
time he landed in England he was met by a 
crowd of people, who shouted with joy. The 
bells of all the churches rang, and the streets 
were decked with flowers. All along the road, 
as he drove by in a beautiful coach, drawn by 




many fine horses, men and women came out of 
their houses, and stood to see him pass. 

Charles could see from their faces that they 
were greatly pleased. "It is my own fault," he 
said, to those around him, "that I did not come 
back sooner, for everybody wants me." He 
reached London on his birthday, the twenty- 
ninth of May. On this day the King's friends 
wore sprigs of oak, and so it was ever after- 
ward called "Royal Oak Day," or "Oak Apple 


In the days of Charles the Second, London was 
not so fine a city as it is now. The streets were 
narrow and very dirty. The houses were built 
of wood and they were not kept as clean as 
they should be. 

Quite suddenly, a fearful sickness broke out 
in one part of the city. It spread quickly, and 
no one was safe from it. Little children, as well 
as grown-up people, died from this Great Plague, 
as it came to be called. All who were able to 
leave London went away as fast as they could. 
Even the King and his court hurried off to 
another city, many miles from London. 

Most of those who were taken ill died in a 
few hours. The sick were often left to die alone, 
because their friends were afraid to stay and 
nurse them. The houses in which those who had 
caught the plague lived were marked with large 
red crosses, and the words "Lord, have mercy 
upon us" were written or painted upon the doors. 

When night came carts went round to take 
the dead bodies to the churchyard. The men 
who went with the carts carried torches, and 
cried out, "Bring out your dead." Soon there 
was not room enough in the churchyards for 
all who died ; so a big pit was dug outside the 
city, and here the dead were buried, without 
even one word of prayer. In the streets of 
London the grass began to grow, for few people 
passed through them. Many of the shops, or 
stores, were shut ; there were not enough people 
to buy things, and hardly any one cared to sell. 

All through the summer the sickness was very 
great. When winter came the plague began to 
pass away, but it did not wholly cease before 
one hundred thousand men, women, and children 
had died of it. 


Next year, when the people were beginning to 
forget the plague, a fire l)rc)kc out in a baker's 
shop near London Bridge. It burned for three 

days, and soon spread over all the houses in 
that part of London. 

You must remember that these houses were 
largely built of wood, and that the streets were 
very narrow. A high wind also blew at the 
time, and this caused the flames to spread quickly 
from one house to another. 

In country places fifty miles away the flames 
lit up the sky, and the smoke could be seen, like 
a black cloud, over the city of London. The big 
church of St. Paul's, and many other churches, 
were burned to the ground. All the chairs, pic- 
tures, and tables that could be saved from the 
burning houses were thrown into the boats on 
the river. 

There were now hundreds of little children 
who had no homes. Their fathers took them 
out into the fields, where tents were quickly put 
up for them to sleep in. 

When the wind went down, men were sent 
with gunpowder, and these blew up the houses 
that were left in the part nearest to the fire. 
This seems, perhaps, a strange thing to some of 
you, but it was really very wise. The fire was 
thus stopped from going any farther, as there 
were no more houses to feed it. The same thing 
is sometimes done in case of a great fire to-day. 

In the end that great fire did good. It swept 
away the narrow streets, and wider ones were 
made instead. The old wooden houses were 
gone, and new ones were built of brick and 
stone. In the new houses larger windows were 
made, to let in more light and air; and many 
other things were done to make the city cleaner 
and more healthy. 

A fine new cathedral was built by a clever man. 
Sir Christopher Wren. It is the one you will 
see if ever you go to London — the great St. 
Paul's in which Wren and many other good men 
have been buried. 


King James the Second was not liked by the 
English. He ran away to Frapce, and afterward 
asked the King of that land, to help him to take 
Ireland from the English. With a number of 
French soldiers he crossed the sea. and he found 
that many of the Irish were willing to take up 
arms for him. 

But there was one place at least which was not 
friendly to James. The people of Londonderry 
shut the gates of their city against him, and said 
they would rather starve than have him for 
their king. James said he was ready to wait un- 
til they did starve ! He placed his men all 



round the city, and put heavy pieces of wood 
across the river; so that no ships could come 
up with food, or bring men to help those who 
were within the walls. 

James hoped they would soon begin to feel 
hungry, for then, he thought, they would let him 
into the city. But he did not know how brave 
these people were. Some were sick ; all were 
hungry; and many were weak and faint. Day 
after clay they would creep into the high towers, 
and look down the river, watching for a sail. 
They often prayed that help might quickly come. 

At last three ships could be seen sailing up 
the river, and many eyes were watching them. 
James and his men thought they would never be 
able to get through the bar which they had laid 
across the river. The ships sailed on, and one 
of them came against the wood v/ith such force 
that it broke the bar right in two. The sailors 
cheered when they saw what had been done. 

Through the gap thus made the ships passed 
on, and they brought enough food for the starv- 
ing people of the city. For one hundred days 
they had been in great want, but now all that 
was over. When James saw that they were 
saved, and that help had come, he told his sol- 
diers to take down their tents, for he knew that 
he could no longer hope to take the city of 

James had a daughter named Mary, and she 
was now Queen of England, while her husband, 
William was King. William was a fine soldier, 
and he won a great battle over James. He also 
carried on a long war against the King of France. 
Some rich men joined together to find money 
for the war, and out of this grew the Bank of 


There was one young man of the Stuart fam- 
ily who was much loved by the people of Scot- 
land. They called him "Bonnie Prince Charlie," 
and sang many pretty songs about him and his 
friends and their doings. They were even ready 
to fight for him, and to put him on the throne 
of his grandfather, James the Second. 

So Charles came to Scotland full of joy, and 
many people joined him. They liked his gay, 
bright manners, and his pleasant smiling face. 
He was young, and was always happy, and full 
of hope. Those who went with him took care 
that he had the best rooms in Holyrood Palace, 
of which you have already read. 

But Charles fell into great trouble when he 
marched into England. The English did not 
want him, and they did not rush out to meet 
H.T.&G.D. II. If 

him as the Scottish people did. At last his men 
were badly beaten, and he had to run away. 

For five months he went from place to place, 
hiding among his friends, or wherever he could. 
Although a very big sum of money was offered 
to any one who would tell where he was, nobody 
said a word, but many helped him on his way. 
Once he was saved by the kindness of a young 
lady, who dressed him as her maid. He must 
have looked rather a tall woman in his gown, 
and white apron, and long cloak, for it is said 
that he was six feet high. 

He was often in danger, and at one time he 
had to hide for some weeks in a cave. At last 
news came that a ship was waiting to take him 
to France. As soon as he heard this he went 
in the dark night to the seashore, and so reached 
the ship, and sailed to France. Many people 
were sorry for all the troubles that came upon 
this pleasant prince. 


All of you, no doubt, will like to hear something 
about the large country called Canada. It be- 
longs to Great Britain, and many of her people 
have made their home in Canada. 

Once upon a time the French said Canada was 
theirs, and many of the big towns are still called 
by the names they gave them. But a large army, 
under young General Wolfe, was sent to win 
Canada for England. Wolfe wanted to reach 
the large city of Quebec. "If I can take this 
city," he said, "I shall not have much trouble 
with the other towns." 

The French soldiers were trying to make Que- 
bec very strong. They also got the Indians 
whose home was in that country to help them, 
and these people, with their cruel weapons, killed 
many of the English soldiers. 

One night Wolfe got his men to row up the 
river in boats. They made little noise, for they 
did not want the French to hear the sound of 
their oars. And so they came near the city, and 
were able to land. There was a steep hill be- 
tween Wolfe and Quebec, and he knew that he 
must climb this before he could get there. 

The French did not expect an army to reach 
their city over this hill. Suddenly one of their 
guards thought he heard a strange noise ; it 
sounded like the march of many feet. He gave 
the alarm to the French troops, who came up 
quickly. The British had now reached the top 
of the hill, and a battle began at once. It was 
very short, but it was also sharp, and many men 
on both sides fell dead. 

The brave Wolfe was shot while leading on 





his men. Just at this moment the French be- 
gan to give way, and one of the British soldiers 
seeing this, cried out, "They run! They run!" 
"Who run?'' asked Wolfe, lifting his head quick- 
ly. "The French, sir," said the man. Then 
Wolfe smiled brightly. "Now I can die happy," 
he said. 

So Quebec became England's, and because of 
its fall, the land of Canada was soon won too. 
But the people at home were very sorry to hear 
of Wolfe's death, for Britain had lost another 
great hero. 


There was once a boy named Robert Clive, who 
gave his father and mother a good deal of trouble. 
He had so many bad friends that his father 
thought it wise to send him to India, a country 
very far off. 

He was going to be a clerk in an office, but 
sitting at a desk all day did not seem very cheer- 
ful to a boy who was fond of roaming about, 
as he was. 

Not long after he reached India, war broke 
out between the English and the French in that 
country ; and Clive was glad to leave the office 
and become a soldier. Very bold and daring, 
he quickly rose to be an officer. He was made 
a captain, and so had a number of men under 

Everybody now began to talk about the brave 
young man, who had done such great deeds in 
India ; and Clive found himself quite a hero, 
when he went home to England for a holiday. 
A fine sword was given to him, and many words 
were said in his praise. The naughty boy had 
become a great man, and all his friends were 
very proud of him. 

But Clive could not stay in England, and he 
again set out for India, where there was still 
much work for him to do. One of the princes 
of that country hated the English, and he threw 
nearly one hundred and fifty of them into one 
small room, where they could not lie down, or 
sit, or even move. For one whole night they 
were shut up in this way. They had little air 
and no water, and when the door was opened 
in the morning only twenty-three of them were 
found alive. 

Clive was sent to punish that cruel prince. 
He had only a small army, and the enemy was 
more than ten times as great. But Clive and his 
men fought boldly and bravely, and thus they 
won the great battle of Plassey. The prince 
was killed by one of his own men, to whom 
he had been unkind, and his country was taken 
by the English. 


One of those who helped to win Quebec was 
the famous Captain Cook. He sailed up the 
river before Wolfe, and found the path by which 
the British soldiers climbed the hill. 

Cook was the son of a poor man, and when 
he was quite a small boy he was sent to work 
in a shop; for in those days very young children 
went out to earn their own livng. He lived 
close to the sea at Whitby, in Yorkshire, and 
sometimes he heard the sailors talk of the strange 
places they had seen. It made him wish he too 
were a sailor. 

One day he went to a captain who was in 
the port, and asked to go with him, if only as a 
cabin-boy on board his ship. W'hen at last the 
captain said he would take him, the boy was 
very glad. Cook did not find his new life an 
easy one, but he did not mind hard work. He 
spent his spare time in reading books which told 
him all about ships, and how to do his work 
better. He knew how wise it was to learn 
as much as he could, and he never wasted a 

In this way he was able to get on, and in the 
end he was made a captain of one of the king's 
ships. Not only did he see many of the coun- 
tries of which the Whitby sailors had told him, 
but he found out some others, of which no one, 
as yet, knew anything. 

CaptaiiT Cook sailed round the country we call 
New Zealand. He found that there were two 
very large islands here, and that the people who 
lived on them were rather a fine race. He then 
sailed to a part of Australia, where he saw 
many new and curious plants and flowers. He 
called the place where he landed Botany Bay. 

In the South Seas Captain Cook found out 
some other islands, where no white man had 
ever been before; and here, sad to say, his life 
came to an end. Some black men had stolen a 
boat from his ship, and as he wanted this boat, 
he took some of his sailors in another boat and 
went on shore. 

Cook thought the black men would give back 
the boat they had stolen, but he found that they 
were very angry. They came down to the sea- 
side with sticks, spears, and knives in their 
hands. The sailors went back to their boat, but 
Cook failed to do so, and was killed. This was 
a sad end to so fine a sailor. 


Horatio Nelson was a small, thin child, who 
did not look as if he would ever be a great man. 





But as he grew up, he showed what a brave 
boy he was. He never seemed to be afraid. 

Once when he was still quite young, he and his 
brother William were going back to school after 
the Christmas holidays. "The ground is quite 
white and the snow is deep," said their father. 
"I do not think you can reach school, but you 
must try. If you find it too much, you can come 
back, but you must do your best to go on." 

The boys set off, but they had not gone very 
far before William began to think it was really 
too bad. "Let us go back," he said ; "our father 
told us we might return, if the storm went on." 

" Yes," said Horatio, "but we were also told 
that, if we could go on, we were to do so"; and 
on they went. 

When Horatio became a bigger boy, he chose 
to go to sea ; he loved the blue water and the 
tossing waves. And he made a vei'y good sailor, 
for he knew no fear. Now, sailors go into many 
strange places. The ship, in which Nelson was, 
once sailed toward the North, and it got among 
the ice. A big white bear was seen moving over 
the ice. 

Nelson and one of his friends left the ship, 
and went after the bear with their guns. They 
fired at the bear without killing it. The sailors 
on board heard the shots, and some of them 
rushed to see what was the matter. They saw 
Nelson hitting the bear with his gun. The 
sailors came up just in time to save him and to 
kill the bear. 

The captain was angry. "Why risk your life 
like this ?"' said he. "I wanted the skin as a 
present for my father," said Nelson. 

When quite a young man. Nelson was made 
the captain of a ship of war. His sailors liked 
him very much, and would do anything for him. 
Often he had to fight the enemy, and then he 
showed how brave he was. Besides, he always 
knew what was the best thing to do, and he 
was quick in doing it. 

At this time there was a great man in France, 
whose name was Napoleon. From being quite 
poor, he had risen to be the first person in that 
country. He was not friendly to England. He 
wanted to beat the English on land and at sea, 
and he would have liked to make their country 
a part of his. But he soon found that Nelson 
was quite as clever in war as he was. There 
were many great battles on the sea, and Nelson 
always won. 

The last of these, the battle of Trafalgar, was 
fought off the coast of Spain, and it would have 
been a sad thing for England if the French had 
won that day. 

When Nelson first saw the French ships they 

were coming across the blue water in two lines, 
and he went at once to meet them. Just before 
the fight began he gave his men that famous 
message, "England expects every man to do his 

Nelson's ship was the "Victory," and the 
French could see him walking up and down the 
deck, dressed in his admiral's coat, and having 
many stars on his breast. When the fight was 
very hot, a shot hit him in the shoulder, so that 
he fell on the deck. His men lifted him in their 
arms and carried him below, and there he lay in 
great pain. 

He felt very weak, and he knew quite well 
that he had come to the end of his days ; but still 
he listened to hear how the battle was going on. 
At last he was told that the day was gained for 
England, and that many of the French ships 
were taken. This was good news for him. A 
smile came over his face. "Thank God," he said, 
"I have done my duty." Very soon after he 
died. His body was taken to London, and buried 
in the great church of St. Paul's. 


Two very famous men were born in the same 
year. One was Napoleon, of whom you have 
just read, and the other the Duke of Wellington. 
Although the British and the French were often 
at war, these great generals were only once in 
battle against each other ; it was on the field of 
Waterloo, a place which many people still go to 

With W^ellington was a large army of British 
and other soldiers, and there were also many 
Prussians coming to help him. A little way off 
was Napoleon with his men. 

One Saturday night the two armies slept near 
Waterloo, waiting for the morning light, and 
about ten o'clock next day the French began 
the battle. Over and over again they dashed 
against the British, but were always driven back. 
Evening was coming on, when Napoleon sent 
for the men of his Old Guard. These were very 
brave and strong, and were the finest soldiers 
he had ; he felt sure that they would win. They 
came marching up boldly ; then there was an- 
other stiff fight, but they were beaten like the 
others. "It is all over," said Napoleon, and he 
rode away quickly, while the whole French army 
also fled. 

The Prussians had now come up, and their old 
general, Blucher, and Wellington met on the 
field of battle. The Prussians were sent to fol- 
low the French, while the British soldiers were 
allowed to rest after their hard day. 



Wellington lived for many years after this. 
The British were very proud of him, because he 
won such a great battle for them. He was a 
kind man, and always had a good word for those 
who tried to do what was right. One day he 
and some fricMids were out hunting, and coming 
to a certain field, they found the gate shut. A 
boy was keeping watch over it ; he had been told 
by the farmer not to let any one pass that way, 
for fear of doing harm to the crop. 

"Open the gate, my lad, and let the duke's 
party go through," said one of the men, holding 
out a coin. The boy lifted his hat, but would 
not take the money. "I am sure," said he, "the 
Duke of Wellington would not wish me to dis- 
obey the orders of my master, who has told me to 
keep this gate shut." 

Much pleased at this reply, the great duke also 
took off his hat, and he said, "I honor the man or 
boy who does his duty, and who will not be 
frightened by anybody into doing wrong." Then, 
handing the boy a gold coin, the old duke rode 
away with his friends. 

The boy ran off to his master, shouting, "Hur- 
rah ! I've done what Napoleon could not do ; 
I've kept back the Duke of Wellington." 


If you go up the river Tyne, you can still see 
a small cottage w-here a man named George 
Stephenson was born in the year 1781. While 
he was yet a small bo}- he had to earn money 
by minding the cows of a farmer. Near his 
home was a coal-pit, and when he was old 
enough he was sent there to work at an engine. 

George worked hard all day, and at night 
went to school, where he learned to read and 
write and to like books. He never wasted time, 
and thus, though a poor man, he was able to do 
great things. 

In those days there were no railways, and 
people had to travel in coaches drawn by horses. 
The horses were driven very fast, and 
when they came to a street or cross-road, a man 
behind blew a horn to tell people that the coach 
was coming. It took a long time then to get 
from the country to London. Men were often 
for days on the road, and had to stop for the 
night at many places. This cost a good deal of 
money, and so few could travel far from home. 

I'ut George Stephenson was going to change 
all that. Instead of coaches, he -.vantcd to have 
railway trains, which would take people a long 
way in a shorter time, and for less money. He 
had always been very fond of engines. He spent 

all the time he could working on them, and he 
was able to make one which could move on 
wheels along the ground. 

His first engine could only go very slowly, but 
he kept on trying and trying, until one day he 
made an engine, called the "Rocket," which could 
move at the rate of thirty miles an hour. 
Crowds of people came to see this engine draw 
a coach on rails, and it was thought very won- 
derful. This was the beginning of our railways. 

At first people did not like the new way of 
traveling. They thought it was not safe to go 
by train, and many years passed before they gave 
up the old coaches. 


Many years ago, a little princess and her mother 
lived in a palace in London. They were often 
to be seen in the gardens, the princess playing in 
the sun, and her mother reading, close by, in 
the shade of the trees. 

Sometimes the people who passed would stop, 
and look at this fair child. She was the Prin- 
cess Victoria, and they knew that w^hen her 
uncle died, she would be Queen of England. 
She was a bright little girl, happy with her dolls, 
who often had tea with her in the gardens, and 
with the dogs that ran races with her over the 
short grass. She was fond of play, and her 
mother, who was very wise, wanted her to be a 
happy child. But she was not allowed to forget 
her lessons. 

When she was twelve years old, as she sat 
one day with her teacher, her mother came and 
put a paper into her history-book. On it were 
written the names of all the kings and queens 
of England, ^'ictoria read the paper, and saw 
that her own name came after that of her uncle. 
She sat quietly down for some moments, and 
then looked at the lady who taught her. 

"I will be good," she said. "I know now why 
you want me to learn my lessons so well. I 
will be very good." And she never forgot what 
she had learned that morning. 

Six years of quiet, happy life passed for the 
young princess, and then, very early one June 
morning, a great change came. Some men were 
at the palace gates, and they had to knock many 
times before they were heard. "It is too soon 
to see the princess," they were told. 

"But we have come to see the Queen," they 
said, and so it was made known that the King 
was dead. The young Queen met them in a few 
moments. Though she was only eighteen, she 
was now called to rule a great country. 






Many years ago people found that they could 
make sugar from a long sweet cane, which grows 
in the West Indies, by pressing out the juice 
of the plant. White men went out to those 
islands, but they did not care to work there, be- 
cause of the heat. So they tried to get the 
negroes, or black men, to dig the ground and look 
after the plants. 

It was not easy to get enough men to do the 
work. Ships often went to Africa, the land 
where the black people lived, and the sailors 
would go on shore, catch as many men, women, 
and children as they could, and carry them off. 
The ships would ihen sail to the West Indies. 
The poor negroes were taken out and sold in the 
market-place to those who would give most 
money for them. They were then sent to the 
fields where the canes grew. Here they were 
made to work hard, and were often beaten with 
whips if they did not please their masters. 

The negroes were never paid for the work 
they did, and often their food was not good. 
Their masters called them their slaves, and 
treated them very much as they did their horses 
or dogs. If a master wanted to get rid of his 
slaves, he sold them again in the market. Even 
the little boys and girls were taken from their 
mothers, who perhaps would never be able to see 
them again. 

But some people were not like the slave-mas- 
ters. Good and kind men in England thought 
it wrong to keep slaves, and they wanted to set 
them all free. ]\Iany of those who owned the 
slaves were very rich men. They looked upon 
the poor negroes as being worth so much 
money, and they did not wish to part with them 
unless they were given their value for them. 

At last the people of Great Britain agreed to 
pay the owners a large sum of money, and then, 
on a certain day, every slave on British land 
became a free man. 


About the time when George Stephenson was 
busy on his engines, another clever man was 
trying to make a ship that could move by means 
of steam, without the help of the wind. 

The first steamer was very small, and was 
only used on a river. People from far and near 
went to look at it, for it was thought very 
strange to see a ship without sails making its 
way quickly through the water. 

Another man found out a new way to spin 
cotton. He made a machine to take the place 

of the old spinning-wheel, which up to that 
time had been used in so many homes. If you 
put some cotton into this machine, you will find 
it turned into yards and yards of fine, clean 
thread, which is ready to be made into cloth. 

The Davy lamp was also a new thing in 
those days. Miners then had to work by the 
light of candles, and the flame often kindled a 
gas, thus causing many of the workers to be 
burned and killed. A learned man named Hum- 
phry Davy helped to make work in the mines 
much safer. 

Seeing that a flame did not pass through a 
wire gauze, Davy had a lamp made which had 
wire gauze all round the burner. By means of 
this lamp a miner can tell when there is gas about 
him, for it burns with a blue flame inside the 
gauze. As soon as he sees this, he gets away to 
a safer place. In that way many thousands of 
lives have been saved. 

There were also two men who worked hard 
to find out how messages might be sent from one 
place to another, without having them carried 
by any person. They tried to do this by means 
of a wire laid over the tops of tall poles. 

I\Iany people laughed at them, and said it could 
never be done. Still they tried again and again, 
and one day they were able to send a message 
by a wire from one station to another in London. 
When the answer came back, how pleased they 
both felt ! 

Now we can send messages in this way to all 
parts of the world; and, strange to say, we can 
also send them without any wire at all ! We can 
talk to our friends when they are away from us, 
and hear what they have to say. We can also 
turn a little screw and have our rooms full of 
bright light ; and in many of our cities and towns 
we can ride in electric cars through the streets, 
and go quickly from one part to another. And 
we must not forget the automobiles, or motor- 
cars, which move along without horses or rails. 

These are all very wonderful things, of which 
the boys and girls of long ago never heard. 
How glad they would have been, if they could 
have known that such things would be here 
now, to live in our days ! 


About the middle of the last century there was a 
great war in the country called Russia, and the 
British and other nations took part in it. It 
was very cold and wet where English soldiers 
had to stay, and their tents were so chilly that 
many were sick. Kind people at home sent out 



as many woolen things as they could make, to 
help the poor men through the winter. 

The soldiers did not grumble. They were very 
true to their country, and fought bravely, in spite 
of the bitter weather. Once they did a very 
fine thing, which England can never forget. 
Some one had sent to tell the men of the Light 
Brigade, to charge the enemy. It was a great 
mistake, but the men did not wait to think of 
that. They were only six hundred, and in front 
of them was a great army of Russians. Still 
they never stopped. On they went, .without 
turning to one side or the other. 

They rode through the lines of the enemy, 
right up to the mouths of the big guns; and for 
a minute or two the Russians were so surprised 
that they let them go on. But now the gunners 
began to shoot again. Smoke and the noise of 
guns were everywhere, and man after man was 
shot down. Four hundred men of the Light 
Brigade fell, and how the others were able to 
come back they themselves hardly knew. 

While the British soldiers were fighting brave- 
ly they were often very badly hurt, and in great 
pain from their wounds and from sickness. 
Many were left to die, because there was no 
one to take care of them. When people at home 
heard of this they felt very sorry, and one kind 
lady, who knew how to nurse the sick, said she 
would go to help them. Her name was Flor- 
ence Nightingale. With other ladies, glad to go 
with her, she set out for the place where the 
sick men lay. She was never tired of working 
for the poor soldiers. 

Day after day Florence Nightingale went 
round the hospital, looking after the wounds of 
the men, and trying to make them less painful. 
At night she used to go from bed to bed, carry- 
ing a little lamp in her hand, and the soldiers 
called her "the lady with the lamp." Whenever 
she saw a poor man in pain, she stopped and said 
a few kind words to him, and tried to do some- 
thing to help him. 

She never seemed to want sleep or rest. Her 
cool hand made hot heads feel better, and her 
low voice helped the wounded to forget how bad- 
ly they had been hurt. No wonder that the sol- 
diers loved her; she lived for others rather than 
for herself. 


You have often heard of very poor boys who 
became great men. Some have made their 
names famous, and few more so than David 
Livingstone. When he was very young he was 
sent to work in a cotton-mill, from six o'clock 

in the morning till eight at night. Still he was 
never tired of learning, and when he reached 
home, he sat down to read his books. 

When he grew older he made up his mind to 
go to Africa and teach the people of that land 
about God. But first he had himself to be taught 
many things, for he wanted to be a doctor to the 
poor people, as well as a preacher. 

After a while he set out, and he made many 
wonderful journeys. There were times when 
his life was in danger from wild animals ; and 
once a lion bit his arm so badly, that the bone 
was quite marked with its teeth, and he was 
nearly killed. W^herever he went he did good 
to the people. His African servants loved him 
because he was so kind to them. They took 
great care of their master when he went about, 
and often carried him for miles through streams 
and marshes. 

Once, when his friends in Britain were feel- 
ing very sad about him because they had not 
heard from him for a long time, the news came 
that another great traveler, named Henry M. 
Stanley, had found him on the shores of a beau- 
tiful lake. When they met, Livingstone had 
only a few black people with him, and they had 
very little to eat. Still he said he would not 
come home. Old and tired, he started on another 
journey, but he fell ill; and one morning he 
was found dead in his tent. 

His body was carried all the way to the sea- 
coast, where it was put or board a ship for Eng- 
land ; and it was buried with much honor in 
Westminster Abbey. 


Victoria was a good Queen. She had many 
children, and no boys or girls ever had a better 
mother than they. The Queen's husband was 
Prince Albert, and their eldest son was named 
Albert Edward. The young Prince had play- 
mates, and was brought up much in the same 
way as other children. "He is a pleasing, lively 
boy," said one who knew him at the age of six. 

The good Queen died after she had been on 
the throne for nearly sixty-four years. No 
other queen or king of England had reigned 
so long, and the people felt very sorry, when 
she was gone. Prince Albert Edward now be- 
came King, and he is known as King Edward 
the Seventh, because there had been six Edwards 
on the throne before him. 

There was much joy on the day he was 
crowned. Flags were hung out, big guns were 
fired, and the church-bells rang. In the streets 
of London were long lines of people standing. 







They had come to see the King pass in a fine 
golden carriage drawn by many cream-colored 

The King was crowned in Westminster Abbey, 
and it was a fine sight. The Queen first went to 
her seat in the abbey, her beautiful robe of red 
velvet and white fur being carried by boys 
dressed as pages. A few minutes after. King 
Edward came in. He wore a crimson robe ; a 
bishop walked on each side of him, and some 
soldiers were behind him. 

When he had been seated a while, a gold cov- 
ering was held over his head, and the archbishop 
poured a little oil on his head and breast. Then 
the crown was put on his head, trumpets were 
blown, and the bells rang. 

All this time Queen Alexandra sat waiting 
her turn. Now she was crowned in the same 
way. When they went to their carriages again, 
they both wore their crowns, and they were 
loudly cheered by the people, who still lined the 


Soon after he came to the throne, King Edward 
wanted to show the people of his colonies how 
much he cared for their happiness. And so his 
son. Prince George, Duke of York, with the 
duchess, was sent on board a fine steamer, called 
the "Ophir," to vist these far-off lands. 

The duke and duchess went to countries as 
far apart as Australia and Canada, and sailed 
nearly twice round the world. It took them 
eight months to go such a long way, and every- 
where the people were glad co see them. They 
had left their children with the King, and the 
little princes delighted in marking the voyage on 
a globe. When the duke came home again he 
received a hearty welcome, and the King gave 
him the title of Prince of Wales. 

There was one large country, India, to which 
the prince could not go. The people of India 
were sorry when Queen Victoria died, and were 
eager to hear something about the new King. 

There is a fine old city in India, called Delhi; 
in this city the emperor, or chief native ruler, 
used to live; and here, on New Year's Day 1903, 
a great meeting, called a durbar, was held. All 
the native princes came, wearing their most 
beautiful clothes and jewels. They rode on big 
elephants, over whose backs wonderful cloths 
of gold and silver were thrown. And with them 
came their soldiers and servants, and many bands 
of music. 

The Viceroy, who rules in the name of the 
King, was there; and with him was the King's 
XVII— 14 

brother, the Duke of Connaught. Many lords 
and ladies, and great English people, had also 
gone to see the durbar, for it was a very won- 
derful sight. 

Close to a big camp of eighty thousand tents, 
a large building, shaped like a horseshoe, had 
been raised to seat many thousands of people. 
When the Viceroy arrived, all those present rose 
to their feet. The heralds blew their trumpets, 
after which a message was read from the King; 
the Viceroy spoke to the people, and the bands 
played "God Save the King." 

Then, one by one, the native princes came up 
to the Viceroy, and said they would always be 
true to their Emperor — for that is the title given 
to the King of England as ruler of India. And 
so India, like other parts of the British Empire, 
showed its loyalty to the King who ruled in his 
mother's stead. 

The people of England, and of other parts of 
the great British Empire, were deeply grieved 
by the death of King Edward, which befell in the 
year 1910. The Prince of Wales at once became 
King. In the following year he went to India, 
and at Delhi another great durbar was held, and 
the English King was welcomed by the people 
as their new Emperor. He is known as George 
the Fifth. 


From England across the blue waters of the 
Irish Sea and St. George's Channel ; and, from 
Scotland across the narrow North Channel, lies 
Ireland, a beautiful country inhabited by a people 
as famous for their ready wit of speech as their 
kindly treatment of strangers. 

The northern, western and southern shores of 
Ireland are open to the Atlantic Ocean, and like 
those of Scotland similarly placed, are deeply 
worn by the fury of the waves. Our voyage 
around the island will commence at Dublin, which 
is reached from England by steamer from Holy- 
head. We leave Kingstown early in the morn- 
ing in a coasting steamer, and after passing the 
breakwater, turn south toward Wicklow Head. 
We pass a range of floating light-ships, which 
warn sailors against dangerous sand-banks. At 
Carnsore Point, the southeastern corner of Ire- 
land, we turn to the west. We do not enter the 
splendid harbor of Waterford, but pass on direct 
to Queenstown. 

The cove of Cork, as Queenstown harbor used 
to be called, is one of the loveliest havens in the 
world. It is completely landlocked ; is three 
miles long, two miles wide, and its expanse is 
broken by two small islands. The land rises 

l-roin hicicu^rapli, copynijht by Underwood A: I'nderwoud. New Yoik. 


(About 4 miles N. E. of Dundalk. The cap-stone measures izj/^ xg]4 ^^^^> 's about 6 feet thick, and weighs about 35 tons.* 




abruptly from the water's edge to a height of 
several hundred feet. The great steamers of 
most of the lines running to New York call here, 
so that the harbor is generally busy with ship- 
ping; and, seen under a sunny sky, few land- 
scapes are so fair and beautiful 

On resuming our voyage we catch a glimpse of 
Kinsale Harbor. The harbor is full of life in 
the season, the fishing-smacks gathered here 
coming from Yarmouth, Penzance, Isle of Man, 
and elsewhere, in search of the herring and 
mackerel so plentiful on these coasts. 

The western coast of Ireland, which we now 
approach, is very bold and rugged, presenting 
some of the grandest cliff-scenery in the world. 
Bantry Bay, one of the finest harbors in Europe, 
is as much as twenty-five miles long. This great 
natural harbor is often visited by English war- 
ships. Valentia Island, separated from the main- 
land by a strait half a mile wide, is the station 
of the Atlantic Telegraph Company. From this 
•point, messages are sent direct to New York. 

Crossing Dingle Bay and the Shannon estuary, 
we pass on our way Galway, a port on the bay 
of the same name. The coast suddenly bends 
eastward, but we sail straiglit across Donegal 
Bay, and sweeping northward, gradually turn 
eastward along the north coast. 

Lough Swilly runs far inland, but is not nearly 
so important as Lough Foyle. On Lough Foyle 
is Moville, where many American-bound steam- 
ers bid farewell to the British Isles. A few miles 
to the east of Lough Foyle is that wonderful nat- 
ural curiosity, the Giant's Causeway. It con- 
sists of about forty thousand columns, only a 
few feet above the level of the sea, jutting out 
from the cliffs, and rising two or three hundred 
feet close behind them. They gradually sink 
beneath the waves, forming a fine natural pier. 
How far beneath the sea they extend is un- 
known ; but as the same formation exists at 
Staffa, an island off the coast of Scotland, it is 
reasonable to suppose that they stretch across 
to the Scottish shores. 

The pillars vary in length from forty to fifty- 
five feet, and have from three to eight sides ; 
but those having six are the most common by 
far. The surface formed by the summits of the 
pillars is so smooth, and the joints are so close, 
that the blade of a knife can hardly be forced 
between them. 

The North Channel, which divides Ireland 
from Scotland, is only fourteen miles wide. We 
pass Belfast Lough, and sail under the shadow 
of the Mourne Mountains, with some pretty wa- 
tering-places at their feet, and end our voyage 
where it began, at Dublin. 


The surface of Ireland reminds one of a rough 
saucer with its edges broken away in places to let 
out the water that accumulates in the flat inner 
part. The mountains are nearly all around the 
coast, while the central plain contains many bogs, 
slow rivers and lakes. Munster, the province in 
the southwest, is the most mountainous part of 
Ireland. The headlands run far into the Atlan- 
tic, and between them, in the opposite direction, 
flow the Bandon, Lee, and Blackwater, into the 
harbors of the south coast. 

Among the mountains of Munster are the 
lovely lakes of Killarney. Ireland is in many 
respects a beautiful country, and is annually be- 
coming the resort of a larger number of tourists, 
but Killarney is the beauty-spot of the country. 
The lakes are three in number, connected by a 
winding channel. Rising from their banks are 
the highest summits in Ireland. It is said that 
there are thirty-three islands in the lower lake, 
one of which, Innisfallen, has been admired by 
every traveler. 

In Ulster the Mourne Mountains rise en the 
coast of the Irish Sea. They tco are becoming 
more and more popular with holiday makers from 
other parts. 

The bogs of Ireland are a distinct feature, 
belonging neither to mountain nor plain alto- 
gether, but partaking of the character of both. 
It is said that in the whole country there are 
nearly five thousand square miles of flat and 
mountain bog. In the mountain districts, peat- 
bogs are found, and the level country is often 
covered with a black, heavy, earthy turf. 

Ireland possesses the longest river in the Brit- 
ish Isles. The Shannon rises to the north of 
Lough Allen, where it is only one hundred and 
sixty feet above the sea. Thence it flows lazily 
over the Central Plain, twice expanding into the 
form of a lake. Then it enters a gorge, and 
with a rapid fall reaches Limerick, where it 
becomes a tidal river, with a broad, deep estuary 
sixty miles long. The only other rivers of im- 
portance are the Bann, on the north, which 
drains Lough Neagh, and the Boyne, which flows 
into the Irish Sea. 

Lough Neagh is the largest lake in the British 
Isles, having an area of one hundred and fifty 
square miles. Some parts of its shores are 
varied with beautiful scenery. The Bann is, 
like the Shannon, a famous salmon-river. Ire- 
land contains numerous other lakes, among 
which. Lough Erne is celebrated for its hun- 
dreds of beautifully wooded islands. 


























The Irish belong to the same race as the Scotch 
Highhuiders and the Welsh — the Celtic. In 
Ulster, however, the inhabitants are descended 
chiefly from English and Scotch settlers of the 
time of James the First. This accounts for Ul- 
ster being Protestant while other provinces are 
Roman Catholic. After the terrible failure of 
the potato crop in 1846 the population became 
less and less, but of late it has been some- 
what increased. In 191 1 it was not quite five 

Its nearness to the Atlantic causes Ireland to 
have a very heavy rainfall, and this, with the 
mildness of the climate, makes it a grazing coun- 
try unsurpassed by any in Europe. The Emer- 
ald Isle is noted for horses and pigs. Almost 
every family keeps one or more pigs, from which 
a welcome profit is made. The farms are small, 
and the cultivation is not very good. The potato 
is the principal crop and oats are commonly cul- 
tivated. Flax and hemp are grown in Ulster 
for the linen manufacture. Butter is an imporr- 
ant article in the high lands, and eggs are very 
largely exported to the English markets. 

The seas around Ireland swarm with fish. 
Large shoals of herrings visit the coast annually, 
while pilchards, sprats, and sand-eels swarm in 
the bays and creeks. These fisheries, however, 
are mostly followed by Manxmen and Scotch- 
men rather than the Irish themselves. 

The manufacturing industries of Ireland are 
rot very great, owing to the poverty of the 
country in useful minerals, and to the great lack 
of coal, which is only found in Kilkenny, where 
its quality is very poor. Irish marbles are much 
sought after, and a bed of iron extends along 
the Antrim coast, sometimes three or four feet 

in thickness. This ore is exported and smelted 
in the Scottish iron district. 

The only really great industry is the linen 
trade of Ulster, and Belfast is the great trading 
and manufacturing center of Ireland. Its streets 
are wide, airy, and clean; and many large fac- 
tories, both for spinning and weaving flax, are 
found here. But Belfast is still more famous 
for its great ship-building yards. Many of the 
great floating palaces that make fast passages 
across the Atlantic were built here. The country 
around Belfast is also busily employed in the 
linen manufacture, or in cultivating the flax — in 
fact, the county of Armagh may be compared to 
a well-tilled garden. 

Dublin, the capital of Ireland, is a very fine 
city. Situated on the Liffey, with very beautiful 
surroundings, it possesses handsome streets and 
well-kept squares. Phoenix Park is an enclosed 
tract of one thousand acres, and Sackville Street 
is equal to any in Europe. Dublin contains two 
cathedrals, a university, the old Parliament 
House, a custom-house and the Castle, now the 
official residence of the Lord Lieutenant. 

Cork was for a long time the second city <)i 
Ireland, but Belfast is now much larger. Cork 
city occupies a beautiful situation on the Lee. 
From Blackrock to Queenstown the river may 
be said to form a series of charming lakes, each 
more beautiful than the last. Londonderry, 
which stood the famous siege of which we have 
told you, is situated on the Foyle. The city is 
noted for its shirt-making industry. 

Ireland ha« but little foreign trade. Her many 
ports communicate with those of Great Britain, 
to which she sends supplies of cattle, bacon, but- 
ter and eggs, linen goods, etc., receiving in re- 
turn manufactured goods, products of British 
colonies, and coal from the mines of England 
and Scotland. 


^^gTBGDKis )u^ a House of Thooight: 
^VjL Where maaylliings and People live 
' Bo/ond its dGcn[3GT^t Thin 

And all its Dwdlers give and ^vc. 
So walkTi^t through tne open daor 

With kiidly Heart and Irain awafee, 
YouW find in ttiere a'^S^'bnder Store 
Of GoDd Things, all for you to take. 

The DwdUds inyazrBGDkHollsehno^55^ 
Alisons of tales to tell to yooi. 

And each will try his be^ to show 
The way those tales of^nder gre\x^ 

For this our BcDk House Friends exped: 
, A trifliiig payment ta return.; 

Jn^ thouightM Mndness and Re^ped:,- 
Thals all they ask. for all we learn. 




H1|BGDKTREE is a Knowledge Tree, 
'As aliUD^t anyone can S(K:. 

Forje^r/ aiid yeaKr the Tree Ms gro^5Wl. 
Ten thousand thousand Hearts 6^ H^ds 
Have cared for it,so now it spreads 
Its Roots and Branches far and wide. 
And ca^ its shade on every side. 

This Tree bears Fruit of diflferent kinds 
For many Hearts and many Minds. 
So all you Children have to do 
Is jn^to take whaEs hcit fbr you. 
But no one ever soils or breaks 
The Golden Fruit he ri£eds ^nd takes, 
And no one ever bends or tears 
The BcEks thisTree ^fKnovdedge bears. 


Copyfiff^t itic by Morgan Shepara